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Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, BOOK XXXV. AN ACCOUNT OF PAINTINGS AND COLOURS., CHAP. 52.—ALUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; THIRTY-EIGHT REMEDIES.

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History
John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A., Ed.

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book: BOOK I. BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS. BOOK III. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED. BOOK IV. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED. BOOK V. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST OR FORMERLY EXISTED. BOOK VI. AN ACCOUNT OF COUNTRIES, NATIONS, SEAS, TOWNS, HAVENS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, DISTANCES, AND PEOPLES WHO NOW EXIST, OR FORMERLY EXISTED. BOOK VII. MAN, HIS BIRTH, HIS ORGANIZATION, AND THE INVENTION OF THE ARTS. BOOK VIII. THE NATURE OF THE TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS. BOOK IX. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES. BOOK X. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF BIRDS. BOOK XI. THE VARIOUS KINDS OF INSECTS. BOOK XII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TREES BOOK XIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF EXOTIC TREES, AND AN ACCOUNT OF UNGUENTS. BOOK XIV. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FRUIT TREES. BOOK XV. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FRUIT-TREES. BOOK XVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FOREST TREES. BOOK XVII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE CULTIVATED TREES. BOOK XVIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF GRAIN. BOOK XIX. THE NATURE AND CULTIVATION OF FLAX, AND AN ACCOUNT OF VARIOUS GARDEN PLANTS. BOOK XX. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE GARDEN PLANTS. BOOK XXI. AN ACCOUNT OF FLOWERS. AND THOSE USED FOR CHAPLETS MORE PARTICULARLY. BOOK XXII. THE PROPERTIES OF PLANTS AND FRUITS. BOOK XXIII. THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CULTIVATED TREES. BOOK XXIV. THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE FOREST TREES. BOOK XXV. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF WILD PLANT BOOK XXVI. A CONTINUATION OF THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM PLANTS, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO PARTICULAR DISEASES. BOOK XXVII. A DESCRIPTION OF PLANTS, AND OF THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THEM. BOOK XXVIII. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM LIVING CREATURES. BOOK XXIX. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM LIVING CREATURES. BOOK XXX. REMEDIES DERIEVED FROM LIVING CREATURES. BOOK XXXI. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE AQUATIC PRODUCTION BOOK XXXII. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM AQUATIC ANIMALS. BOOK XXXIII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS. BOOK XXXIV. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS. BOOK XXXV. AN ACCOUNT OF PAINTINGS AND COLOURS. BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES. BOOK XXXVII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PRECIOUS STONES. chapter: CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE HONOUR ATTACHED TO PAINTING. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE HONOUR ATTACHED TO PORTRAITS. CHAP. 3. (3.)—WHEN SHIELDS WERE FIRST INVENTED WITH PORTRAITS UPON THEM; AND WHEN THEY WERE FIRST ERECTED IN PUBLIC. CHAP. 4.—WHEN THESE SHIELDS WERE FIRST PLACED IN PRIVATE HOUSES. CHAP. 5.—THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE ART OF PAINTING. MO- NOCHROME PAINTINGS. THE EARLIEST PAINTERS. CHAP. 6.—THE ANTIQUITY OF PAINTING IN ITALY. CHAP. 7. (4.)—ROMAN PAINTERS. CHAP. 8.—AT WHAT PERIOD FOREIGN PAINTINGS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED AT ROME. CHAP. 9.—AT WHAT PERIOD PAINTING WAS FIRST HELD IN HIGH ESTEEM AT ROME, AND FROM WHAT CAUSES. CHAP. 10.—WHAT PICTURES THE EMPERORS HAVE EXHIBITED IN PUBLIC. CHAP. 11. (5.)—THE ART OF PAINTING. CHAP. 12. (6.)—PIGMENTS OTHER THAN THOSE OF A METALLIC ORIGIN. ARTIFICIAL COLOURS. CHAP. 13.—SINOPIS: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—RUBRICA; LEMNIAN EARTH: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 15.—EGYPTIAN EARTH. CHAP. 16.—OCHRA: REMEDIES DERIVED FROM RUBRICA. CHAP. 17.—LEUCOPHORON. CHAP. 18.—PARÆTONIUM. CHAP. 19.—MELINUM: SIX REMEDIES. CERUSE. CHAP. 20.—USTA. CHAP. 21.—ERETRIA. CHAP. 22.—SANDARACH. CHAP. 23.—SANDYX. CHAP. 24.—SYRICUM. CHAP. 25.—ATRAMENTUM. CHAP. 26.—PURPURISSUM. CHAP. 27.—INDICUM. CHAP. 28.—ARMENIUM; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 29.—APPIANUM. CHAP. 30.—ANULARIAN WHITE. CHAP. 31. (7.)—WHICH COLOURS DO NOT ADMIT OF BEING LAID ON A WET COATING. CHAP. 32.—WHAT COLOURS WERE USED BY THE ANCIENTS IN PAINTING. CHAP. 33.—AT WHAT TIME COMBATS OF GLADIATORS WERE FIRST PAINTED AND PUBLICLY EXHIBITED. CHAP. 34. (8.)—THE AGE OF PAINTING; WITH THE NAMES OF THE MORE CELEBRATED WORKS AND ARTISTS, FOUR HUNDRED AND FIVE IN NUMBER. CHAP. 35. (9.)—THE FIRST CONTEST FOR EXCELLENCE IN THE PICTORIAL ART. CHAP. 36.—ARTISTS WHO PAINTED WITH THE PENCIL. CHAP. 37.—VARIOUS OTHER KINDS OF PAINTING. CHAP. 38. (11.)—AN EFFECTUAL WAY OF PUTTING A STOP TO THE SINGING OF BIRDS. CHAP. 39.—ARTISTS WHO HAVE PAINTED IN ENCAUSTICS OR WAX, WITH EITHER THE CESTRUM OR THE PENCIL. CHAP. 40.—THE FIRST INVENTORS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF PAINTING. THE GREATEST DIFFICULTIES IN THE ART OF PAINTING. THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF PAINTING. THE FIRST ARTIST THAT PAINTED CEILINGS. WHEN ARCHED ROOFS WERE FIRST PAINTED. THE MARVELLOUS PRICE OF SOME PICTURES. CHAP. 41.—ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. CHAP. 42.—THE COLOURING OF TISSUES. CHAP. 43. (12.)—THE INVENTORS OF THE ART OF MODELLING. CHAP. 44.—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO MOULD FIGURES IN IMITATION OF THE FEATURES OF LIVING PERSONS, OR OF STATUES. CHAP. 45.—THE MOST FAMOUS MODELLERS. CHAP. 46.—WORKS IN POTTERY. CHAP. 47. (13.)—VARIOUS KINDS OF EARTH. THE PUTEOLAN DUST, AND OTHER EARTHS OF WHICH CEMENTS LIKE STONE ARE MADE. CHAP. 48. (14.)—FORMACEAN WALLS. CHAP. 49.—WALLS OF BRICK. THE METHOD OF MAKING BRICKS. CHAP. 50. (15.)—SULPHUR, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—BITUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; TWENTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 52.—ALUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; THIRTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 53. (16.)—SAMIAN EARTH: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF ERETRIA. CHAP. 55.—THE METHOD OF WASHING EARTHS FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES. CHAP. 56.—CHIAN EARTH; THREE REMEDIES. SELINUSIAN EARTH; THREE REMEDIES. PNIGITIS; NINE REMEDIES. AMPELITIS; FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 57. (17.)—CRETACEOUS EARTHS USED FOR SCOURING CLOTH. CIMOLIAN EARTH; NINE REMEDIES. SARDINIAN EARTH. UMBRIAN EARTH. SAXUM. CHAP. 58.—ARGENTARIA. NAMES OF FREEDMEN WHO HAVE EITHER RISEN TO POWER THEMSELVES, OR HAVE BELONGED TO MEN OF INFLUENCE. CHAP. 59. (19.)—THE EARTH OF GALATA; OF CLYPEA; OF THE BALEARES; AND OF EBUSUS.
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Table of Contents:
DEDICATION. CHAP. 1. (1.)—WHETHER THE WORLD BE FINITE, AND WHETHER THERE BE MORE THAN ONE WORLD. CHAP. 2. (2.)—OF THE FORM OF THE WORLD . CHAP. 3. (3.)—OF ITS NATURE; WHENCE THE NAME IS DERIVED. CHAP. 4. (5.)—OF THE ELEMENTS AND THE PLANETS . CHAP. 5. (7.)—OF GOD . CHAP. 6. (8.)—OF THE NATURE OF THE STARS; OF THE MOTION OF THE PLANETS. CHAP. 7.—OF THE ECLIPSES OF THE MOON AND THE SUN. CHAP. 8. (11.)—OF THE MAGNITUDE OF THE STARS. CHAP. 9. (12.)—AN ACCOUNT OF THE OBSERVATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN MADE ON THE HEAVENS BY DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS. CHAP. 10. (13.)—ON THE RECURRENCE OF THE ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AND THE MOON. CHAP. 11. (14.)—OF THE MOTION OF THE MOON. CHAP. 12. (15.)—OF THE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS AND THE GENERAL LAWS OF THEIR ASPECTS . CHAP. 13.—WHY THE SAME STARS APPEAR AT SOME TIMES MORE LOFTY AND AT OTHER TIMES MORE NEAR. CHAP. 14. (17.)—WHY THE SAME STARS HAVE DIFFERENT MOTIONS. CHAP. 15.—GENERAL LAWS OF THE PLANETS. CHAP. 16. (18.)-THE REASON WHY THE STARS ARE OF DIFFERENT COLOURS. CHAP. 17. (19.)—OF THE MOTION OF THE SUN AND THE CAUSE OF THE IRREGULARITY OF THE DAYS. CHAP. 18. (20.)—WHY THUNDER IS ASCRIBED TO JUPITER. CHAP. 19. (21.)-OF THE DISTANCES OR THE STARS. CHAP. 20. (22.)—OF THE HARMONY OF THE STARS. CHAP. 21. (23.)—OF THE DIMENSIONS OF THE WORLD. CHAP. 22. (24.)—OR THE STARS WHICH APPEAR SUDDENLY, OR OF COMETS . CHAP. 23.—THEIR NATURE, SITUATION, AND SPECIES. CHAP. 24. (26.)—THE DOCTRINE OF HIPPARCHUS ABOUT THE STARS. CHAP. 25.—EXAMPLES FROM HISTORY OF CELESTIAL PRODIGIES; FACES, LAMPADES, AND BOLIDES . CHAP. 26.— TRABES CELESTES; CHASMA CŒLI. CHAP. 27. (27.)—OF THE COLOURS OF THE SKY AND OF CELESTIAL FLAME. CHAP. 28. (28.)—OF CELESTIAL CORONÆ. CHAP. 29.—OF SUDDEN CIRCLES. CHAP. 30.-OF UNUSUALLY LONG ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. CHAP. 31. (31.)—MANY SUNS. CHAP. 32, (32.)—MANY MOONS. CHAP. 33. (33.)—DAYLIGHT IN THE NIGHT. CHAP. 34. (34.)—BURNING SHIELDS . CHAP. 35. (35.)—AN OMINOUS APPEARANCE IN THE HEAVENS, THAT WAS SEEN ONCE ONLY. CHAP. 36. (36.)—OF STARS WHICH MOVE ABOUT IN VARIOUS DIRECTIONS. CHAP. 37. (37.)—OR THE STARS WHICH ARE NAMED CASTOR AND POLLUX . CHAP. 38. (38.)—OR THE AIR AND ON THE CAUSE OF THE SHOWERS OF STONES. CHAP. 39. (39.)—OR THE STATED SEASONS. CHAP. 40. (40.)—OF THE RISING OF THE DOG-STAR. CHAP. 41. (41.)—OF THE REGULAR INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFERENT SEASONS. CHAP. 42. (42.)—OR UNCERTAIN STATES OF THE WEATHER. CHAP. 43. (43.)—OR THUNDER AND LIGHTNING. CHAP. 44.—THE ORIGIN OF WINDS. CHAP. 45.—VARIOUS OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING WINDS. CHAP. 46. (47.)