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Jon Gerrard, PC , MLA , BA, Ph.D , MD (born October 13, 1947) is a politician and medical doctor in Manitoba, Canada. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1993 to 1997, and was a secretary of state in the government of Jean Chrétien. Since 1998, he has been the leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party.
Early life and private career
Gerrard was born in Birmingham, England, and grew up in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. He holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics from the University of Saskatchewan (1967), a Doctor of Medicine degree from McGill University (1971), a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota (1976), and a Certificate in Pediatrics from the American Academy of Pediatrics (1976). He worked at several prominent American institutions in the 1970s, and returned to Canada in 1980 to accept a position as pediatrician at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Gerrard served as head of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at this hospital from 1985 to 1992, and taught at the University of Manitoba from 1980 to 1993. He has authored or co-authored over 200 scientific publications, and became known during the 1980s as an expert on the research and treatment of children's cancer. Gerrard has also been interested in bald eagles since his teenaged years, and co-authored a book entitled The Bald Eagle: Haunts and Habits of a Wilderness Monarch in 1988.
Gerrard became active with the Liberal Party of Canada while working on his undergraduate degree, impressed with Prime Minister Lester Pearson's positions on social and international issues. He was a delegate to the Liberal Party's 1968 leadership convention, supporting John Turner. He later volunteered for the "Non" side in the 1980 Quebec Referendum, and became Liberal riding president for Lisgar in 1984. In 1990, he was Manitoba co-chair of Jean Chrétien's successful bid for the Liberal Party leadership.
Gerrard was elected to the Canadian House of Commons in the 1993 federal election, defeating two-term Progressive Conservative incumbent Felix Holtmann in the riding of Portage—Interlake. On November 4, 1993, he was appointed as Secretary of State for Science, Research and Development. This was not a full cabinet portfolio, but was instead affiliated with Industry Canada. Gerrard worked closely with Industry Minister John Manley, and oversaw the development of such programs as Technology Partnerships Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs.
- Internet and communications strategies
Gerrard outlined the Chrétien government's strategy for the burgeoning information highway in February 1994, as internet use increased throughout the country. One of this strategy's goals was to "[put] Canada in cyberspace", by creating a "national network of networks" within the new media. Gerrard indicated that his plan would be targeted toward creating jobs, reinforcing Canada's cultural identity, and ensuring universal internet access at affordable rates. He officially launched an $80 million action plan on January 30, 1995, providing funding for online applications in the fields of business, research, health care and education.
In March 1994, Gerrard described the internet as "very much a Liberal technology in the sense that it is much more individual than collective". Speaking to an interviewer in 2007, he said that the highlight of his political career was convincing the Chrétien government to include a reference to the information highway in its first throne speech.
Gerrard's 1994 strategic statement on the information highway also addressed the subject of industry mergers in the communications sector. He indicated that the Chrétien government would "apply pro-competition policies wherever [...] they make sense"., and added:
- Traditionally, firms in telecommunications, broadcasting, cable and information industries have operated in separate markets enjoying neither competition nor collaboration. We now know this lack of competition has caused us to fall behind the U.S. in the provision and price of advanced telecommunications services.
- Science and technology strategies
In June 1994, Manley and Gerrard ordered a full review of federal science and technology policy. This process had three aspects: an internal review, an independent assessment from the National Advisory Board on Science and Technology, and a series of consultations with interested Canadians. Gerrard personally supervised the review's consultative sessions, and was appointed as vice-chairman of the National Advisory Board. The government's new strategy was issued in March 1996, outlining new plans for funding and tax credits.
The Chrétien government's approach to funding the science and technology sectors was given mixed reviews. Some criticized the government for cutting a number of research and science positions during the recession of the early 1990s, although at least one technological journal credited it with maintaining research and development incentives in the austerity budget of 1995. Gerrard himself was described a "passionate advocate" of research investment, and as the driving force behind the government's National Technology Investment Program of 1996.
- Additional duties
Gerrard was given additional responsibilities as Secretary of State for Western Economic Diversification on January 25, 1996. He oversaw the expansion of the Community Futures Development Corporation Network throughout Western Canada, and worked with Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to ensure a secure transition of the Port of Churchill rail line from Canadian National to OmniTRAX.
