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Maurus Servius Honoratus, Commentary on the Eclogues of Vergil, poem pr, line 1

Maurus Servius Honoratus, Commentary on the Eclogues of Vergil
Georgius Thilo, Ed.

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poem: poem pr ECLOGA PRIMA. ECLOGA SECVNDA. ECLOGA TERTIA. ECLOGA QVARTA. ECLOGA QVINTA. ECLOGA SEXTA. ECLOGA SEPTIMA. ECLOGA OCTAVA. ECLOGA NONA. ECLOGA DECIMA. commline: lines 1ff.
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Bucolica, ut ferunt, dicta sunt a custodibus boum, id est ἀπὸ τῶν βουκόλων: praecipua enim sunt animalia apud rusticos boves. huius autem carminis origo varia est. nam alii dicunt eo tempore, quo Xerxes, Persarum rex, invasit Graeciam, cum omnes intra muros laterent nec possent more solito Dianae sacra persolvi, per- venisse ad montes Laconas rusticos et in eius honorem hymnos dixisse: unde natum carmen bucolicum aetas posterior elimavit. alii dicunt Orestem, cum Dianae Facelitidis simulacrum raptum ex Scythia adveheret et ad Siciliam esset tempestate delatus, completo anno Dianae festum celebrasse hymnis, collectis nautis suis et ali- quibus pastoribus convocatis, et exinde permansisse apud rusticos consuetudinem. alii non Dianae, sed Apollini Nomio consecratum carmen hoc volunt, quo tempore Admeti regis pavit armenta. alii rusticis numinibus a pastoribus dicatum hoc asserunt carmen, ut Pani, faunis, nymphis ac satyris. et hic est huius carminis titulus. qualitas autem haec est, scilicet humilis character. tres enim sunt characteres, humilis, medius, grandiloquus: quos omnes in hoc in- venimus poeta. nam in Aeneide grandiloquum habet, in georgicis medium, in bucolicis humilem pro qualitate negotiorum et perso- narum: nam personae hic rusticae sunt, simplicitate gaudentes, a quibus nihil altum debet requiri. adhibetur autem ad carmen bu- colicum, quod debet quarto pede terminare partem orationis: qui pes si sit dactylus, meliorem efficit versum, ut "nos patriae fines et dulcia". primus etiam pes secundum Donatum et dacty- lus esse debet et terminare partem orationis, ut "Tityre". quam legem Theocritus vehementer observat, Vergilius non adeo; ille enim in paucis versibus ab ista ratione deviavit, hic eam in paucis secutus est: Terentianus cum de hoc metro diceret "plurimus hoc pollet Siculae telluris alumnus", "noster rarus eo pastor Maro". intentio poetae haec est, ut imitetur Theocritum Syracusanum, meliorem Moscho et ceteris qui bucolica scripserunt,—unde est "prima Syracosio dignata est ludere versu nostra"—et aliquibus locis per allegoriam agat gratias Augusto vel aliis nobilibus, quorum favore amissum agrum recepit. in qua re tantum dissentit a Theocrito: ille enim ubique simplex est, hic necessitate compulsus aliquibus locis miscet figuras, quas perite plerumque etiam ex Theocriti versibus facit, quos ab illo dictos constat esse simpliciter. hoc autem fit poetica urbani- tate: sic Iuvenalis "Actoris Aurunci spolium"; nam Ver- gilii versum de hasta dictum figurate ad speculum transtulit. et causa scribendorum bucolicorum haec est: cum post occisum :iii: iduum Maiarum die in senatu Caesarem Augustus eius filius contra percussores patris et Antonium civilia bella movisset, victoria po- titus Cremonensium agros, qui contra eum senserant, militibus suis dedit. qui cum non sufficerent, etiam Mantuanorum iussit distribui, non propter culpam, sed propter vicinitatem, unde est "Mantua vae miserae nimium vicina Cremonae". perdito ergo agro Vergilius Romam venit et potentium favore meruit, ut agrum suum solus reciperet. ad quem accipiendum profectus, ab Arrio centurione, qui eum tenebat, paene est interemptus, nisi se prae- cipitasset in Mincium: unde est allegoricos "ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat". postea ab Augusto missis tribus viris et ipsi integer ager est redditus et Mantuanis pro parte. hinc est, quod cum in prima ecloga legimus eum recepisse agrum, postea eum querelantem invenimus, ut "audieras, et fama fuit; sed carmina tantum nostra valent, Lycida, tela inter Martia, quantum Chaonias dicunt aquila veniente colum- bas". nec numerus hic dubius est nec ordo librorum, quippe cum unus sit liber: de eclogis multi dubitant, quae licet decem sint, incertum tamen est, quo ordine scriptae sint. plerique duas certas volunt ipsius testimonio, ultimam, ut "extremum hunc", (et primam, ut) in georgicis "Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi"; alii primam illam volunt "prima Syra- cosio dignata est ludere versu". sane sciendum, vii. eclogas esse meras rusticas, quas Theocritus x. habet. hic in tribus a bu- colico carmine, sed cum excusatione discessit, ut in genethliaco Salonini et in Sileni theologia, vel ut ex insertis altioribus rebus posset placere, vel quia tot varietates implere non poterat. poetae vitam in Aeneide diximus. operis explanatio in sequentibus com- probabitur. sane sciendum Vergilium xxviii. annorum scripsisse bucolica, unde etiam ipse in fine georgicorum "audaxque iuventa, Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi". et dicit Donatus, quod etiam in poetae memoravimus vita, in scribendis carminibus naturalem ordinem secutum esse Vergilium: primo enim pastoralis fuit in montibus vita, post agriculturae amor, inde bellorum cura successit. notandum quoque, bucolica vel georgica, cum apud Graecos in fine habeant accentum, apud nos in tertia a fine habere: nam ut in ultima sit, latinitas vetat, ut in paenultima non sit, brevitatis efficit ratio. etiam hoc sciendum, et personas huius operis ex maiore parte nomina de rebus rusticis habere conficta, ut Meliboeus, ὅτι μέλει αὐτῷ τῶν βοῶν, id est quia curam gerit boum, et ut Tityrus; nam Laconum lingua tityrus dicitur aries maior, qui gregem anteire consuevit: sicut etiam in comoediis in- venimus; nam Pamphilus est totum amans, Glycerium quasi dulcis mulier, Philumena amabilis. personae, sicut supra dixi, rusticae sunt et simplicitate gaudentes: unde nihil in his urbanum, nihil declamatorium invenitur; sed ex re rustica sunt omnia negotia, comparationes et si qua sunt alia. hinc est, quod annos a fructi- bus computat, ut "post aliquot mea regna videns mi- rabor aristas", hinc etiam illae comparationes sunt "nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri nec percussa iuvant fluctu tam litora nec quae saxosas inter d. f. valles".

Maurus Servius Honoratus. In Vergilii carmina comentarii. Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii; recensuerunt Georgius Thilo et Hermannus Hagen. Georgius Thilo. Leipzig. B. G. Teubner. 1881.

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