—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF WINDS . CHAP. 47.—THE PERIODS OF THE WINDS . CHAP. 48.—NATURE OF THE WINDS . CHAP. 49. (48.)—ECNEPHIAS AND TYPHON. CHAP. 50.—TORNADOES; BLASTING WINDS; WHIRLWINDS , AND OTHER WONDERFUL KINDS OF TEMPESTS. CHAP. 51. (50.)—OF THUNDER ; IN WHAT COUNTRIES IT DOES NOT FALL, AND FOR WHAT REASON. CHAP. 52. (51.)—OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF LIGHTNING AND THEIR WONDERFUL EFFECTS. CHAP. 53. (52.)—THE ETRURIAN AND THE ROMAN OBSERVATIONS ON THESE POINTS. CHAP. 54. (53.)—OF CONJURING UP THUNDER. CHAP. 55. (54.)—GENERAL LAWS OF LIGHTNING. CHAP. 56. (55.)—OBJECTS. WHICH ARE NEVER STRUCK. CHAP. 57. (56.)—SHOWERS OF MILK, BLOOD, FLESH, IRON, WOOL, AND BAKED TILES . CHAP. 58. (57.)—RATTLING OF ARMS AND THE SOUND OF TRUMPETS HEARD IN THE SKY. CHAP. 59. (58.)—OR STONES THAT HAVE FALLEN FROM THE CLOUDS . THE OPINION OF ANAXAGORAS RESPECTING THEM. CHAP. 60. (59.)—THE RAINBOW. CHAP. 61.—THE NATURE OF HAIL, SNOW, HOAR, MIST, DEW; THE FORMS OF CLOUDS. CHAP. 62. (62.)—THE PECULIARITIES OF THE WEATHER IN DIFFERENT PLACES. CHAP. 63. (63.)—NATURE OF THE EARTH. CHAP. 64. (64.)—OF THE FORM OF THE EARTH. CHAP. 65. (65.)—WHETHER THERE BE ANTIPODES? CHAP. 66.—How THE WATER IS CONNECTED WITH THE EARTH. OF THE NAVIGATION OF THE SEA AND THE RIVERS. CHAP. 67. (67.)—WHETHER THE OCEAN SURROUNDS THE EARTH. CHAP. 68. (68.)—WHAT PART OF THE EARTH IS INHABITED. CHAP. 69. (69.)—THAT THE EARTH IS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE WORLD. CHAP. 70. (70.)—OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ZONES . CHAP. 71.—OF THE INEQUALITY OF CLIMATES. CHAP. 72.—IN WHAT PLACES ECLIPSES ARE INVISIBLE, AND WHY THIS IS THE CASE. CHAP. 73. (71.)—WHAT REGULATES THE DAYLIGHT ON THE EARTH. CHAP. 74. (72.)—REMARKS ON DIALS, AS CONNECTED WITH THIS SUBJECT. CHAP. 75. (73.)—WHEN AND WHERE THERE ARE NO SHADOWS. CHAP. 76. (74.)—WHERE THIS TAKES PLACE TWICE IN THE YEAR AND WHERE THE SHADOWS FALL IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS. CHAP. 77. (75.)—WHERE THE DAYS ARE THE LONGEST AND WHERE THE SHORTEST. CHAP. 78. (76.)—OF THE FIRST DIAL. CHAP. 79. (77.)—OF THE MODE IN WHICH THE DAYS ARE COMPUTED. CHAP. 80. (78.)—OF THE DIFFERENCE OF NATIONS AS DEPENDING ON THE NATURE OF THE WORLD. CHAP. 81. (79.)—OF EARTHQUAKES. CHAP. 82. (80.)—OF CLEFTS OF THE EARTH. CHAP. 83. (81.)—SIGNS OF AN APPROACHING EARTHQUAKE. CHAP. 84. (82.)—PRESERVATIVES AGAINST FUTURE EARTHQUAKES. CHAP. 85. (83.)—PRODIGIES OF THE EARTH WHICH HAVE OCCURRED ONCE ONLY. CHAP. 86. (81.)—WONDERFUL CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING EARTHQUAKES. CHAP. 87. (85.)—IN WHAT PLACES THE SEA HAS RECEDED. CHAP. 88. (86.)—THE MODE IN WHICH ISLANDS RISE UP. CHAP. 89. (87.)—WHAT ISLANDS HAVE BEEN FORMED, AND AT WHAT PERIODS. CHAP. 90.—LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SEPARATED BY THE SEA. CHAP. 91. (89.)—ISLANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN UNITED TO THE MAIN LAND. CHAP. 92. (90.)—LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN TOTALLY CHANGED INTO SEAS. CHAP. 93. (91.)—LANDS WHICH HAVE BEEN SWALLOWED UP. CHAP. 94. (92.)—CITIES WHICH HAVE BEEN ABSORBED BY THE SEA. CHAP. 95. (93.)—OF VENTS IN THE EARTH. CHAP. 96. (94.)—OF CERTAIN LANDS WHICH ARE ALWAYS SHAKING, AND OF FLOATING ISLANDS. CHAP. 97. (96.)—PLACES IN WHICH IT NEVER RAINS. CHAP. 98.—THE WONDERS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES COLLECTED TOGETHER. CHAP. 99. (97)—CONCERNING THE CAUSE OF THE FLOWING AND EBBING OF THE SEA. CHAP. 100.—WHERE THE TIDES RISE AND FALL IN AN UNUSUAL MANNER. CHAP. 101. (9S.)—WONDERS OF THE SEA. CHAP. 102. (99.)—THE POWER OF THE MOON OVER THE LAND AND THE SEA. CHAP. 103. (100.)—THE POWER OF THE SUN. CHAP. 104.—WHY THE SEA IS SALT. CHAP. 105. (102.)—WHERE THE SEA IS THE DEEPEST. CHAP. 106. (103.)—THE WONDERS OF FOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. CHAP. 107.—THE WONDERS OF FIRE AND WATER UNITED. CHAP. 108. (104.)—OF MALTHA. CHAP. 109. (105.)—OF NAPHTHA. CHAP. 110. (106.)—PLACES WHICH ARE ALWAYS BURNING. CHAP. 111. (107.)—WONDERS OF FIRE ALONE. CHAP. 112. (108.)—THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH. CHAP. 113.—THE HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE. INTRODUCTION. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE BOUNDARIES AND GULFS OF EUROPE FIRST SET FORTH IN A GENERAL WAY. CHAP. 2.—OF SPAIN GENERALLY. CHAP. 3.—OF BÆTICA. CHAP. 4. (3.)—OF NEARER SPAIN. CHAP. 5. (4.)—OF THE PROVINCE OF GALLIA NARBONENSIS. CHAP. 6. (5.)—OF ITALY. CHAP. 7.—OF THE NINTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 8.—THE SEVENTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 9.—THE FIRST REGION OF ITALY ; THE TIBER; ROME. CHAP. 10.—THE THIRD REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 11.—SIXTY-FOUR ISLANDS, AMONG WHICH ARE THE BALEARES. CHAP. 12. (6.)—CORSICA. CHAP. 13.—SARDINIA. CHAP. 14. (8.)—SICILY. CHAP. 15. (10.)—MAGNA GRÆCIA, BEGINNING AT LOCRI. CHAP. 16.—THE SECOND REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 17. (12.)—THE FOURTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 18. (13.)—THE FIFTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 19. (14.)—THE SIXTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 20. (15.)—THE EIGHTH REGION OF ITALY; THE PADUS. CHAP. 21. (17.)—THE ELEVENTH REGION OF ITALY; ITALIA TRANSPAIDANA. CHAP. 22. (18.)—THE TENTH REGION OF ITALY. CHAP. 23. (19.)—ISTRIA, ITS PEOPLE AND LOCALITY. CHAP. 24. (20.)—THE ALPS, AND THE ALPINE NATIONS. CHAP. 25. (21.)—LIBURNIA AND ILLYRICUM. CHAP. 26. (22.)—DALMATIA. CHAP. 27. (24.)—THE NORICI. CHAP. 28. (25.)—PANNONIA. CHAP. 29. (26.)—MŒSIA. CHAP. 30.—ISLANDS OF THE IONIAN SEA AND THE ADRIATIC. CHAP. 1. (1.)—EPIRUS. CHAP. 2.—ACARNANIA. CHAP. 3. (2.)—ÆTOLIA. CHAP. 4. (3.)—LOCRIS AND PHOCIS. CHAP. 5. (4.)—THE PELOPONNESUS. CHAP. 6. (5.)—ACHAIA. CHAP. 7.—MESSENIA. CHAP. 8.—LACONIA. CHAP. 9.—ARGOLIS. CHAP. 10. (6.)—ARCADIA. CHAP. 11. (7.)—ATTICA. CHAP. 12.—BŒOTIA. CHAP. 13.—DORIS. CHAP. 14.—PHTHIOTIS. CHAP. 15. (8.)—THESSALY PROPER. CHAP. 16. (9.)—MAGNESIA. CHAP. 17. (10.)—MACEDONIA. CHAP. 18. (11.)—THRACE; THE ÆGEAN SEA. CHAP. 19. (12.)—THE ISLANDS WHICH LIE BEFORE THE LANDS ALREADY MENTIONED. CHAP. 20.—CRETE. CHAP. 21.—EUBŒA. CHAP. 22.—THE CYCLADES. CHAP. 23.—THE SPORADES. CHAP. 24.—THE HELLESPONT.—THE LAKE MÆOTIS. CHAP. 25.—DACIA, SARMATIA. CHAP. 26.—SCYTHIA. CHAP. 27.—THE ISLANDS OF THE EUXINE. THE ISLANDS OF THE NORTHERN OCEAN. CHAP. 28.—GERMANY. CHAP. 29. (15.)—NINETY-SIX ISLANDS OF THE GALLIC OCEAN. CHAP. 30. (16.)—BRITANNIA. CHAP. 31. (17.)—GALLIA BELGICA. CHAP. 32. (18.)—GALLIA LUGDUNENSIS. CHAP. 33. (19.)—GALLIA AQUITANICA. CHAP. 34. (20.)—NEARER SPAIN, ITS COAST ALONG THE GALLIC OCEAN. CHAP. 35. (21.)—LUSITANIA. CHAP. 36.—THE ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. CHAP. 37. (23.)—THE GENERAL MEASUREMENT OF EUROPE. CHAP. 1.—THE TWO MAURITANIAS. CHAP. 2. (3.)—NUMIDIA. CHAP. 3. (4.)—AFRICA. CHAP. 4.—THE SYRTES. CHAP. 5. (5.)—CYRENAICA. CHAP. 6. (6.)—LIBYA MAREOTIS. CHAP. 7. (7.)—THE ISLANDS IN THE VICINITY OF AFRICA. CHAP. 8. (8.)—COUNTRIES ON THE OTHER SIDE OF AFRICA. CHAP. 9. (9.)—EGYPT AND THEBAIS. CHAP. 10.—THE RIVER NILE. CHAP. 11.—THE CITIES OF EGYPT. CHAP. 12. (11.)—THE COASTS OF ARABIA, SITUATE ON THE EGYPTIAN SEA. CHAP. 13. (12.)—SYRIA. CHAP. 14.—IDUMÆA, PALÆSTINA, AND SAMARIA. CHAP. 15. (14.)—JUDÆA. CHAP. 16. (18.)—DECAPOLIS. CHAP. 17. (19.)—PUŒNICE. CHAP. 18.—SYRIA ANTIOCHIA. CHAP. 19. (23.)—THE REMAINING PARTS OF SYRIA. CHAP. 20. (24.)—THE EUPHRATES. CHAP. 21—SYRIA UPON THE EUPHRATES. CHAP. 22. (27.)—CILICIA AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 23.—ISAURIA AND THE HOMONADES. CHAP. 24.—PISIDIA. CHAP. 25—LYCAONIA. CHAP. 26.—PAMPHYLIA. CHAP. 27.—MOUNT TAURUS. CHAP. 28.—LYCIA. CHAP. 29—CARIA. CHAP. 30.—LYDIA. CHAP. 31.—IONIA. CHAP. 32. (30.)—ÆOLIS. CHAP. 33.—TROAS AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 34. (31.)—THE ISLANDS WHICH LIE IN FRONT OF ASIA. CHAP. 35.—CYPRUS. CHAP. 36—RHODES. CHAP. 37.—SAMOS. CHAP. 38.—CHIOS. CHAP. 39.—LESBOS. CHAP. 40. (32.)—THE HELLESPONT AND MYSIA CHAP. 41.—PHRYGIA. CHAP. 42.—GALATIA AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 43.—BITHYNIA. CHAP. 44.—THE ISLANDS OF THE PROPONTIS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE EUXINE AND THE MARYANDINI. CHAP. 2. (2.)—PAPHLAGONIA. CHAP. 3. (3.)—CAPPADOCIA. CHAP. 4.—THE REGION OF THEMISCYRA, AND THE NATIONS THEREIN. CHAP. 5. (5)—THE REGION OF COLICA, THE NATIONS OF THE ACHÆI, AND OTHER NATIONS IN THE SAME PARTS. CHAP. 6.—THE CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS. CHAP. 7.—LAKE MIEOTIS AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 8. (8.)—THE SITUATION OF CAPPADOCIA. CHAP. 9. (9.)—THE LESSER AND THE GREATER ARMENIA. CHAP. 10.—THE RIVERS CYRUS AND ARAXES. CHAP. 11. (10.)—ALBANIA, IBERIA, AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 12. (11.)—THE PASSES OF THE CAUCASUS. CHAP. 13. (12.)—THE ISLANDS OF THE EUXINE. CHAP. 14. (13.)—NATIONS IN THE VICINITY OF THE SCYTHIAN OCEAN. CHAP. 15.—THE CASPIAN AND HYRCANIAN SEA. CHAP. 16.—ADIABENE. CHAP. 17. (14.)—MEDIA AND THE CASPIAN GATES. CHAP. 18. (16.)—NATIONS SITUATE AROUND THE HYRCANIAN SEA. CHAP. 19. (17.)—THE NATIONS OF SCYTHIA AND THE COUNTRIES ON THE EASTERN OCEAN. CHAP. 20.—THE SERES. CHAP. 21.—THE NATIONS OF INDIA. CHAP. 22. (18.)—THE GANGES. CHAP. 23. (20.)—THE INDUS. CHAP. 24. (22.)—TAPROBANE. CHAP. 25.—THE ARIANI AND THE ADJOINING NATIONS. CHAP. 26.—VOYAGES TO INDIA. CHAP. 27.—CARMANIA. CHAP. 28.—THE PERSIAN AND THE ARABIAN GULFS. CHAP. 29.—THE PARTHIAN EMPIRE. CHAP. 30.—MESOPOTAMIA. CHAP. 31.—THE TIGRIS. CHAP. 32. (28.)—ARABIA. CHAP. 33.—THE GULFS OF THE RED SEA. CHAP. 34.—TROGLODYTICE. CHAP. 35.—ETHIOPIA. CHAP. 36. (31.)—ISLANDS OF THE ÆTHIOPIAN SEA. CHAP. 37. (32.)—THE FORTUNATE ISLANDS. CHAP. 38.—THE COMPARATIVE DISTANCES OF PLACES ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH. CHAP. 39.—DIVISION OF THE EARTH INTO PARALLELS AND SHADOWS OF EQUAL LENGTH. CHAP. 1.—MAN. CHAP. 2.—THE WONDERFUL FORMS OF DIFFERENT NATIONS. CHAP. 3.—MARVELLOUS BIRTHS. CHAP. 4. (5.)