Gerrard voted in favour of the Chrétien government's national gun registry program in late 1994, despite some personal reservations. The registry was unpopular with many rural Manitobans, and Gerrard remarked to John Manley soon after the vote that it would likely cost him his seat in the next election.
- 1997 election
The Portage—Interlake riding disappeared with redistribution before the 1997 election. Gerrard ran in the new riding of Selkirk—Interlake, and lost to Reform Party candidate Howard Hilstrom by 66 votes in a very close three-way contest.
Gerrard returned to his work at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital after his defeat. He also became a Medical Research Council of Canada scholar in residence at the University of Manitoba's medical school and applied to become Dean of Medicine, as well as returning to his research work on bald eagles.
Leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party
Gerrard returned to active political life in 1998, as leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party.
After winning only three seats in the 1995 provincial election and losing its official status in the legislature, the provincial Liberal Party had nearly disintegrated in 1997 under the leadership of Ginny Hasselfield. She resigned in February 1998, and Gerrard declared his candidacy to succeed her. Supported by former leader Sharon Carstairs, he defeated the only other candidate, former Sagkeeng First Nation chief Jerry Fontaine.
Gerrard set modest goals for his party in the 1999 provincial election, saying that the Liberals could win between ten and fifteen seats to hold the balance of power in a minority government. He focused his attention on health care, and pledged that he would serve as his own Minister of Health if elected as Premier. He also promised to appoint a health ombudsman, commit $25 million toward repairing provincial infrastructure, provide $20 million for post-secondary education, end provincial clawbacks of federal tax credits for welfare recipients, and create a new Ministry of Digital Economy and the Information Highway.
The Liberal Party was unable to run a full electoral slate, fielding candidates in only 50 of 57 divisions. Gerrard tried to deflect criticism by joking that he would "put his 50 Liberal candidates up against 57 Tory and NDP candidates any day", but the failure to run a full slate unquestionably damaged his party's prospects.
On election day, Gerrard personally defeated incumbent Progressive Conservative cabinet minister Mike Radcliffe in the upscale Winnipeg division of River Heights, but the Liberals did not win any other seats. The party's popular vote fell from 23% to 13%, as many former Liberal voters shifted to the victorious New Democratic Party under Gary Doer.
Gerrard was the only Liberal member of the Manitoba legislature between 1999 and 2003. He was not personally blamed for the party's loss, and was reaffirmed as party leader in 2000.
Popular support for the Liberal Party increased after the 1999 election, reaching 24% in July 2001 and remaining in the low twenties throughout 2002 and 2003. The party entered the 2003 election in a much improved position from four years earlier: their divisions were largely resolved and their financial situation more secure, and they were able to field a candidate in every division.
Gerrard promised tax cuts for Manitobans under thirty and the elimination of the province's payroll tax, and committed to a "health-care guarantee" wherein the government would fund out-of-province health care if services could not be provided within Manitoba. He also promised to create an organization that would integrate health services from different fields, and to establish community health centres for seniors.
Liberal support declined in the final stage of the campaign, and the party ultimately polled a slightly lower percentage of votes relative to its 1999 result. Gerrard was nevertheless returned without difficulty in River Heights, and former Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) Kevin Lamoureux gave the party a second seat by retaking his old division of Inkster.
The Liberal Party's 2007 campaign was centred around five issues: health care waiting lists, threatened emergency room closures in Winnipeg, university funding, urban sprawl, and the environmental state of Lake Winnipeg. The Liberals also pledged to provide immediate funding for rapid-transit in Winnipeg, phase out the provincial payroll tax while reducing property taxes by as much as 30%, and introduce a new police unit to protect children from sexual exploitation. The party also stressed an environmentally conscious image, purchasing carbon credits to run a carbon-neutral campaign.
Gerrard and Lamoureux were again returned to the legislature, but no other Liberals were elected and the party's popular vote slipped again to just under 12.5%.