—THE GENERATION OF MAN; UNUSUAL DURATION OF PREGNANCY; INSTANCES OF IT FROM SEVEN TO TWELVE MONTHS. CHAP. 5. (6.)—INDICATIONS OF THE SEX OF THE CHILD DURING THE PREGNANCY OF THE MOTHER. CHAP. 6. (8.)—MONSTROUS BIRTHS. CHAP. 7. (9.)—OF THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN CUT OUT OF THE WOMB. CHAP. 8. (10.)—WHO WERE CALLED VOPISCI. CHAP. 9. (11.)—THE CONCEPTION AND GENERATION OF MAN. CHAP. 10.—STRIKING INSTANCES OF RESEMBLANCE. CHAP. 11. (13.)—WHAT MEN ARE SUITED FOR GENERATION. INSTANCES OF VERY NUMEROUS OFFSPRING. CHAP. 12. (14.)—AT WHAT AGE GENERATION CEASES. CHAP. 13. (15.)—REMARKABLE CIRCUMSTANCES CONNECTED WITH THE MENSTRUAL DISCHARGE. CHAP. 14.—THE THEORY OF GENERATION. CHAP. 15.—SOME ACCOUNT OF THE TEETH, AND SOME FACTS CONCERNING INFANTS. CHAP. 16.—EXAMPLES OF UNUSUAL SIZE. CHAP. 7.—CHILDREN REMARKABLE FOR THEIR PRECOCITY. CHAP. 18.—SOME REMARKABLE PROPERTIES OF THE BODY. CHAP. 19. (20.)—INSTANCES OF EXTRAORDINARY STRENGTH. CHAP. 20.—INSTANCES OF REMARKABLE AGILITY. CHAP. 21. (21.)—INSTANCES OF ACUTENESS OF SIGHT. CHAP. 22.(22.)—INSTANCES OF REMARKABLE ACUTENESS OF HEARING. CHAP. 23. (23.)—INSTANCES OF ENDURANCE OF PAIN. CHAP. 24. (24.)—MEMORY. CHAP. 25. (25.)—VIGOUR OF MIND CHAP. 26.—CLEMENCY AND GREATNESS OF MIND. CHAP. 27. (26.)—HEROIC EXPLOITS. CHAP. 28. (27.)—UNION IN THE SAME PERSON OF THREE OF THE HIGHEST QUALITIES WITH THE GREATEST PURITY. CHAP. 29. (28.)—INSTANCES OF EXTREME COURAGE. CHAP. 30. (29.)—MEN OF REMARKABLE GENIUS. CHAP. 31. (30.)—MEN WHO HAVE BEEN REMARKABLE FOR WISDOM. CHAP. 32. (32.)—PRECEPTS THE MOST USEFUL IN LIFE. CHAP. 33. (33.)—DIVINATION. CHAP. 34. (34.)—THE MAN WHO WAS PRONOUNCED TO BE THE MOST EXCELLENT. CHAP. 35. (35.)—THE MOST CHASTE MATRONS. CHAP. 36. (36.)—INSTANCES OF THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF AFFECTION. CHAP. 37. (37.)—NAMES OF MEN WHO HAVE EXCELLED IN THE ARTS, ASTROLOGY, GRAMMAR, AND MEDICINE. CHAP. 38.—GEOMETRY AND ARCHITECTURE. CHAP. 39. (38.)—OF PAINTING; ENGRAVING ON BRONZE, MARBLE, AND IVORY; OF CARVING. CHAP. 40. (39.)—SLAVES FOR WHICH A HIGH PRICE HAS BEEN GIVEN. CHAP. 41. (40.)—SUPREME HAPPINESS. CHAP. 42. (41.)—RARE INSTANCES OF GOOD FORTUNE CONTINUING IN THE SAME FAMILY. CHAP. 43. (42.)—REMARKABLE EXAMPLE OF VICISSITUDES. CHAP. 44.—REMARKABLE EXAMPLES OF HONOURS. CHAP. 45.—TEN VERY FORTUNATE CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH HAVE HAPPENED TO THE SAME PERSON. CHAP. 46.—THE MISFORTUNES OF AUGUSTUS. CHAP. 47. (46.)—MEN WHOM THE GODS HAVE PRONOUNCED TO BE THE MOST HAPPY. CHAP. 48. (47.)—THE MAN WHOM THE GODS ORDERED TO BE WORSHIPPED DURING HIS LIFE-TIME; A REMARKABLE FLASH OF LIGHTNING. CHAP. 49. (48.)—THE GREATEST LENGTH OF LIFE. CHAP. 50. (49.)—THE VARIETY OF DESTINIES AT THE BIRTH OF MAN. CHAP. 51. (50.)—VARIOUS INSTANCES OF DISEASES. CHAP. 52. (51.)—DEATH. CHAP. 53. (52.)—PERSONS WHO HAVE COME TO LIFE AGAIN AFTER BEING LAID OUT FOR BURIAL. CHAP. 54. (53.)—INSTANCES OF SUDDEN DEATH. CHAP. 55. (54.)—BURIAL. CHAP. 56. (55.)—THE MANES, OR DEPARTED SPIRITS OF THE SOUL. CHAP. 57. (56.)—THE INVENTORS OF VARIOUS THINGS. CHAP. 58. (57.)—THE THINGS ABOUT WHICH MANKIND FIRST OF ALL AGREED. THE ANCIENT LETTERS. CHAP. 59. (59.)—WHEN BARBERS WERE FIRST EMPLOYED. CHAP. 60.—WHEN THE FIRST TIME-PIECES WERE MADE. CHAP. 1. (1.)—ELEPHANTS; THEIR CAPACITY. CHAP. 2. (2.)—WHEN ELEPHANTS WERE FIRST PUT INTO HARNESS. CHAP. 3. (3.)—THE DOCILITY OF THE ELEPHANT. CHAP. 4.—WONDERFUL THINGS WHICH HAVE BEEN DONE BY THE ELEPHANT. CHAP. 5. (4.)—THE INSTINCT OF WILD ANIMALS IN PERCEIVING DANGER. CHAP. 6. (6.)—WHEN ELEPHANTS WERE FIRST SEEN IN ITALY. CHAP. 7. (7.)—THE COMBATS OF ELEPHANTS. CHAP. 8. (8.)—THE WAY IN WHICH ELEPHANTS ARE CAUGHT. CHAP. 9. (9.)—THE METHOD BY WHICH THEY ARE TAMED. CHAP. 10. (10.)—THE BIRTH OF THE ELEPHANT, AND OTHER PARTICULARS RESPECTING IT. CHAP. 11. (11.)—IN WHAT COUNTRIES THE ELEPHANT IS FOUND; THE ANTIPATHY OF THE ELEPHANT AND THE DRAGON. CHAP. 12. (12.)—THE SAGACITY OF THESE ANIMALS. CHAP. 13. (13.)—DRAGONS. CHAP. 14. (14.)—SERPENTS OF REMARKABLE SIZE. CHAP. 15. (15.)—THE ANIMALS OF SCYTHIA; THE BISON. CHAP. 16.—THE ANIMALS OF THE NORTH; THE ELK, THE ACHLIS, AND THE BONASUS. CHAP. 17.—LIONS; HOW THEY ARE PRODUCED. CHAP. 18.—THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF LIONS. CHAP. 19.—THE PECULIAR CHARACTER OF THE LION. CHAP. 20.—WHO IT WAS THAT FIRST INTRODUCED COMBATS OF LIONS AT ROME, AND WHO HAS BROUGHT TOGETHER THE GREATEST NUMBER OF LIONS FOR THAT PURPOSE. CHAP. 21.—WONDERFUL FEATS PERFORMED BY LIONS. CHAP. 22.—A MAN RECOGNIZED AND SAVED BY A DRAGON. CHAP. 23.—PANTHERS. CHAP. 24.—THE DECREE OF THE SENATE, AND LAWS RESPECTING AFRICAN ANIMALS; WHO FIRST BROUGHT THEM TO ROME, AND WHO BROUGHT THE GREATEST NUMBER OF THEM. CHAP. 25.—TIGERS: WHEN FIRST SEEN AT ROME; THEIR NATURE. CHAP. 26.—CAMELS: THE DIFFERENT KINDS. CHAP. 27.—THE CAMELEOPARD; WHEN IT WAS FIRST SEEN AT ROME. CHAP. 28. (19.)—THE CHAMA, AND THE CEPUS. CHAP. 29. (20.)—THE RHINOCEROS. CHAP. 30. (21.)—THE LYNX, THE SPHINX, THE CROCOTTA, AND THE MONKEY. CHAP. 31.—THE TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS OF INDIA. CHAP. 32.—THE ANIMALS OF ÆTHIOPIA; A WILD BEAST WHICH KILLS WITH ITS EYE. CHAP. 33.—THE SERPENTS CALLED BASILISKS. CHAP. 34. (22.)—WOLVES; THE ORIGIN OF THE STORY OF VERSIPELLIS. CHAP. 35. (23.)—DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERPENTS. CHAP. 36.—THE ICHNEUMON. CHAP. 37. (25.)—THE CROCODILE. CHAP. 38.—THE SCINCUS. CHAP. 39.—THE HIPPOPOTAMUS. CHAP. 40. (26.)—WHO FIRST EXHIBITED THE HIPPOPOTAMUS AND THE CROCODILE AT ROME. CHAP. 41. (27.)—THE MEDICINAL REMEDIES WHICH HAVE BEEN BORROWED FROM ANIMALS. CHAP. 42. (28.)—PROGNOSTICS OF DANGER DERIVED FROM ANIMALS. CHAP. 43. (29.)—NATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN EXTERMINATED BY ANIMALS. CHAP. 44. (30.)—THE HYÆNA. CHAP. 45.—THE COROCOTTA; THE MANTICHORA. CHAP. 46.—WILD ASSES. CHAP. 47.—BEAVERS, AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS; OTHERS. CHAP. 48. (31.)—BRAMBLE-FROGS. CHAP. 49.—THE SEA-CALF; BEAVERS; LIZARDS. CHAP. 50. (32.)—STAGS. CHAP. 51.—THE CHAMELEON. CHAP. 52.—OTHER ANIMALS WHICH CHANGE COLOUR; THE TARANDUS, THE LYCAON, AND THE THOS. CHAP. 53. (35.)—THE PORCUPINE. CHAP. 54. (36.)—BEARS AND THEIR CUBS. CHAP. 55. (37.)—THE MICE OF PONTUS AND OF THE ALPS. CHAP. 56.—HEDGEHOGS. CHAP. 57. (38.)—THE LEONTOPHONUS, AND THE LYNX. CHAP. 58.—BADGERS AND SQUIRRELS. CHAP. 59. (39.)—VIPERS AND SNAILS. CHAP. 60.—LIZARDS. CHAP. 61. (40.)—THE QUALITIES OF THE DOG; EXAMPLES OF TS ATTACHMENT TO ITS MASTER; NATIONS WHICH HAVE KEPT DOGS FOR THE PURPOSES OF WAR. CHAP. 62.—THE GENERATION OF THE DOG. CHAP. 63.—REMEDIES AGAINST CANINE MADNESS. CHAP. 64. (42.)—THE NATURE OF THE HORSE. CHAP. 65.—THE DISPOSITION OF THE HORSE; REMARKABLE FACTS CONCERNING CHARIOT HORSES. CHAP. 66.—THE GENERATION OF THE HORSE. CHAP. 67.—MARES IMPREGNATED BY THE WIND. CHAP. 68. (45.)—THE ASS, ITS GENERATION. CHAP. 69. (44.)—THE NATURE OF MULES, AND OF OTHER BEASTS OF BURDEN. CHAP. 70. (45.)—OXEN; THEIR GENERATION. CHAP. 71. (46.)—THE EGYPTIAN APIS. CHAP. 72. (47.)—SHEEP, AND THEIR PROPAGATION. CHAP. 73. (43.)—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF WOOL, AND THEIR COLOURS. CHAP. 74.—DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLOTHS. CHAP. 75.—THE DIFFERENT SHAPES OF SHEEP; THE MUSMON. CHAP. 76. (50.)—GOATS AND THEIR PROPAGATION. CHAP. 77. (51.)—THE HOG. CHAP. 78.—THE WILD BOAR; WHO WAS THE FIRST TO ESTABLISH PARKS FOR WILD ANIMALS. CHAP. 79. (53.)—ANIMALS IN A HALF-WILD STATE. CHAP. 80. (54.)—APES. CHAP. 81. (55.)—THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HARES. CHAP. 82. (56.)—ANIMALS WHICH ARE TAMED IN PART ONLY. CHAP. 83. (58.)—PLACES IN WHICH CERTAIN ANIMALS ARE NOT TO BE FOUND. CHAP. 84. (59.)—ANIMALS WHICH INJURE STRANGERS ONLY, AS ALSO ANIMALS WHICH INJURE THE NATIVES OF THE COUNTRY ONLY, AND WHERE THEY ARE FOUND. CHAP. 1. (1.)—WHY THE LARGEST ANIMALS ARE FOUND IN THE SEA. CHAP. 2. (3.)—THE SEA MONSTERS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. CHAP. 3. (4.)—THE LARGEST ANIMALS THAT ARE FOUND IN EACH OCEAN. CHAP. 4. (5.)—THE FORMS OF THE TRITONS AND NEREIDS. THE FORMS OF SEA ELEPHANTS. CHAP. 5. (6.)—THE BALÆNA AND THE ORCA CHAP. 6.—WHETHER FISHES RESPIRE, AND WHETHER THEY SLEEP. CHAP. 7. (8.)—DOLPHINS. CHAP. 8.—HUMAN BEINGS WHO HAVE BEEN BELOVED BY DOLPHINS. CHAP. 9.—PLACES WHERE DOLPHINS HELP MEN TO FISH. CHAP. 10.—OTHER WONDERFUL THINGS RELATING TO DOLPHINS. CHAP. 11. (9.)—THE TURSIO. CHAP. 12. (10.)—TURTLES. THE VARIOUS KINDS OF TURTLES, AND HOW THEY ARE CAUGHT. CHAP. 13.—( 1.)—WHO FIRST INVENTED THE ART OF CUTTING TORTOISE-SHELL. CHAP. 14. (12.)—DISTRIBUTION OF AQUATIC ANIMALS INTO VARIOUS SPECIES. CHAP. 15. (13.)—THOSE WHICH ARE COVERED WITH HAIR, OR HAVE NONE, AND HOW THEY BRING FORTH. SEA-CALVES, OR PHOCÆ. CHAP. 16.—HOW MANY KINDS OF FISH THERE ARE. CHAP. 17. (15.)—WHICH OF THE FISHES ARE OF THE LARGEST SIZE. CHAP. 18.—TUNNIES, CORDYLA, AND PELAMIDES, AND THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THEM THAT ARE SALTED. MELANDRYA, APOLECTI, AND CYBIA. CHAP. 19.—THE AURIAS AND THE SCOMBER. CHAP. 20.—FISHES WHICH ARE NEVER FOUND IN THE EUXINE; THOSE WHICH ENTER IT AND RETURN. CHAP. 21.—WHY FISHES LEAP ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE WATER. CHAP. 22. (16.)—THAT AUGURIES ARE DERIVED FROM FISHES. CHAP. 23.—WHAT KINDS OF FISHES HAVE NO MALES. CHAP. 24.—FISHES WHICH HAVE A STONE IN THE HEAD; THOSE WHICH KEEP THEMSELVES CONCEALED DURING WINTER; AND THOSE WHICH ARE NOT TAKEN IN WINTER, EXCEPT UPON STATED DAYS. CHAP. 25.—FISHES WHICH CONCEAL THEMSELVES DURING THE SUMMER; THOSE WHICH ARE INFLUENCED BY THE STARS. CHAP. 26. (17.)—THE MULLET. CHAP. 27.—THE ACIPENSER. CHAP. 28.—THE LUPUS, ASELLUS. CHAP. 29.—THE SCARUS, THE MUSTELA. CHAP. 30.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF MULLETS, AND THE SARGUS THAT ATTENDS THEM. CHAP. 31.—ENORMOUS PRICES OF SOME FISH. CHAP. 32.—THAT THE SAME KINDS ARE NOT EVERYWHERE EQUALLY ESTEEMED. CHAP. 33.—GILLS AND SCALES. CHAP. 34. (19.)—FISHES WHICH HAVE A VOICE .— FISHES WITHOUT GILLS. CHAP. 35.—FISHES WHICH COME ON LAND. THE PROPER TIME FOR CATCHING FISH. CHAP. 36. (20.)—CLASSIFICATION OF FISHES, ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE OF THE BODY. CHAP. 37.—THE FINS OF FISH, AND THEIR MODE OF SWIMMING. CHAP. 38. (21)—EELS CHAP. 39. (23.)—THE MURÆNA. CHAP. 40. (24.)—VARIOUS KINDS OF FLAT FISH. CHAP. 41. (25.)—THE ECHENEIS, AND ITS USES IN ENCHANTMENTS. CHAP. 42. (26.)—FISHES WHICH CHANGE THEIR COLOUR. CHAP. 43.—FISHES WHICH FLY ABOVE THE WATER. — THE SEA-SWALLOW. — THE FISH THAT SHINES IN THE NIGHT .— THE HORNED FISH. — THE SEA-DRAGON. CHAP. 44. (28.)—FISHES WHICH HAVE NO BLOOD.—FISHES KNOWN AS SOFT FISH. CHAP. 45. (29.)—THE SÆPIA, THE LOLIGO, THE SCALLOP. CHAP. 46.—THE POLYPUS. CHAP. 47.—THE NAUTILUS, OR SAILING POLYPUS. CHAP. 48. (30.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF POLYPI; THEIR SHREWDNESS. CHAP. 49.—THE SAILING NAUPLIUS. CHAP. 50.—SEA-ANIMALS, WHICH ARE ENCLOSED WITH A CRUST; THE CRAY-FISH. CHAP. 51.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF CRABS; THE PINNOTHERES, THE SEA URCHIN, COCKLES, AND SCALLOPS. CHAP. 52.—VARIOUS KINDS OF SHELL-FISH. CHAP. 53. (34.)—WHAT NUMEROUS APPLIANCES OF LUXURY ARE FOUND IN THE SEA. CHAP. 54.—PEARLS; HOW THEY ARE PRODUCED, AND WHERE. CHAP. 55.—HOW PEARLS ARE FOUND. CHAP. 56.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PEARLS. CHAP. 57.—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH PEARLS — THEIR NATURE. CHAP. 58.—INSTANCES OF THE USE OF PEARLS. CHAP. 59.—HOW PEARLS FIRST CAME INTO USE AT ROME. CHAP. 60.—THE NATURE OF THE MUREX AND THE PURPLE. CHAP. 61.—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF PURPLES. CHAP. 62. (38.)—HOW WOOLS ARE DYED WITH THE JUICES OF THE PURPLE. CHAP. 63. (39.)—WHEN PURPLE WAS FIRST USED AT ROME: WHEN THE LATICLAVE VESTMENT AND THE PRÆTEXTA WERE FIRST WORN. CHAP. 64.—FABRICS CALLED CONCHYLIATED. CHAP. 65.—THE AMETHYST, THE TYRIAN, THE HYSGINIAN, AND THE CRIMSON TINTS. CHAP. 66. (42.)—THE PINNA, AND THE PINNOTHERES. CHAP. 67.—THE SENSITIVENESS OF WATER ANIMALS; THE TORPEDO, THE PASTINACA, THE SCOLOPENDRA, THE GLANIS, AND THE RAM-FISH. CHAP. 68. (45.)—BODIES WHICH HAVE A THIRD NATURE, THAT OF THE ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE COMBINED-THE SEA-NETTLE. CHAP. 69.—SPONGES; THE VARIOUS KINDS OF THEM, AND WHERE THEY ARE PRODUCED: PROOFS THAT THEY ARE GIFTED WITH LIFE BY NATURE. CHAP. 70. (46.)—DOG-FISH. CHAP. 71.—FISHES WHICH ARE ENCLOSED IN A STONY SHELL — SEA ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO SENSATION — OTHER ANIMALS WHICH LIVE IN THE MUD. CHAP. 72. (48.)—VENOMOUS SEA-ANIMALS. CHAP. 73. (49.)—THE MALADIES OF FISHES. CHAP. 74. (50.)—THE GENERATION OF FISHES. CHAP. 75.—FISHES WHICH ARE BOTH OVIPAROUS AND VIVIPAROUS. CHAP. 76.—FISHES THE BELLY OF WHICH OPENS IN SPAWNING, AND THEN CLOSES AGAIN. CHAP. 77. (52.)—FISHES WHICH HAVE A WOMB; THOSE WHICH IMPREGNATE THEMSELVES. CHAP. 78. (53.)—THE LONGEST LIVES KNOWN AMONGST FISHES. CHAP. 79. (54.)—THE FIRST PERSON THAT FORMED ARTIFICIAL OYSTER—BEDS. CHAP. 80.—WHO WAS THE FIRST INVENTOR OF PRESERVES FOR OTHER FISH. CHAP. 81. (55.)—WHO INVENTED PRESERVES FOR MURENÆ. CHAP. 82. (56.)—WHO INVENTED PRESERVES FOR SEA-SNAILS. CHAP. 83. (57.)—LAND FISHES. CHAP. 84. (58.)—THE MICE OF THE NILE. CHAP. 85. (59.)—HOW THE FISH CALLED THE ANTHIAS IS TAKEN. CHAP. 86. (60.)—SEA-STARS. CHAP. 87. (61.)—THE MARVELLOUS PROPERTIES OF THE DACTYLUS. CHAP. 88. (62.)—THE ANTIPATHIES AND SYMPATHIES THAT EXIST BETWEEN AQUATIC ANIMALS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE OSTRICH. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE PHŒNIX. CHAP. 3. (3.)—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF EAGLES. CHAP. 4.—THE NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAGLE. CHAP. 5. (4.)—WHEN THE EAGLE WAS FIRST USED AS THE STANDARD OF THE ROMAN LEGIONS. CHAP. 6. (5.)—AN EAGLE WHICH PRECIPITATED ITSELF ON THE FUNERAL PILE OF A GIRL. CHAP. 7. (6.)—THE VULTURE. CHAP. 8. (7.)—THE BIRDS CALLED SANGUALIS AND IMMUSULUS. CHAP. 9. (8.)—HAWKS. THE BUTEO. CHAP. 10.—IN WHAT PLACES HAWKS AND MEN PURSUE THE CHASE IN COMPANY WITH EACH OTHER. CHAP. 11. (9.)—THE ONLY BIRD THAT IS KILLED BY THOSE OF ITS OWN KIND.—A BIRD THAT LAYS ONLY ONE EGG. CHAP. 12. (10.)—THE KITE. CHAP. 13. (11.)—THE CLASSIFICATION OF BIRDS. CHAP. 14. (12.)—CROWS. BIRDS OF ILL OMEN. AT WHAT SEASONS THEY ARE NOT INAUSPICIOUS. CHAP. 15.—THE RAVEN. CHAP. 16.—THE HORNED OWL. CHAP. 17. (13.)—BIRDS, THE RACE OF WHICH IS EXTINCT, OR OF WHICH ALL KNOWLEDGE HAS BEEN LOST. CHAP. 18. (16.)—BIRDS WHICH ARE BORN WITH THE TAIL FIRST. CHAP. 19. (17.)—THE OWLET. CHAP. 20. (18.)—THE WOOD-PECKER OF MARS. CHAP. 21. (19.)—BIRDS WHICH HAVE HOOKED TALONS. CHAP. 22. (20.)—THE PEACOCK. CHAP. 23.—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO KILL THE PEACOCK FOR FOOD.—WHO FIRST TAUGHT THE ART OF CRAMMING THEM. CHAP. 24. (21.)—THE DUNGHILL COCK. CHAP. 25.—HOW COCKS ARE CASTRATED. A COCK THAT ONCE SPOKE. CHAP. 26. (22.)—THE GOOSE. CHAP. 27.—WHO FIRST TAUGHT US TO USE THE LIVER OF TEE GOOSE FOR FOOD. CHAP. 28.—OF THE COMMAGENIAN MEDICAMENT. CHAP. 29.—THE CHENALOPEX, THE CHENEROS, THE TETRAO, AND THE OTIS. CHAP. 30. (23.)—CRANES. CHAP. 31.—STORKS. CHAP. 32.—SWANS. CHAP. 33.—FOREIGN BIRDS WHICH VISIT US; THE QUAIL, THE GLOTTIS, THE CYCHRAMUS, AND THE OTUS. CHAP. 34. (24.)—SWALLOWS. CHAP. 35.—BIRDS WHICH TAKE THEIR DEPARTURE FROM US, AND WHITHER THEY GO; THE THRUSH, THE BLACKBIRD, AND THE STARLING—BIRDS WHICH LOSE THEIR FEATHERS DURING THEIR CHAP. 36. (25.)—BIRDS WHICH REMAIN WITH US THROUGHOUT THE YEAR; BIRDS WHICH REMAIN WITH US ONLY SIX OR THREE MONTHS; WITWALLS AND HOOPOES. CHAP. 37. (26.)—THE MEMNONIDES. CHAP. 38.—THE MELEAGRIDES. CHAP. 39. (27.)—THE SELEUCIDES. CHAP. 40. (28.)—THE IBIS. CHAP. 41. (29.)—PLACES IN WHICH CERTAIN BIRDS ARE NEVER FOUND. CHAP. 42.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF BIRDS WHICH AFFORD OMENS BY THEIR NOTE—BIRDS WHICH CHANGE THEIR COLOUR AND THEIR VOICE. CHAP. 43.—THE NIGHTINGALE. CHAP. 44.—THE MELANCORYPHUS, THE ERITHACITS, AND THE PHŒNICURUS. CHAP. 45.—THE ŒNANTHE, THE CHLORION, THE BLACKBIRD, AND THE IBIS. CHAP. 46. (31.)—THE TIMES OF INCUBATION OF BIRDS. CHAP. 47. (32.)—THE HALCYONES: THE HALCYON DAYS THAT ARE FAVOURABLE TO NAVIGATION. CHAP. 48.—OTHER KINDS OF AQUATIC BIRDS. CHAP. 49. (33.)—THE INSTINCTIVE CLEVERNESS DISPLAYED BY BIRDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THEIR NESTS. THE WONDER- FUL WORKS OF THE SWALLOW. THE BANK-SWALLOW. CHAP. 50.—THE ACANTHYLLIS AND OTHER BIRDS. CHAP. 51.—THE MEROPS—PARTRIDGES. CHAP. 52. (34.)—PIGEONS. CHAP. 53.—WONDERFUL THINGS DONE BY THEM; PRICES AT WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN SOLD. CHAP. 54. (38.)—DIFFERENT MODES OF FLIGHT AND PROGRES- SION IN BIRDS. CHAP. 55. (39.)—THE BIRDS CALLED APODES, OR CYPSELI. CHAP. 56. (40.)—RESPECTING THE FOOD OF BIRDS–THE CAPRI- MULGUS, THE PLATEA. CHAP. 57. (41.)—THE INSTINCTS OF BIRDS—THE CARDUELIS, THE TAURUS, THE ANTHUS. CHAP. 58.—BIRDS WHICH SPEAK-THE PARROT. CHAP. 59.—THE PIE WHICH FEEDS ON ACORNS. CHAP. 60. (43.)—A SEDITION THAT AROSE AMONG THE ROMAN PEOPLE, IN CONSEQUENCE OF A RAVEN SPEAKING. CHAP. 61. (44.)—THE BIRDS OF DIOMEDES. CHAP. 62. (45.)—ANIMALS THAT CAN LEARN NOTHING. CHAP. 63. (46.)—THE MODE OF DRINKING WITH BIRDS. THE PORPHYRIO. CHAP. 64. (47.)—THE HÆMATOPOUS. CHAP. 65.—THE FOOD OF BIRDS. CHAP. 66.—THE PELICAN. CHAP. 67.—FOREIGN BIRDS: THE PHALERIDES, THE PHEASANT, AND THE NUMIDICÆ. CHAP. 68.—THE PEŒNICOPTERITS, THE ATTAGEN, THE PHALACRO- CORAX, THE PYBRHOCORAX, AND THE LAGOPUS. CHAP. 69. (49.)—THE NEW BIRDS. THE VIPIO. CHAP. 70.—FABULOUS BIRDS. CHAP. 71. (50.)—WHO FIRST INVENTED THE ART OF CRAMMING POULTRY: WHY THE FIRST CENSORS FORBADE THIS PRACTICE. CHAP. 72.—WHO FIRST INVENTED AVIARIES. THE DISH OF ÆSOPUS. CHAP. 73. (52.)—THE GENERATION OF BIRDS: OTHER OVIPAROUS ANIMALS. CHAP. 74.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF EGGS, AND THEIR NATURE. CHAP. 75. (54.)—DEFECTS IN BROOD-HENS, AND THEIR REMEDIES. CHAP. 76. (55.)—AN AUGURY DERIVED FROM EGGS BY AN EMPRESS. CHAP. 77. (56.)—THE BEST KINDS OF FOWLS. CHAP. 78. (57.)—THE DISEASES OF FOWLS, AND THEIR REMEDIES. CHAP. 79. (58.)—WHEN BIRDS LAY, AND HOW MANY EGGS. THE VARIOUS KINDS OF HERONS. CHAP. 80.—WHAT EGGS ARE CALLED HYPENEMIA, AND WHAT CYNOSURA. HOW EGGS ARE BEST KEPT. CHAP. 81. (61.)—THE ONLY WINGED ANIMAL THAT IS VIVIPAROUS, AND NURTURES ITS YOUNG WITH ITS MILK. CHAP. 82. (62.)—TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS THAT ARE OVIPAROUS.— VARIOUS KINDS OF SERPENTS. CHAP. 83. (63.)—GENERATION OF ALL KINDS OF TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS. CHAP. 84. (64.)—THE POSITION OF ANIMALS IN THE UTERUS. CHAP. 85.—ANIMALS WHOSE ORIGIN IS STILL UNKNOWN. CHAP. 86. (66.)—SALAMANDERS. CHAP. 87. (68.)—ANIMALS WHICH ARE BORN OF BEINGS THAT HAVE NOT BEEN BORN THEMSELVES—ANIMALS WHICH ARE BORN THEMSELVES BUT ARE NOT REPRODUCTIVE—ANIMALS WHICH ARE OF NEITHER SEX. CHAP. 88. (69.)—THE SENSES OF ANIMALS—THAT ALL HAVE THE SENSES OF TOUCH AND TASTE—THOSE WHICH ARE MORE REMARK- ABLE FOR THEIR SIGHT, SMELL, OR HEARING—MOLES—WHETHER OYSTERS HAVE THE SENSE OF HEARING. CHAP. 89. (70.)—WHICH FISHES HAVE THE BEST HEARING. CHAP. 90.—WHICH FISHES HAVE THE FINEST SENSE OF SMELL. CHAP. 91.—DIVERSITIES IN THE FEEDING OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 92. (72.)—ANIMALS WHICH LIVE ON POISONS. CHAP. 93.—ANIMALS WHICH LIVE ON EARTH-ANIMALS WHICH WILL NOT DIE OF HUNGER OR THIRST. CHAP. 94.—DIVERSITIES IN THE DRINKING OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 95. (74.)—ANTIPATHIES OF ANIMALS. PROOFS THAT THEY ARE SENSIBLE OF FRIENDSHIP AND OTHER AFFECTIONS. CHAP. 96.—INSTANCES OF AFFECTION SHOWN BY SERPENTS. CHAP. 97. (75.)—THE SLEEP OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 98.—WHAT ANIMALS ARE SUBJECT TO DREAMS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE EXTREME SMALLNESS OF INSECTS. CHAP. 2. (3.)—WHETHER INSECTS RESPIRE, AND WHETHER THEY HAVE BLOOD. CHAP. 3. (4.)—THE BODIES OF INSECTS. CHAP. 4. (5.)—BEES. CHAP. 5. (6.)—THE ORDER DISPLAYED IN THE WORKS OF BEES. CHAP. 6. (5.)—THE MEANING OF THE TERMS COMMOSIS, PISSO- CEROS, AND PROPOLlS. CHAP. 7.—THE MEANING OF ERITHACE, SANDARACA, OR CERINTHOS. CHAP. 8. (8.)—WHAT FLOWERS ARE USED BY THE BEES IN THEIR WORK. CHAP. 9. (9.)