- Health care
Gerrard has remained involved with health issues throughout his time in the legislature. In 2001, he protested the Doer government's decision to close an outpatient pharmacy at the Winnipeg Health Sciences Centre by bringing several families of child cancer patients to the legislature to confront the health minister. He later called for changes to Manitoba's adult heart surgery program, after figures obtained through a freedom of information request showed an increasing number of fatalities.
Gerrard wrote a Winnipeg Free Press column criticizing the Doer government for health-care delays in 2005, and later argued that personal health information should be made more easily accessible to patients and their families.
- Agriculture and environment
In early 2004, Gerrard wrote a guest column in the Winnipeg Free Press calling on the federal government to test every beef and dairy cow over thirty months for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). This recommendation was made during a significant decline in the Canadian cattle market, after the discovery of a BSE-infected cow in Alberta caused the United States of America to block all Canadian cattle.
Also in 2004, Gerrard accused the Doer government of undermining its water-quality legislation by reducing funds for key programs.
- Social issues
Gerrard holds liberal views on social issues. He pressured the Doer government to legalize adoption rights for same-sex couples in 2001, one year before a comprehensive bill including adoption rights was passed by the legislature.
Gerrard took part in the Winnipeg Harvest Poverty Challenge in late 2002, and attempted to live for a full week on only $20. The challenge was meant to draw attention to the difficulties faced by Manitoba's lowest-income residents, living on social assistance.
In 2003, Gerrard supported calls for a provincial smoking ban in workplaces and enclosed public spaces.
In early 2005, Gerrard wrote that the Doer government had not taken proper steps to regulate the province's burgeoning internet pharmaceutical industry. This industry was popular with American customers, and Gerrard's column was written at a time when the federal government was seeking to impose greater control over the sector.
In April 2007, Gerrard introduced a private member's bill entitled the Apology Act, to make apologies inadmissible in court as proof of liability or guilt. The bill was modeled after similar legislation in British Columbia, and was intended to allow medical professionals to apologize to patients without risking legal charges.
Despite his background as a Chrétien supporter, Gerrard was reported to have endorsed Paul Martin's bid for the federal Liberal Party leadership. He supported Gerard Kennedy's leadership bid in 2006.
Gerrard released a history of the Manitoba Liberal Party in 2006, entitled Battling for a Better Manitoba. A Winnipeg Free Press reviewer described the book as "a generally readable -- though sloppy -- account of one of the three provincial parties", adding that the book "perhaps should not have been published in its current state".
Table of offices heldTemplate:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal colspan=3 align="center"|26th Ministry - Government of Jean Chrétien
Neil Gaudry (acting) Leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party
1998-present Succeeded by
Incumbent Preceded by
Mike Radcliffe Member of the Manitoba Legislature for River Heights
1999- Succeeded by
incumbent Preceded by
Felix Holtmann Member of Parliament for Portage—Interlake
1993-1997 Succeeded by
riding abolished in 1997
- ↑ David Kuxhaus, "Grits pick Gerrard as their saviour", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 October 1998, A1.
- ↑ Girard, p. 169.
- ↑ William Neville, "A voice in the Grit wilderness", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 August 1998, A10.
- ↑ Joan Bryden, "Chretien revives politics of joy", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 24 July 1993, A9.
- ↑ "About Jon Gerrard", Manitoba Liberal Party online document, accessed 25 July 2007.
- ↑ "Researcher works to secure future of Canada's bald eagles", Toronto Star, 20 November 1988, C11.
- ↑ Gary Girard, "Jon Gerrard: The Building Continues", in Jon Gerrard, Battling For A Better Manitoba, (Winnipeg: Heartland Associates, Inc.), 2006, p. 147. See also Alison Mayes, "Bringing the brain to bear", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 May 2007, B4.
- ↑ Girard, p. 168. Gerrard believed that Turner best understand the concerns of Western Canada.
- ↑ "Agriculture a priority", Winnipeg Free Press, 5 November 1993; Daniel Lett, "Plenty of plums at Grit picnic", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 September 2002, A12; Girard, p. 171.