—PERSONS WHO HAVE MADE BEES THEIR STUDY. CHAP. 10. (10.)—THE MODE IN WHICH BEES WORK. CHAP. 11.—DRONES. CHAP. 12.—THE QUALITIES OF HONEY. CHAP. 13. (13.)—WHERE THE BEST HONEY IS PRODUCED. CHAP. 14. (14.)—THE KINDS OF HONEY PECULIAR TO VARIOUS PLACES. CHAP. 15. (15.)—HOW HONEY IS TESTED. ERICÆUM. TETRA- LIX, OR SISIRUM. CHAP. 16.—THE REPRODUCTION OF BEES. CHAP. 17. (17.)—THE MODE OF GOVERNMENT OF THE BEES. CHAP. 18.—HAPPY OMENS SOMETIMES AFFORDED BY A SWARM OF BEES. CHAP. 19. (18.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF BEES. CHAP. 20.—THE DISEASES OF BEES. CHAP. 21.—THINGS THAT ARE NOXIOUS TO BEES. CHAP. 22. (20.)—How TO KEEP BEES TO THE HIVE. CHAP. 23.—METHODS OF RENEWING THE SWARM. CHAP. 24. (21.)—WASPS AND HORNETS: ANIMALS WHICH APPRO- PRIVATE WHAT BELONGS TO OTHERS. CHAP. 25. (22.)—THE BOMBYX OF ASSYRIA. CHAP. 26.—THE LARVÆ OF THE SILK-WORM-WHO FIRST INVENTED SILK CLOTHS. CHAP. 27. (23.)—THE SILK-WORM OF COS—HOW THE COAN VESTMENTS ARE MADE. CHAP. 28. (24.)—SPIDERS; THE KINDS THAT MAKE WEBS; THE MATERIALS USED BY THEM IN SO DOING. CHAP. 29.—THE GENERATION OF SPIDERS. CHAP. 30. (25.)—SCORPIONS. CHAP. 31. (26.)—THE STELLIO. CHAP. 32.—THE GRASSHOPPER: THAT IT HAS NEITHER MOUTH NOR OUTLET FOR FOOD. CHAP. 33. (28.)—THE WINGS OF INSECTS. CHAP. 34.—THE BEETLE. THE GLOW-WORM. OTHER KINDS OF BEETLES. CHAP. 35.—LOCUSTS. CHAP. 36. (30.)—ANTS. CHAP. 37. (32.)—THE CHRYSALIS. CHAP. 38. (33.)—ANIMALS WHICH BREED IN WOOD. CHAP. 39.—INSECTS THAT ARE PARASITES OF MAN. WHICH IS THE SMALLEST OF ANIMALS? ANIMALS FOUND IN WAX EVEN. CHAP. 40. (34.)—AN ANIMAL WHICH HAS NO PASSAGE FOR THE EVACUATIONS.i CHAP. 41. (35.)—MOTHS, CANTHARIDES, GNATS–AN INSECT THAT BREEDS IN THE SNOW. CHAP. 42. (36.)—AN ANIMAL FOUND IN FIRE—-THE PYRALLIS OR PYRAUSTA. CHAP. 43.—THE ANIMAL CALLED HEMEROBION. CHAP. 44. (37.)—THE NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL ANIMALS CONSIDERED LIMB BY LIMB. THOSE WHICH HAVE TUFTS AND CRESTS. CHAP. 45.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF HORNS. ANIMALS IN WHICH THEY ARE MOVEABLE. CHAP. 46.—THE HEADS OF ANIMALS. THOSE WHICH HAVE NONF. CHAP. 47.—THE HAIR. CHAP. 48.—THE BONES OF THE HEAD. CHAP. 49.—THE BRAIN. CHAP. 50.—THE EARS. ANIMALS WHICH HEAR WITHOUT EARS OR APERTURES. CHAP. 51.—THE FACE, THE FOREHEAD, AND THE EYE-BROWS. CHAP. 52.—THE EYES—ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO EYES, OR HAVE ONLY ONE EYE. CHAP. 53.—THE DIVERSITY OF THE COLOUR OF THE EYES. CHAP. 54.—THE THEORY OF SIGHT—PERSONS WHO CAN SEE BY NIGHT. CHAP. 55.—THE NATURE OF THE PUPIL-EYES WHICH DO NOT SHUT. CHAP. 56.—THE HAIR OF THE EYE-LIDS; WHAT ANIMALS ARE WITHOUT THEM. ANIMALS WHICH CAN SEE ON ONE SIDE ONLY. CHAP. 57.—ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO EYELIDS. CHAP. 58.—THE CHEEKS. CHAP. 59.—THE NOSTRILS. CHAP. 60.—THE MOUTH; THE LIPS; THE CHIN; AND THE JAW-BONE. CHAP. 61.—THE TEETH; THE VARIOUS KINDS OF TEETH; IN WHAT ANIMALS THEY ARE NOT ON BOTH SIDES OF THE MOUTH: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE HOLLOW TEETH. CHAP. 62.—THE TEETH OF SERPENTS; THEIR POISON. A BIRD WHICH HAS TEETH. CHAP. 63.—WONDERFUL CIRCUMSTANCES CONNECTED WITH THE TEETH. CHAP. 64.—HOW AN ESTIMATE IS FORMED OF THE AGE OF ANIMALS FROM THEIR TEETH. CHAP. 65.—THE TONGUE; ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO TONGUE. THE NOISE MADE BY FROGS. THE PALATE. CHAP. 66.—THE TONSILS; THE UVA; THE EPIGLOSSIS; THE ARTERY; THE GULLET. CHAP. 67.—THE NECK; THE THROAT; THE DORSAL SPINE. CHAP. 68.—THE THROAT; THE GULLET; THE STOMACH. CHAP. 69.—THE HEART; THE BLOOD; THE VITAL SPIRIT. CHAP. 70.—THOSE ANIMALS WHICH HAVE THE LARGEST HEART, AND THOSE WHICH HAVE THE SMALLEST. WHAT ANIMALS HAVE TWO HEARTS. CHAP. 71.—WHEN THE CUSTOM WAS FIRST ADOPTED OF EXAMINING THE HEART IN THE INSPECTION OF THE ENTRAILS. CHAP. 72.—THE LUNGS: IN WHAT ANIMALS THEY ARE THE LAR- GEST, AND IN WHAT THE SMALLEST. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NOTHING BUT LUNGS IN THE INTERIOR OF THE BODY. CAUSES WHICH PRODUCE EXTRAORDINARY SWIFTNESS IN ANIMALS. CHAP. 73.—THE LIVER: IN WHAT ANIMALS, AND IN WHAT PART THERE ARE TWO LIVERS FOUND. CHAP. 74.—THE GALL; WHERE SITUATE, AND IN WHAT ANIMALS IT IS DOUBLE. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO GALL, AND OTHERS IN WHICH IT IS NOT SITUATE IN THE LIVER. CHAP. 75.—THE PROPERTIES OF THE GALL. CHAP. 76.—IN WHAT ANIMALS THE LIVER INCREASES AND DE- CREASES WITH THE MOON. OBSERVATIONS OF THE ARUSPICES RELATIVE THERETO, AND REMARKABLE PRODIGIES. CHAP. 77.—THE DIAPHRAGM. THE NATURE OF LAUGHTER. CHAP. 78.—THE BELLY: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO BELLY. WHICH ARE THE ONLY ANIMALS THAT VOMIT. CHAP. 79.—THE SMALL GUTS, THE FRONT INTESTINES, THE ANUS, THE COLON. THE CAUSES OF THE INSATIATE VORACITY OF CER- TAIN ANIMALS. CHAP. 80.—THE OMENTUM: THE SPLEEN; ANIMALS WHICH ABE WITHOUT IT. CHAP. 81.—THE KIDNEYS: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE FOUR KID- NEYS. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NONE. CHAP. 82.—THE BREAST: THE RIBS. CHAP. 83.—THE BLADDER: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO BLADDER. CHAP. 84.—THE WOMB: THE WOMB OF THE SOW: THE TEARS. CHAP. 85.—ANIMALS WHICH HAVE SUET: ANIMALS WHICH DO NOT GROW FAT. CHAP. 86.—THE MARROW: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO MARROW. CHAP. 87.—BONES AND FISH-BONES: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NEITHER. CARTILAGES. CHAP. 88.—THE NERVE: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NONE. CHAP. 89.—THE ARTERIES; THE VEINS: ANIMALS WITHOUT ARTERIES OR VEINS. THE BLOOD AND THE SWEAT. CHAP. 90. (38.)—ANIMALS, THE BLOOD OF WHICH COAGULATES WITH THE GREATEST RAPIDITY: OTHER ANIMALS, THE BLOOD OF WHICH DOES NOT COAGULATE. ANIMALS WHICH HAVE THE THICKEST BLOOD: THOSE THE BLOOD OF WHICH IS THE THINNEST: ANIMALS WHICH HAVE NO BLOOD. CHAP. 91.—ANIMALS WHICH ARE WITHOUT BLOOD AT CERTAIN PERIODS OF THE YEAR. CHAP. 92. (39.)—WHETHER THE BLOOD IS THE PRINCIPLE OF LIFE. CHAP. 93.—THE HIDE OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 94.—THE HAIR AND THE COVERING OF THE SKIN. CHAP. 95.—THE PAPS: BIRDS THAT HAVE PAPS. REMARKABLE FACT'S CONNECTED WITH THE DUGS OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 96. (41.)—THE MILK: THE BIESTINGS. CHEESE; OF WHAT MILK CHEESE CANNOT BE MADE. RENNET; THE VARIOUS KINDS OF ALIMENT IN MILK. CHAP. 97. (42.)—VARIOUS KINDS OF CHEESE. CHAP. 98. (43.)—DIFFERENCES OF THE MEMBERS OF MAN FROM THOSE OF OTHER ANIMALS. CHAP. 99.—THE FINGERS, THE ARMS. CHAP. 100. (44.)—RESEMBLANCE OF THE APE TO MAN. CHAP. 101. (45.)—THE NAILS. CHAP. 102.—THE KNEES AND THE HAMS. CHAP. 103.—PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY TO WHICH CERTAIN RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE ATTACHED. CHAP. 104.—VARICOSE VEINS. CHAP. 105.—THE GAIT, THE FEET, THE LEGS. CHAP. 106. (46.)—HOOFS. CHAP. 107. (47.)—THE FEET OF BIRDS. CHAP. 108. (48.)—THE FEET OF ANIMALS, FROM THOSE HAVING TWO FEET TO THOSE WITH A HUNDRED.—DWARFS. CHAP. 109.—THE SEXUAL PARTS.—HERMAPHRODITES. CHAP. 110.—THE TESTES—THE THREE CLASSES OF EUNUCHS. CHAP. 111. (50.)—TE TAILS OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 112. (51.)—THE DIFFERENT VOICES OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 113. (52.)—SUPERFLUOUS LIMBS. CHAP. 114.—SIGNS OF VITALITY AND OF THE MORAL DISPOSITION OF MAN, FROM THE LIMBS. CHAP. 115. (53.)—RESPIRATION AND NUTRIMENT. CHAP. 116.—ANIMALS WHICH WHEN FED UPON POISON DO NOT DIE, AND THE FLESH OF WHICH IS POISONOUS. CHAP. 117.—REASONS FOR INDIGESTION. REMEDIES FOR CRUDITY. CHAP. 118.—FROM WHAT CAUSES CORPULENCE ARISES; HOW IT MAY BE REDUCED. CHAP. 119.—WHAT THINGS, BY MERELY TASTING OF THEM, ALLAY HUNGER AND THIRST. CHAP. 1.—THE HONOURABLE PLACE OCCUPIED BY TREES IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURE. CHAP. 2. (1.)—THE EARLY HISTORY OF TREES. CHAP. 3.—EXOTIC TREES. WHEN THE PLANE-TREE FIRST APPEARED IN ITALY, AND WHENCE IT CAME. CHAP. 4.—THE NATURE OF THE PLANE-TREE. CHAP. 5.—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE PLANE-TREE. CHAP. 6. (2.)—THE CHAMÆPLATANUS. WHO WAS THE FIRST TO CLIP GREEN SHRUBS. CHAP. 7. (3.)—HOW THE CITRON IS PLANTED. CHAP. 8. (4.)—THE TREES OF INDIA. CHAP. 9.—WHEN EBONY WAS FIRST SEEN AT ROME. THE VARIOUS KINDS OF EBONY. CHAP. 10. (5.)—THE INDIAN THORN. CHAP. 11.—THE INDIAN FIG. CHAP. 12. (6.)—THE PALA: THE FRUIT CALLED ARIENA. CHAP. 13.—INDIAN TREES, THE NAMES OF WHICH ARE UNKNOWN. INDIAN TREES WHICH BEAR FLAX. CHAP. 14. (7.)—THE PEPPER-TREE.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PEPPER—BREGMA—ZINGIBERI, OR ZIMPIBERI. CHAP. 15.—CARYOPHYLLON, LYCION, AND THE CHIRONIAN PYXACANTHUS. CHAP. 16. (8.)—MACIR. CHAP. 17.—SUGAR. CHAP. 18.—TREES OF ABIANA, GEDROSIA, AND HYRCANIA. CHAP. 19. (9.)—TREES OF BACTRIANA, BDELLIUM, OR BROCHON, OTHERWISE MALACHA, OR MALDACON, SCORDASTUM. ADULTERATIONS USED IN ALL SPICES AND AROMATICS; THE VARIOUS TESTS OF THEM AND THEIR RESPECTIVE VALUES. CHAP. 20.—TREES OF PERSIS. CHAP. 21. (10.)—TREES OF THE ISLANDS OF THE PERSIAN SEA. THE COTTON TREE. CHAP. 22.—THE TREE CALLED CYNA. TREES FROM WHICH FABRICS FOR CLOTHING ARE MADE IN THE EAST. CHAP. 23.—A COUNTRY WHERE THE TREES NEVER LOSE THEIR LEAVES. CHAP. 24.—THE VARIOUS USEFUL PRODUCTS OF TREES. CHAP. 25. (12.)—COSTUS. CHAP. 26.—NARD. THE TWELVE VARIETIES OF THE PLANT. CHAP. 27. (13.)—ASARUM, OR FOAL-FOOT. CHAP. 28.—AMOMUM.—AMOMIS. CHAP. 29.—CARDAMOMUM. CHAP. 30.—THE COUNTRY OF FRANKINCENSE. CHAP. 31.—THE TREES THAT BEAR FRANKINCENSE. CHAP. 32.—VARIOUS KINDS OF FRANKINCENSE. CHAP. 33. (15.)—MYRRH. CHAP. 34.—THE TREES WHICH PRODUCE MYRRH. CHAP. 35.—THE NATURE AND VARIOUS KINDS OF MYRRH. CHAP. 36. (17.)—MASTICH. CHAP. 37.—LADANUM AND STOBOLON. CHAP. 38.—ENHÆMON. CHAP. 39.—THE TREE CALLED BRATUS. CHAP. 40.—THE TREE CALLED STOBRUM. CHAP. 41. (18.)—WHY ARABIA WAS CALLED "HAPPY." CHAP. 42. (19.)—CINNAMOMUM. XYLOCINNAMUM. CHAP. 43.—CASSIA. CHAP. 44.—CANCAMUM AND TARUM. CHAP. 45. (21.)—SERICHATUM AND GABALIUM. CHAP. 46.—MYROBALANUM. CHAP. 47. (22.)—PHŒNICOBALANUS. CHAP. 48.—THE SWEET-SCENTED CALAMUS; THE SWEET-SCENTED RUSH. CHAP. 49.—HAIMONIACUM. CHAP. 50.—SPHAGNOS. CHAP. 51.—CYPROS. CHAP. 52.