- ↑ The Liberal Party's nomination contest was closely contested among Gerrard and two other candidates. He was selected on the third ballot. See Girard, p. 175.
- ↑ Alan Toulin, "Cabinet likely to impress business", Financial Post, 5 November 1993, 9.
- ↑ Girard, p. 177.
- ↑ Jonathan Chevreau, "Ottawa to push 'open' highway", Financial Post, 3 February 1994, p. 3.
- ↑ Carlton Student, "$80 million paves highway to future", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 January 1995; "CANARIE launches new technology and applications development program" [press release], Canada NewsWire, 30 January 1995, 17:00. Previously, in August 1994, Gerrard had indicated an interest in developing a national system of electronic libraries. See Jim Bronskill, "Council ponders electronic libraries", Hamilton Spectator, 20 August 1994, B7. In 1997, he indicated that his government was working to make the internet available for all Canadians. See Grant Buckler, "Internet Access A Canadian Concern", Newsbytes News Network, 8 January 1997.
- ↑ Lynne Stefanchuk, "Ottawa takes ride on superhighway", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 March 1994.
- ↑ Alison Mayes, "Bringing the brain to bear", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 May 2007, B4.
- ↑ Jonathan Chevreau, "Ottawa to push 'open' highway", Financial Post, 3 February 1994, p. 3; Monta Kerr, "Delegates call for joint effort in development of 'highway.'", Computing Canada, 16 February 1994, Vol. 20 No. 4, p. 1.
- ↑ Geoffrey Rowan, "Rogers in a high-tech chess game", Globe and Mail, 4 February 1994, B20.
- ↑ Alan Toulin, "Liberals reinventing science and technology policy", Financial Post, 12 July 1994, p. 9.
- ↑ Agnes Bongers, "Industry, research must work together, Ottawa told", Hamilton Spectator, 10 August 1994, D6; Neville Nankivell, "Inventing a new science policy", Financial Post, 3 August 1995, 9.
- ↑ Neville Nankivell, "National strategy sees potential for job growth", Financial Post, 12 March 1996, 15; David Crane, "At last a plan for tech spending", Toronto Star, 12 March 1996, D2.
- ↑ Paul Gessell, "Ottawa 'tragically short-sighted' in science cuts", Hamilton Spectator, 8 June 1995, A13.
- ↑ Gerrard indicated that the government wanted to have "the best tax regime in the world for science and technology". See Andy Shaw, "High-technology industry escapes federal budget axe", Computing Canada, 15 March 1995, p. 5.
- ↑ Dennis Bueckert, "Ottawa plans fund to aid high-tech firms", Winnipeg Free Press, 14 January 1996, B7. See also John Douglas Kevin Rollason, "City poised to cash in on fund", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 January 1996, B4. He also played a role in preserving the federal government's funding for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, during a period of cutbacks to Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. See "Neutrino project ducks federal axe", Globe and Mail, 26 March 1996, A4.
- ↑ Girard, p. 179.
- ↑ Girard, p. 179.
- ↑ There were a number of recounts before the result was finalized. See Carlton Student, "Gerrard appeals ruling during judicial recount", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 June 1997, A4; "Gerrard bows to Reform win", Winnipeg Free Press, 29 June 1997, A7.
- ↑ Bud Robertson, "Gerrard considers return to politics", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 June 1998, A8.
- ↑ In late 1997, he argued there was evidence northern bald eagles have the ability to produce more female offspring in food-rich regions, and more male offspring in areas where food is scarce. See Manfred Jager, "Ex-MP finds eagles' gender based on food", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 November 1997, A6.
- ↑ Some party members spoke of Gerrard as a possible successor to Hasselfield as early as December 1997. See Melanie Verhaege, "Does anyone want Liberals' top job?", Winnipeg Free Press, 8 December 1997, A6.
- ↑ "Gerrard's leadership bid backed by Carstairs", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 September 1998, A4.
- ↑ Kim Guttormson, "Low-key Liberal leader sets sights on 10-15 seats", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 August 1999, A6.
- ↑ David Roberts, "Manitoba Grits plan return from wilderness", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 March 1999, A4. He argued that the New Democratic Party's plan for health care would "throw money" at the provincial health system without a comprehensive plan for improvement. See David Kuxhaus, "Doer touts $15-M plan to repair health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 20 August 1999, A1.
- ↑ Kim Guttormson, "Liberal leader recycles '95 pledge on health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 August 1999, A5 [ombudsman]; "Ruling Tories promise new grads a 25 per cent tax cut in Manitoba", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 25 August 1999, A5 [information]; Scott Edmonds, "Liberal candidate pledges to rebuild crumbling highways, sewerage"; Linda Rosborough, "Grits pledge $20M for learning", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 September 1999, A8 [education]; "Manitoba Grits run on antipoverty platform", Globe and Mail, 1 September 1999, A5 [clawbacks]; Kim Guttormson, "Gerrard reveals high-tech strategy", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 December 1999, A9.
- ↑ Duncan Morrison, "198 candidates in race as nominations close", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 September 1999, A9.
- ↑ Kim Guttormson, "Liberals fail to field full slate of hopefuls", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 September 1999, A8; David Kuxhaus, "Gerrard asks Manitoba Grits", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 March 2000, A3.
- ↑ Douglas Nairne, "It's Premier Doer! Collapse of Liberal vote swings province to NDP", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 September 1999, A1. See also Kim Guttormson, "Gerrard the last Liberal standing", Winnipeg Free Press, 22 September 1999, A1; Kim Guttormson, "Lonely Grit: Gerrard says party is not dead", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 September 1999, B7. As his party did not regain official party status in the legislature, Gerrard did not receive funding to hire researchers. See David Kuxhaus, "Life at legislature no party as Gerrard faces 'challenge'", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 October 1999, A11.
- ↑ David Kuxhaus, "Grits back Gerrard, reject leadership race", Winnipeg Free Press, 13 March 2000, A3. Gerrard won 74% support from party delegates.
- ↑ Aldo Santin, "Growing Liberal support hits 24%", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 July 2001, A4; Helen Fallding, "Doer? I don't even know her!", Winnipeg Free Press, 14 March 2002, A1 [note: actual article title]; Mia Rabson, "Election fever Raging at Legislature", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 March 2003, A9. Gerrard voted for the Doer government's budget shortly before the 2003 election was called, citing a significant expansion in health-care revenues from the federal government. See "Gerrard backs budget despite concerns", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 May 2003, A4.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Enthusiastic Liberals set vote sights high", Winnipeg Free Press, 10 April 2003, B3.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Gerrard would slash taxes for Manitobans under 30", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 April 2003, A6; Mia Rabson, "Tories, Liberals spell out tax cuts", Winnipeg Free Press, 9 May 2003, A1.
- ↑ Scott Edmonds, "Manitoba New Democrats seek new mandate, call election for June 3", Canadian Press, 2 May 2003, 15:54.
- ↑ Daniel Lett, "Doer touts 5-point plan", Winnipeg Free Press, 6 May 2003, A1.
- ↑ Leah Janzen, "Liberals offer seniors community health centres", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 May 2003, A4.
- ↑ Gerrard also promised to increase the province's share of public education funding from 57.5% to 80% over a period of five years, with a $222 million cash infusion. See Nick Martin, "Liberal policies best of bad lot: trustees", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 May 2003, A5. On infrastructure, he promised that over $200 million of Manitoba's fuel tax revenues would be put directly into building and improving the province's roads and highways system. See Leah Janzen, "Gerrard wants fuel taxes spent on roads, highways", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 May 2003, A8.
- ↑ Leah Janzen, "Gerrard changes tack in last days", Winnipeg Free Press, 31 May 2003, A12. Shortly before the election, Liberal support had fallen to 13%.
- ↑ Support for the Liberal Party returned to 21% by the end of the year, fell to 14% in March 2006, and rose again to 18% in October of the same year. See "Nearly half of electorate backs Doer government", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 December 2003, A7; Mia Rabson, "Tories strong again: poll", Winnipeg Free Press, 18 March 2006, A5; Mia Rabson, "Manitoba NDP, Tories in dead heat for voters", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 October 2006, A1.