—ASPALATHOS, OR ERYSISCEPTRUM. CHAP. 53.—MARON. CHAP. 54. (25.)—BALSAMUM; OPOBALSAMUM; AND XYLOBAL- SAMUM. CHAP. 55.—STORAX. CHAP. 56.—GALBANUM. CHAP. 57. (26.)—PANAX. CHAP. 58.—SPONDYLIUM. CHAP. 59.—MALOBATHRUM. CHAP. 60. (27.)—OMPHACIUM. CHAP. 61. (28.)—BRYON, ŒNANTHE, AND MASSARIS. CHAP. 62.—ELATE OR SPATHE. CHAP. 63.—CINNAMON OR COMACUM. CHAP. 1. (1.)—UNGUENTS—AT WHAT PERIOD THEY WERE FIRST INTRODUCED. CHAP. 2.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF UNGUENTS—TWELVE PRIN- CIPAL COMPOSITIONS. CHAP. 3.—DIAPASMA, MAGMA; THE MODE OF TESTING UNGUENTS. CHAP. 4. (3.)—THE EXCESSES TO WHICH LUXURY HAS RUN IN UNGUENTS. CHAP. 5.—WHEN UNGUENTS WERE FIRST USED BY THE ROMANS. CHAP. 6.—THE PALM-TREE. CHAP. 7.—THE NATURE OF THE PALM-TREE. CHAP. 8.—HOW THE PALM-TREE IS PLANTED. CHAP. 9.—THE DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF PALM-TREES, AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. CHAP. 10. (5.)—THE TREES OF SYRIA: THE PISTACIA, THE COT- TANA, THE DAMASCENA, AND THE MYXA. CHAP. 11.—THE CEDAR. TREES WHICH HAVE ON THEM THE FRUIT OF THREE YEARS AT ONCE. CHAP. 12. (6.)—THE TEREBINTH. CHAP. 13.—THE SUMACH-TREE. CHAP. 14. (7.)—THE TREES OF EGYPT. THE FIG-TREE OF ALEXANDRIA. CHAP. 15.—THE FIG-TREE OF CYPRUS. CHAP. 16. (8.)—THE CAROB-TREE. CHAP. 17. (9.)—THE PERSIAN TREE. IN WHAT TREES THE FRUITS GERMINATE THE ONE BELOW THE OTHER. CHAP. 18.—THE CUCUS. CHAP. 19.—THE EGYPTIAN THORN. CHAP. 20. (11.)—NINE KINDS OF GUM. THE SARCOCOLLA. CHAP. 21.—THE PAPYRUS: THE USE OF PAPER; WHEN IT WAS FIRST INVENTED. CHAP. 22.—THE MODE OF MAKING PAPER. CHAP. 23. (12)—THE NINE DIFFERENT KINDS OF PAPER. CHAP. 24.—THE MODE OF TESTING THE GOODNESS OF PAPER. CHAP. 25.—THE PECULIAR DEFECTS IN PAPER. CHAP. 26.—THE PASTE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF PAPER. CHAP. 27. (13.)—THE BOOKS OF NUMA. CHAP. 28. (14.)—THE TREES OF ÆTHIOPIA. CHAP. 29. (15.)—THE TREES OF MOUNT ATLAS. THE CITRUS, AND THE TABLES MADE OF THE WOOD THEREOF. CHAP. 30.—THE POINTS THAT ARE DESIRABLE OR OTHERWISE IN THESE TABLES. CHAP. 31.—THE CITRON-TREE. CHAP. 32. (17.)—THE LOTUS. CHAP. 33. (19.)—THE TREES OF CYENAICA. THE PALIURUS. CHAP. 34.—NINE VARIETIES OF THE PUNIC APPLE. BALAUSTIUM. CHAP. 35. (20.)—THE TREES OF ASIA AND GREECE; THE EPIPACTIS, THE ERICA, THE CNIDIAN GRAIN OR THYMELÆA, PYROSACHNE, CNESTRON, OR CNEORON. CHAP. 36.—THE TRAGION: TRAGACANTHE. CHAP. 37.—THE TRAGOS OR SCORPIO; THE MYRICA OR BRYA; THE OSTRYS. CHAP. 38. (22.)—THE EUONYMOS. CHAP. 39.—THE TREE CALLED EON. CHAP. 40.—THE ANDRACHLE. CHAP. 41.—THE COCCYGIA; THE APHARCE. CHAP. 42.—THE FERULA. CHAP. 43.—THE THAPSIA. CHAP. 44. (23.)—THE CAPPARIS OR CYNOSBATON, OTHERWISE OPHIOSTAPHYLE. CHAP. 45.—THE SARIPHA. CHAP. 46. (24.)—THE ROYAL THORN. CHAP. 47.—THE CYTISUS. CHAP. 48. (25.)—THE TREES AND SHRUBS OF THE MEDITER- RANEAN. THE PHYCOS, PRASON, OR ZOSTER. CHAP. 49.—THE SEA BRYON. CHAP. 50.—PLANTS OF THE RED SEA. CHAP. 51.—PLANTS OF THE INDIAN SEA. CHAP. 52.—THE PLANTS OF THE TROGLODYTIC SEA; THE HAIR OF ISIS: THE CHARITO-BLEPHARON. CHAPS. 1 & 2. (1.)—THE NATURE OF THE VINE. ITS MODE OF FRUCTIFICATION. CHAP. 3.–THE NATURE OF THE GRAPE, AND THE CULTIVATION OF THE VINE. CHAP. 4. (2.)—NINETY-ONE VARIETIES OF THE VINE. CHAP. 5. (4.)—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE CULTURE OF THE VINE. CHAP. 6.—THE MOST ANCIENT WINES. CHAP. 7. (5.)—THE NATURE OF WINES. CHAP. 8. (6.)—FIFTY KINDS OF GENEROUS WINES. CHAP. 9. (7.)—THIRTY-EIGHT VARIETIES OF FOREIGN WINES. CHAP. 10. (8.)—SEVEN KINDS OF SALTED WINES. CHAP. 11. (9.)—EIGHTEEN VARIETEIS OF SWEET WINE. RAISIN-WINE AND HEPSEMA. CHAP. 12. (10.)—THREE VARIETIES OF SECOND-RATE WINE. CHAP. 13. (11.)—AT WHAT PERIOD GENEROUS WINES WERE FIRST COMMONLY MADE IN ITALY. CHAP. 14. (12.)—THE INSPECTION OF WINE ORDERED BY KING ROMULUS. CHAP. 15.—WINES DRUNK BY THE ANCIENT ROMANS. CHAP. 16. (14.)—SOME REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH WINE-LOFTS. THE OPIMIAN WINE. CHAP. 17.—AT WHAT PERIOD FOUR KINDS OF WINE WERE FIRST SERVED AT TABLE. CHAP. 18. (16.)—THE USES OF THE WILD VINE. WHAT JUICES ARE NATURALLY THE COLDEST OF ALL. CHAP. 19.—SIXTY-SIX VARIETIES OF ARTIFICIAL WINE. CHAP. 20. (1 7.)—HYDROMELI, OR MELICRATON. CHAP. 21.—OXYMELI. CHAP. 22. (18.)—TWELVE KINDS OF WINE WITH MIRACULOUS PROPERTIES. CHAP. 23. (19.)—WHAT WINES IT IS NOT LAWFUL TO USE IN THE SACRED RITES. CHAP. 24.—How MUST IS USUALLY PREPARED. CHAP. 25. (20.)—PITH AND RESIN. CHAP. 26.—VINEGAR-LEES OF WINE. CHAP. 27. (21.)—WINE-VESSELS—WINE-CELLARS. CHAP. 28. (22.)—DRUNKENNESS. CHAP. 29.—LIQUORS WITH THE STRENGTH OF WINE MADE FROM WATER AND CORN. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE OLIVE.—HOW LONG IT EXISTED ONLY IN GREECE. AT WHAT PERIOD IT WAS FIRST INTRODUCED INTO ITALY, SPAIN, AND AFRICA. CHAP. 2.—THE NATURE OF THE OLIVE, AND OF NEW OLIVE OIL. CHAP. 3. (2.)—OLIVE OIL: THE COUNTRIES IN WHICH IT IS PRODUCED, AND ITS VARIOUS QUALITIES. CHAP. 4.—FIFTEEN VARIETIES OF OLIVES. CHAP. 5. (4.)—THE NATURE OF OLIVE OIL. CHAP. 6. (5.)—THE CULTURE OF THE OLIVE: ITS MODE OF PRESERVATION. THE METHOD OF MAKING OLIVE OIL. CHAP. 7. (7.)—FORTY-EIGHT VARIETIES OF ARTIFICIAL OILS. THE CICUS-TREE OR CROTON, OR SILI, OR SESAMUM. CHAP. 8. (8.)—AMURCA. CHAP. 9. (9.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF FRUIT-TREES AND THEIR NATURES. FOUR VARIETIES OF PINE-NUTS. CHAP. 10. (11.)—THE QUINCE. FOUR KINDS OF CYDONIA, AND FOUR VARIETIES OF THE STRUTHEA. CHAP. 11.—SIX VARIETIES OF THE PEACH. CHAP. 12. (13).—TWELVE KINDS OF PLUMS. CHAP. 13.—THE PEACH. CHAP. 14. (14.)—THIRTY DIFFERENT KINDS OF POMES. AT WHAT PERIOD FOREIGN FRUITS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED INTO ITALY, AND WHENCE. CHAP. 15.—THE FRUITS THAT HAVE BEEN MOST RECENTLY INTRODUCED. CHAP. 16. (15.)—FORTY-ONE VARIETIES OF THE PEAR. CHAP. 17.—VARIOUS METHODS OF GRAFTING TREES. EXPIATIONS FOR LIGHTNING. CHAP. 18. (16.)—THE MODE OF KEEPING VARIOUS FRUITS AND GRAPES. CHAP. 19. (18.)—TWENTY-NINE VARIETIES OF THE FIG. CHAP. 20.—HISTORICAL ANECDOTES CONNECTED WITH THE FIG. CHAP. 21.—CAPRIFICATION. CHAP. 22. (20.)—THREE VARIETIES OF THE MEDLAR. CHAP. 23. (21).—FOR VARIETIES OF THE SORB. CHAP. 24. (22.)—NINE VARIETIES OF THE NUT. CHAP. 25. (23.)—EIGHTEEN VARIETIES OF THE CHESNUT. CHAP. 26. (24.)—THE CAROB. CHAP. 27.—TE FLESHY FRUITS. THE MULBERRY. CHAP. 28.—THE FRUIT OF THE ARBUTUS. CHAP. 29.—THE RELATIVE NATURES OF BERRY FRUITS. CHAP. 30. (25.)—NINE VARIETIES OF THE CHERRY. CHAP. 31. (26.)—THE CORNEL. THE LENTISK. CHAP. 32. (27.)—THIRTEEN DIFFERENT FLAVOURS OF JUICES. CHAP. 33. (28.)—THE COLOUR AND SMELL OF JUICES. CHAP. 34.—THE VARIOUS NATURES OF FRUIT. CHAP. 35. (29).—THE MYRTLE. CHAP. 36.—HISTORICAL ANECDOTES RELATIVE TO THE MYRTLE. CHAP. 37.—ELEVEN VARIETIES OF THE MYRTLE. CHAP. 38.—THE MYRTLE USED AT ROME IN OVATIONS. CHAP. 39. (30.)—THE LAUREL; THIRTEEN VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 40.—HISTORICAL ANECDOTES CONNECTED WITH THE LAUREL. CHAP. I.—COUNTRIES THAT HAVE NO TREES. CHAP. 2.—WONDERS CONNECTED WITH TREES IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS. CHAP. 3. (4.)—THE ACORN OAK. THE CIVIC CROWN. CHAP. 4.—THE ORIGIN OF THE PRESENTATION OF CROWNS. CHAP. 5.—PERSONS PRESENTED WITH A CROWN OF LEAVES. CHAP. 6. (5.)—THIRTEEN VARIETIES OF THE ACORN. CHAP. 7. (6.)—THE BEECH. CHAP. 8.—THE OTHER ACORNS-WOOD FOR FUEL. CHAP. 9.—THE GALL-NUT. CHAP. 10.—OTHER PRODUCTIONS ON THESE TREES BESIDES THE ACORN. CHAP. 11. (8.)—CACHRYS. CHAP. 12.—THE KERMES BERRY. CHAP. 13.—AGARIC. CHAP. 14. (9.)—TREES OF WHICH THE BARK IS USED. CHAP. 15. (10.)—SHINGLES. CHAP. 16.—THE PINE. CHAP. 17.—THE PINASTER. CHAP. 18.—THE PITCH-TREE: THE FIR. CHAP. 19.—THE LARCH: THE TORCH-TREE. CHAP. 20.—THE YEW. CHAP. 21. (11.)—METHODS OF MAKING TAR—HOW CEDRIUM IS MADE. CHAP. 22.—METHODS BY WHICH THICK PITCH IS PREPARED. CHAP. 23. (12.)—HOW THE RESIN CALLED ZOPISSA IS PREPARED. CHAP. 24. (13.)—TREES THE WOOD OF WHICH IS HIGHLY VALUED. FOUR VARIETIES OF THE ASH. CHAP. 25. (14.)—TWO VARIETIES OF THE LINDEN-TREE. CHAP. 26. (15.)—TEN VARIETIES OF THE MAPLE. CHAP. 27. (16.)—BERUSCUM: MOLLUSCUM; THE STAPHYLODENDRON. CHAP. 28.—THREE VARIETIES OF THE BOX-TREE. CHAP. 29. (17.)—FOUR VARIETIES OF THE ELM. CHAP. 30. (18.)—THE, NATURES OF THE VARIOUS TREES ACCORDING TO THEIR LOCALITIES: THE MOUNTAIN TREES, AND THE TREES OF THE PLAIN. CHAP. 31.—TREES WHICH GROW ON A DRY SOIL: THOSE WHICH ARE FOUND IN WET LOCALITIES: THOSE WHICH ARE FOUND IN BOTH INDIFFERENTLY. CHAP. 32. (19.)—DIVISION OF TREES INTO VARIOUS SPECIES. CHAP. 33. (20.)—TREES WHICH DO NOT LOSE THEIR FOLIAGE. THE RHODODOENDRON. TREES WHICH DO NOT LOSE THE WHOLE OF THEIR FOLIAGE. PLACES IN WHICH THERE ARE NO TREES. CHAP. 34. (22.)—THE NATURE OF THE LEAVES WHICH WITHER AND FALL. CHAP. 35.—TREES WHICH HAVE LEAVES OF VARIOUS COLOURS; TREES WITH LEAVES OF VARIOUS SHAPES. THREE VARIETIES OF THE POPLAR. CHAP. 36.—LEAVES WHICH TURN ROUND EVERY YEAR. CHAP. 37.—THE CARE BESTOWED ON THE LEAVES OF THE PALM, AND THE USES TO WHICH THEY ARE APPLIED. CHAP. 38.—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH LEAVES. CHAP. 39. (25.)—THE NATURAL ORDER OF THE PRODUCTION OF PLANTS. CHAP. 40.—TREES WHICH NEVER BLOSSOM. THE JUNIPER CHAP. 41.—THE FECUNDATION OF TREES. GERMINATION: THE APPEARANCE OF THE FRUIT. CHAP. 42.—IN WHAT ORDER THE TREES BLOSSOM. CHAP. 43. (26.)—AT WHAT PERIOD EACH TREE BEARS FRUIT. THE CORNEL. CHAP. 44.—TREES WHICH BEAR THE WHOLE YEAR. TREES WHICH HAVE ON THEM THE FRUIT OF THREE YEARS. CHAP. 45.—TREES WHICH BEAR NO FRUIT: TREES LOOKED UPON AS ILL-OMENED. CHAP. 46.—TREES WHICH LOSE THEIR FRUIT OR FLOWERS MOST READILY. CHAP. 47.—TREES WHICH ARE UNPRODUCTIVE IN CERTAIN PLACES. CHAP. 48.—THE MODE IN WHICH TREES BEAR. CHAP. 49.—TREES IN WHICH THE FRUIT APPEARS BEFORE THE LEAVES. CHAP. 50. (27.)—TREES THAT BEAR TWO CROPS IN A YEAR. TREES THAT BEAR THREE CROPS. CHAP. 51.—WHICH TREES BECOME OLD WITH THE GREATEST RAPIDITY, AND WHICH MOST SLOWLY. CHAP. 52.—TREES WHICH BEAR VARIOUS PRODUCTS. CRATÆGUM. CHAP. 53.—DIFFERENCES IN TREES IN RESPECT OF THE TRUNKS AND BRANCHES. CHAP. 54.—THE BRANCHES OF TREES. CHAP. 55. (31.)—THE BARK OF TREES. CHAP. 56.—THE ROOTS OF TREES. CHAP. 57.—TREES WHICH HAVE GROWN SPONTANEOUSLY FROM THE GROUND. CHAP. 58.