- ↑ Joe Paraskevas, "'Underdog' Liberals have ideas, high hopes", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 April 2007, A1; Joe Paraskevas, "Gerrard sets sights on saving Lake Winnipeg", Winnipeg Free Press, 23 April 2007, A3; Joe Paraskevas, "Liberals promise wait-free visits to family doctors", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 April 2007, A4; Mia Rabson, "Mental health services 'failing' Gerrard says system needs an overhaul", Winnipeg Free Press, 14 May 2007, A4.
- ↑ Mary Agnes Welch, "Gerrard favours rapid transit", Winnipeg Free Press, 3 April 2007, web extra.
- ↑ Joe Paraskevas, "Liberals pledge to wipe out payroll tax, boost research", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 April 2007, A7; Joe Paraskevas, "Gerrard promises 80/20 ratio for education funding", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 April 2007, A4; Joe Paraskevas, "Liberals envision bone care network", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 May 2007, A6.
- ↑ Joe Paraskevas, "Liberals want special police unit for kids", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 May 2007, A5.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Gerrard to go green with carbon-neutral campaign", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 March 2007, B7.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "It's a bird, it's a plane, it's... Everywhere Man", Winnipeg Free Press, 1 May 2002, A12.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Heart surgery mortality rate raises concern", Winnipeg Free Press, 16 July 2002, A3; "Manitoba Liberal leader says something must be done to stop cardiac deaths", Canadian Press, 15 July 2002, 20:18. In April 2004, Gerrard published a favourable review of Michael Rachlis's "Prescription for Excellence", a book on reforming Canada's health care system. See Jon Gerrard, "A new prescription for health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 April 2004, B9.
- ↑ "Manitoba must provide timely access to health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 July 2005, A11.
- ↑ Leah Janzen, "Speed access to info on patients: Gerrard", Winnipeg Free Press, 28 February 2006, A5.
- ↑ Gerrard has also argued that the Minister of Health should report on the performance of individual surgeons. See Mia Rabson, "Gerrard calls for cardiac report cards", Winnipeg Free Press, 11 December 2001, A4.
- ↑ David Kuxhaus, "Prairie politicians band together to plead farmers' case", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 October 1999, A3.
- ↑ "A BSE-Free Guarantee Contingency plan needed for beef industry", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 March 2004, A9.
- ↑ "Budget cut may affect water quality: Gerrard", Winnipeg Free Press, 24 April 2004, A5.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "PCs back gay adoption?", Winnipeg Free Press, 19 June 2001, A3.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Tories flip-flop, vote against adoption rights for gay couples", Winnipeg Free Press, 2 August 2002, A2.
- ↑ Lindor Reynolds, "Trying to eat on $20 a week", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 November 2002, A1; Rob Knodel, "Harvest hosts a real survivor challenge", Winnipeg Free Press, 4 December 2002, 1.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Manitoba to butt out", Winnipeg Free Press, 7 November 2003, A1.
- ↑ Jon Gerrard, "Laws needed for delivery of distance health care", Winnipeg Free Press, 17 January 2005, A11.
- ↑ Mary Agnes Welch, "Saying sorry to be made less costly?", Winnipeg Free Press, 12 April 2007, A7.
- ↑ Jon Gerrard, "Premier should call inquiry into Crocus", Winnipeg Free Press, 15 August 2005, A11.
- ↑ David O'Brien, "Manitoba Liberals embrace Martin's push for leadership", Winnipeg Free Press, 30 May 2003, A3.
- ↑ "Gerrard endorses Kennedy", Winnipeg Free Press, 25 November 2006, B10.
- ↑ Mia Rabson, "Book tells history of Manitoba Liberal party", Winnipeg Free Press, 26 April 2006, web extra.
- ↑ Chris Adams, "Liberal history doesn't address party's decline", Winnipeg Free Press, 21 May 2006, B8.
- 1947 births
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- Manitoba Liberal Party MLAs
- Liberal Party of Canada MPs
- Members of the Canadian House of Commons from Manitoba
- Canadian physicians
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- University of Saskatchewan alumni
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