—HOW TREES GROW SPONTANEOUSLY—DIVERSITIES IN THEIR NATURE, THE SAME TREES NOT GROWING EVERYWHERE. CHAP. 59.—PLANTS THAT WILL NOT GROW IN CERTAIN PLACES. CHAP. 60. (33.)—THE CYPRESS. CHAP. 61.—THAT THE EARTH OFTEN BEARS PRODUCTIONS WHICH IT HAS NEVER BORNE BEFORE. CHAP. 62. (34.)—THE IVY-TWENTY VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 63. (35.)—THE SMILAX. CHAP. 64. (36.)—WATER PLANTS: THE RUSH: TWENTY-EIGHT VARIETIES OF THE REED. CHAP. 65.—REEDS USED FOR ARROWS, AND FOR THE PURPOSE OF WRITING. CHAP. 60.—FLUTE REEDS: TET REEDOF ORCHOMENTFS; REEDS USED FOR FOWLING AND FISHING. CHAP. 67.—THE VINE-DRESSERS' REED. CHAP. 68.—THE WILLOW: EIEGT VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 69.—TREES IN ADDITION TO THE WILLOW, WHICH ARE OF USE IN MAKING WITHES. CHAP. 70.—RUSHES: CANDLE-RUSHES: RUSHES FOR THATCHING. CHAP. 71.—THE ELDER: THE BRAMBLE. CHAP. 72. (38.)—THE JUICES OF TREES. CHAP. 73.—TE VEINS AND FIBRES OF TREES. CHAP. 74.—THE FELLING OF TREES. CHAP. 75.—TE OPINION OF CATO ON THE FELLING OF TIMBER. CHAP. 76.—THE SIZE OF TREES: THE NATURE OF WOOD: THE SAPPINUS. CHAP. 77.—METHODS OF OBTAINING FIRE FROM WOOD. CHAP. 78.—TREES WHICH ARE PROOF AGAINST DECAY: TREES WHICH NEVER SPLIT. CHAP. 79.—HISTORICAL FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE DURABILITY OF WOOD. CHAP. 80. (41.)—VARIETIES OF THE TEREDO. CHAP. 81. (42.)—THE WOODS USED IN BUILDING. CHAP. 82.—CARPENTERS' WOODS. CHAP. 83. (43.)—WOODS UNITED WITH GLUE. CHAP. 8.—VENEERING. CHAP. 85. (44.)—THE AGE OF TREES. A TREE THAT WAS PLANTED BY THE FIRST SCIPIO AFRICANUS. A TREE AT ROME FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OLD. CHAP. 86.—TREES AS OLD AS THE CITY. CHAP. 87.—TREES IN THE SUBURBAN DISTRICTS OLDER THAN THE CITY. CHAP. 88.—TREES PLANTED BY AGAMEMNON THE FIRST YEAR OF THE TROJAN WAR: OTHER TREES WHICH DATE FROM THE TIME THAT THE PLACE WAS CALLED ILIUM, ANTERIOR TO THE TROJAN WAR. CHAP. 89.—TREES PLANTED AT ARGOS BY HERCULES: OTHERS PLANTED BY APOLLO. A TREE MORE ANCIENT THAN ATHENS ITSELF. CHAP. 90.—TREES WHICH ARE THE MOST SHORT-LIVED. CHAP. 91.—TREES THAT HAVE BEEN RENDERED FAMOUS BY REMARKABLE EVENTS. CHAP. 92.—PLANTS THAT HAVE NO PECULIAR SPOT FOR THEIR GROWTH: OTHERS THAT GROW UPON TREES, AND WILL NOT GROW IN THE GROUND. NINE VARIETIES OF THEM: CADYTAS, POLYPODION, PHAULIAS, HIPPOPHÆSTON. CHAP. 93.—THREE VARIETIES OF MISTLETOE. THE NATURE OF MISTLETOE AND SIMILAR PLANTS. CHAP. 94.—THE METHOD OF MAKING BIRDLIME. CHAP. 95.—HISTORICAL FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE MISTLETOE. CHAP. 1. (1.)—TREES WHICH HAVE BEEN SOLD AT ENORMOUS PRICES. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER UPON THE TREES: WHAT IS THE PROPER SITUATION FOR THE VINE. CHAP. 3.—WHAT SOILS ARE TO BE CONSIDERED THE BEST. CHAP. 4. (6.)—THE EIGHT KINDS OF EARTH BOASTED OF BY THE GAULS AND GREEKS. CHAP. 5. (9.)—THE EMPLOYMENT OF ASHES. CHAP. 6.—MANURE. CHAP. 7.—COPS WHICH TEND TO IMPROVE THE LAND: CROPS WHICH EXHAUST IT. CHAP. 8.—THE PROPER MODE OF USING MANURE. CHAP. 9. (10.)—THE MODES IN WHICH TREES BEAR. CHAP. 10.—PLANTS WHICH ARE PROPAGATED BY SEED. CHAP. 11.—TREES WHICH NEVER DEGENERATE. CHAP. 12.—PROPAGATION BY SUCKERS. CHAP. 13.—PROPAGATION BY SLIPS AND CUTTINGS. CHAP. 14.—SEED-PLOTS. CHAP. 15.—THE MODE OF PROPAGATING THE ELM. CHAP. 16.—THE HOLES FOR TRANSPLANTING. CHAP. 17. (12.)—THE INTERVALS TO BE LEFT BETWEEN TREES. CHAP. 18.—THE NATURE OF THE SAD THROWN BY TREES. CHAP. 19.—THE DROPPINGS OF WATER FROM THE LEAVES. CHAP. 20. (13.)—TREES WHICH GROW BUT SLOWLY: THOSE WHICH GROW WITH RAPIDITY. CHAP. 21.—TREES PROPAGATED FROM LAYERS. CHAP. 22. (14.)—GRAFTING: THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF IT. CHAP. 23.—INOCULATION OR BUDDING. CHAP. 24.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF GRAFTING. CHAP. 25.—GRAFTING THE VINE. CHAP. 26. (16 )—GRAFTING BY SUTCHEONS. CHAP. 27.—PLANTS WHICH GROW FROM A BRANCH. CHAP. 28.—TREES WHICH GROW FROM CUTTINGS; THE MODE OF PLANTING THEM. CHAP. 29. (18.)—THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. CHAP. 30.—TRANSPLANTING OPERATIONS AS DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE VARIOUS SEASONS OF THE YEAR. CHAP. 31.—CLEANING AND BARING THE ROOTS, AND MOULDING THEM. CHAP. 32. (20.)—WILLOW-BEDS. CHAP. 33.—REED-BEDS CHAP. 34.—OTHER PLANTS THAT ARE CUT FOR POLES AND STAKES. CHAP. 35. (21.)—THE CULTURE OF THE VINE AND THE VARIOUS SHRUBS WHICH SUPPORT IT. CHAP. 36.—HOW GRAPES ARE PROTECTED FROM THE RAVAGES OF INSECTS. CHAP. 37.—THE DISEASES OF TREES. CHAP. 38. (25.)—PRODIGIES CONNECTED WITH TREES. CHAP. 39. (26.)—TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES OF TREES. CHAP. 40.—METHODS OF IRRIGATION. CHAP. 41.—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH IRRIGATION. CHAP. 42. (27.)—-INCISIONS MADE IN TREES. CHAP. 43.—OTHER REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF TREES. CHAP. 44.—CAPRIFICATION, AND PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH THE FIG. CHAP. 45.—ERRORS THAT MAY BE COMMITTED IN PRUNING. CHAP. 46.—THE PROPER MODE OF MANURING TREES. CHAP. 47.—-MEDICAMENTS FOR TREES. CHAP. 1. (1.)—TASTE OF THE ANCIENTS FOR AGRICULTURE. CHAP. 2. (2.)—WHEN THE FIRST WREATHS OF CORN WERE USED AT ROME. CHAP. 3. (3.—THE JUGERUM OF LAND. CHAP. 4.—HOW OFTEN AND ON WHAT OCCASIONS CORN HAS SOLD AT A REMARKABLY LOW PRICE. CHAP. 5.—ILLUSTRIOUS MEN WHO HAVE WRITTEN UPON AGRICULTURE. CHAP. 6.—POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN BUYING LAND. CHAP. 7. (6.)—THE PROPER ARRANGEMENTS FOR A FARM-HOUSE. CHAP. 8.—MAXIMS OF THE ANCIENTS ON AGRICULTURE. CHAP. 9. (7.)—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF GRAIN. CHAP. 10.—THE HISTORY OF the VARIOUS KINDS OF GRAIN. CHAP. 11.—SPELT. CHAP. 12.—WHEAT. CHAP. 13.—BARLEY: RICE. CHAP. 14.—POLENTA. CHAP. 15.—PTISAN. CHAP. 16.—TRAGUM. CHAP. 17.—AMYLUM. CHAP. 18.—the NATURE OF BARLEY. CHAP. 19. (8.)—ARINCA, AND OTHER KINDS OF GRAIN THAT ARE GROWN IN THE EAST. CHAP. 20.—WINTER WHEAT. SIMILAGO, OR FINE FLOUR. CHAP. 21.—THE FRUITFULNESS OF AFRICA IN WHEAT. CHAP. 22.—SESAME. ERYSIMUM, OR IRIO. HORMINUTM. CHAP. 23.—THE MODE OF GRINDING CORN. CHAP. 24.—MILLET. CHAP. 25.—PANIC. CHAP. 26. (11)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF LEAVEN. CHAP. 27.—THE METHOD OF MAKING BREAD: ORIGIN OF THE ART. CHAP. 28.—WHEN BAKERS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED AT ROME. CHAP. 29.—ALTCA. CHAP. 30. (12.)—THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS: THE BEAN. CHAP. 31.—LENTILS. PEASE. CHAP. 32.—THE SEVERAL KINDS OF CHICK-PEASE. CHAP. 33.—THE KIDNEY-BEAN. CHAP. 34. (13.)—THE RAPE. CHAP. 35.—THE TURNIP. CHAP. 36. (14.)—THE LUPINE. CHAP. 37. (15.)—THE VETCH. CHAP. 38.—THE FITCH. CHAP. 39. (16.)—SILICIA. CHAP. 40.—SECALE OR ASIA. CHAP. 41.—FARRAGO: THE CRACCA. CHAP. 42.—OCINUM: ERVILIA. CHAP. 43.—LUCERNE. CHAP. 44. (17.)—the DISEASES OF GRAIN: THE OAT. CHAP. 45.—THE BEST REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF GRAIN. CHAP. 46.—THE CROPS THAT SHOULD BE SOWN IN THE DIFFERENT SOILS. CHAP. 47.—THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF CULTIVATION EMPLOYED BY VARIOUS NATIONS. CHAP. 48.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PLOUGHS. CHAP. 49. (19,)—THE MODE OF PLOUGHING. CHAP. 50. (21.)—THE METHODS OF HARROWING, STUBBING, AND HOEING, EMPLOYED FOR EACH DESCRIPTION OF GRAIN. THE USE OF THE HARROW. CHAP. 51. (22.)—EXTREME FERTILITY OF SOIL. CHAP. 52. (23.)—THE METHOD OF SOWING MORE THAN ONCE IN THE YEAR. CHAP. 53.—THE MANURING OF LAND. CHAP. 54. (24.)—HOW TO ASCERTAIN THE QUALITY OF SEED. CHAP. 55.—WHAT QUANTITY OF EACH KIND OF GRAIN IS REQUISlTE FOR SOWING A JUGEBRUM. CHAP. 56.—THE PROPER TIMES FOR SOWING. CHAP. 57. (25.)—ARRANGEMENT OF THE STARS ACCORDING TO THE TERRESTRIAL DAYS AND NIGHTS. CHAP. 58.—THE RISING AND SETTING OF THE STARS. CHAP. 59.—THE EPOCHS OF THE SEASONS. CHAP. 60.—THE PROPER TIME FOR WINTER SOWING. CHAP. 61.—WHEN TO SOW THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS AND THE POPPY. CHAP. 62.—WORK TO BE DONE IN THE COUNTRY IN EACH MONTH RESPECTIVELY. CHAP. 63.—WORK TO BE DONE AT THE WINTER SOLSTICE. CHAP. 64.—WORK TO BE DONE BETWEEN THE WINTER SOLSTICE AND THE PREVALENCE OF THE WEST WINDS. CHAP. 65.—WORK TO BE DONE BETWEEN THE PREVALENCE OF THE WEST WINDS AND THE VERNAL EQUINOX. CHAP. 66.—WORK TO BE DONE AFTER THE VERNAL EQUINOX. CHAP. 67. (27.)—WORK TO BE DONE AFTER THE RISING OF THE VERGILIÆ: HAY-MAKING. CHAP. 68.—THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. CHAP. 69.—CAUSES OF STERILITY. CHAP. 70.—REMEDIES AGAINST THESE NOXIOUS INFLUENCES. CHAP. 71.—WORK TO BE DONE AFTER THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. CHAP. 72. (30.)—THE HARVEST. CHAP. 73—THE METHODS OF STORING CORN. CHAP. 74. (31.)—THE VINTAGE, AND THE WORKS OF AUTUMN. CHAP. 75. (32.)—THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE MOON. CHAP. 76. (33.)—THE THEORY OF THE WINDS. CHAP. 77. (34.)—THE LAYING OUT OF LANDS ACCORDING TO THE POINTS OF THE WIND. CHAP. 78. (35.)—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM THE SUN. CHAP. 79.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM THE MOON. CHAP. 80.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM THE STARS. CHAP. 81.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM THUNDER. CHAP. 82.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM CLOUDS. CHAP. 83.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM MISTS. CHAP. 84.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM FIRE KINDLED BY MAN. CHAP. 85.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM WATER. CHAP. 86.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM TEMPESTS THEMSELVES. CHAP. 87.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM AQUATIC ANIMALS, AND BIRDS. CHAP. 88.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM QUADRUPEDS. CHAP. 89.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM PLANTS. CHAP. 90.—PROGNOSTICS DERIVED FROM FOOD. CHAP. 1.—THE NATURE OF FLAX—MARVELLOUS FACTS RELATIVE THERETO. CHAP. 2. (1.)—HOW FLAX IS SOWN: TWENTY-SEVEN PRINCIPAL VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 3.—THE MODE OF PREPARING FLAX. CHAP. 4.—LINEN MADE OF ASBESTOS. CHAP. 5.—AT WHAT PERIOD LINEN WAS FIRST DYED. CHAP. 6.—AT WHAT PERIOD COLOURED AWNINGS WERE FIRST EMPLOYED IN THE THEATRES. CHAP. 7. (2.)—THE NATURE OF SPARTUM. CHAP. 8.—THE MODE OF PREPARING SPARTUM. CHAP. 9.—AT WHAT PERIOD SPARTUM WAS FIRST EMPLOYED. CHAP. 10.—THE BULB ERIOPHORUS. CHAP. 11.—PLANTS WHICH SPRING UP AND GROW WITHOUT A ROOT—PLANTS WHICH GROW, BUT CANNOT BE REPRODUCED FROM SEED. CHAP. 12. (3.)—MISY; ITON; AND GERANION. CHAP. 13.—PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH THE TRUFFLE. CHAP. 14.—THE PEZICA. CHAP. 15.—LASERPITIUM, LASER, AND MASPETUM. CHAP. 16.—MAGYDARIS. CHAP. 17.—MADDER. CHAP. 18.—THE RADICULA. CHAP. 19. (4.)—THE PLEASURES OF THE GARDEN. CHAP. 20.—THE LAYING OUT OF GARDEN GROUND. CHAP. 21.—PLANTS OTHER THAN GRAIN AND SHRUBS. CHAP. 22.—THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TWENTY DIFFERENT KINDS OF PLANTS WHICH GROW IN GARDENS—THE PROPER METHODS TO BE FOLLOWED IN SOWING THEM RESPECTIVELY. CHAP. 23. (5.)—VEGETABLES OF A CARTILAGINOUS NATURE—CUCUMBERS. PEPONES. CHAP. 24.—GOURDS. CHAP. 25.—RAPE. TURNIPS. CHAP. 26.—RADISHES. CHAP. 27.—PARSNIPS. CHAP. 28.—THE SKIRRET. CHAP. 29.—ELECAMPANE. CHAP. 30.—BULBS, SQUILLS, AND ARUM. CHAP. 31. (6.)—THE ROOTS, FLOWERS, AND LEAVES OF ALL THESE PLANTS. GARDEN PLANTS WHICH LOSE THEIR LEAVES. CHAP. 32.—VARIETIES OF THE ONION. CHAP. 33.—THE LEEK. CHAP. 34—GARLIC. CHAP. 35. (7.)—THE NUMBER OF DAYS REQUIRED FOR THE RE- SPECTIVE PLANTS TO MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE ABOVE GROUND. CHAP. 36.—THE NATURE OF THE VARIOUS SEEDS. CHAP. 37.—PLANTS OF WHICH THERE IS BUT A SINGLE KIND PLANTS OF WHICH THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS. CHAP. 38.—THE NATURE AND VARIETIES OF TWENTY-THREE GARDEN PLANTS. THE LETTUCE; ITS DIFFERENT VARIETIES. CHAP. 39.—ENDIVE. CHAP. 40.—BEET: FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 41—CABBAGES; THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF THEM. CHAP. 42.—WILD AND CULTIVATED ASPARAGUS. CHAP. 43.—THISTLES. CHAP. 44.—OTHER PLANTS THAT ARE SOWN IN THE GARDEN: OCIMUM; ROCKET; AND NASTURTIUM. CHAP. 45.—RUE. CHAP. 46.—PARSLEY. CHAP. 47.—MINT. CHAP. 48.—OLUSATRUM. CHAP. 49.—THE CARAWAY. CHAP. 50.—LOVAGE. CHAP. 51.—DITTANDER. CHAP. 52.—GITH. CHAP. 53.—THE POPPY. CHAP. 54.—OTHER PLANTS WHICH REQUIRE TO BE SOWN AT THE AUTUMNAL EQUINOX. CHAP. 55.—WILD THYME; SISYMBRIUM. CHAP. 56. (9.)—FOUR KINDS OF FERULACEOUS PLANTS. HEMP. CHAP. 57. (10.)—THE MALADIES OF GARDEN PLANTS. CHAP. 58.—THE PROPER REMEDIES FOR THESE MALADIES. HOW ANTS ARE BEST DESTROYED. THE BEST REMEDIES AGAINST CATER- PILLARS AND FLIES. CHAP. 59.—WHAT PLANTS ARE BENEFITTED BY SALT WATER. CHAP. 60. (12.)—THE PROPER METHOD OF WATERING GARDENS. CHAP. 61.—THE JUICES AND FLAVOURS OF GARDEN HERBS. CHAP. 62.—PIPERITIS, LIBANOTIS, AND SMYRNIUM. CHAP. 1.—INTRODUCTION. CHAP. 2. (1.)—THE WILD CUCUMBER; TWENTY-SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 3.—ELATERIUM; TWENTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 4. (2.)—THE ANGUINE OR ERRATIC CUCUMBER: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 5.—THE CULTIVATED CUCUMBER: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 6.—PEPONES: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 7. (3.)—THE GOURD: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. THE SOMPHUS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 8.—THE COLOCYNTHIS: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 9.—RAPE; NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 10.—WILD RAPE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 11. (4.)—TURNIPS; THOSE KNOWN AS BUNION AND BUNIAS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 12.—THE WILD RADISH, OR ARMORACIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 13.—THE CULTIVATED RADISH: FORTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE PARSNIP: FIVE REMEDIES. THE HIBISCUM, WILD MALLOW, OR PLISTOLOCHIA: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 15. (5.)—THE STAPHYLINOS, OR WILD PARSNIP: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—GINGIDION: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 17.—THE SKIRRET: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 18.—SILE, OR HARTWORT: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 19.—ELECAMPANE: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—ONIONS: TWENTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 21. (6.)—CUTLEEK: THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 22.—BULBED LEEK: THIRTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 23.—GARLIC: SIXTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 24.—THE LETTUCE: FORTY-TWO REMEDIES. THE GOAT- LETTUCE: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 25.—CÆSAPON: ONE REMEDY. ISATIS: ONE REMEDY. THE WILD LETTUCE: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 26.—HAWK-WEED: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 27. (8.)—BEET: TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—LIMONION, OR NEUROIDES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—ENDIVE: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—CICHORIUM OR CHRESTON, OTHERWISE CALLED PANCRATION, OK AMBULA: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—HEDYPNOÏS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—SERIS, THREE VARIETIES OF IT: SEVEN REMEDIES BORROWED FROM IT. CHAP. 33. (9).—THE CABBAGE: EIGHTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. RE- CIPES MENTIONED BY CATO. CHAP. 34.—PINIONS OF THE GREEKS RELATIVE THERETO. CHAP. 35.—CABBAGE-SPROUTS. CHAP. 36.—THE WILD CABBAGE: THIRTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 37.—THE LAPSANA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 38.—THE SEA-CABBAGE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 39.—THE SQUILL: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 40.—BULBS: THIRTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—BULBINE; ONE REMEDY. BULB EMETIC. CHAP. 42. (10.)—GARDEN ASPARAGUS; WITH THE NEXT TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—CORRUDA, LIBYCUM, OR ORMINUM. CHAP. 44. (11.)—PARSLEY; SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—APIASTRUM, OR MELISSOPHYLLUM. CHAP. 46.—OLUSATRUM OR HIPPOSELINON: ELEVEN REMEDIES. OREOSELINON; TWO REMEDIES. HELIOSELINON; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 47. (12.)—PETROSELINON; ONE REMEDY. BUSELINON; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 48.—OCIMUM; THIRTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 49.—ROCKET: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 50.—NASTURTIUM: FORTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—RUE: EIGHTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 52. (14.)—WILD MINT: TWENTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 53.—MINT: FORTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—PENNYROYAL: TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—WILD PENNYROYAL: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 56.—NEP: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 57.—CUMMIN: FORTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. WILD CUMMIN: TWENTY-SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—AMMI: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 59.—THE CAPPARIS OR CAPER: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—LIGUSTICUM, OR LOVAGE: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 61. (16.)—CUNILA BUBULA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 62.—CUNILA GALLINACEA, OR ORIGANUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 63.—CUNILAGO: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 64.—SOFT CUNILA: THREE REMEDIES. LIBANOTIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 65.—CULTIVATED CUNILA; THREE REMEDIES. MOUNTAIN CUNILA; SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 66. (17.)—PIPERITIS, OR SILIQUASTRUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 67.—ORIGANUM, ONITIS, OR PRASION: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 68.—TRAGORIGANUM: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 69.—THREE VARIETIES OF HERACLEOTIC ORIGANUM: THIRTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—DITTANDER: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 71.—GITH, OR MELANTHION: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—ANISE: SIXTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 73.—WHERE THE BEST ANISE IS FOUND: VARIOUS REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THIS PLANT. CHAP. 74. (18.)—DILL: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 75.—SACOPENIUM, OR SAGAPENON: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 76.—THE WHITE POPPY: THREE REMEDIES. THE BLACK POPPY: EIGHT REMEDIES. REMARKS ON SLEEP. OPIUM. REMARKS IN DISFAVOUR OF THE POTIONS KNOWN AS "ANODYNES, FEBRIFUGES, DIGESTIVES, AND CŒLIACS." IN WHAT WAY THE JUICES OF THESE PLANTS ARE TO BE COLLECTED. CHAP. 77. (19.)—THE POPPY CALLED RHŒAS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 78.—THE WILD POPPY CALLED CERATITIS, GLAUCIUM, OR PARALIUM: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 79.—THE WILD POPPY CALLED HERACLIUM, OR APHRON: FOUR REMEDIES. DIACODION. CHAP. 80.—THE POPPY CALLED TITHYMALON, OR PARALION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 81. (20.)—PORCILLACA OR PURSLAIN, OTHERWISE CALLED PEPLIS: TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 82.—CORIANDER: TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 83.—ORAGE: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 84. (21.)—THE MALLOW CALLED MALOPE: THIRTEEN REME- DIES. THE MALLOW CALLED MALACHE: ONE REMEDY. THE MALLOW CALLED ALTHÆA, OR PLISTOLOCHIA: FIFTY-NINE REME- DIES. CHAP. 85.—WILD LAPATHUM OR OXALIS, OTHERWISE CALLED LAPATHUM CANTHERINUM, OR RUMEX: ONE REMEDY. HYDROLAPATHUM: TWO REMEDIES. HIPPOLAPATHUM: SIX REMEDIES. OXYLAPATHUM: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 86.—CULTIVATED LAPATHUM: TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES. BULAPATHUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 87. (22.)—MUSTARD, THE THREE KINDS OF IT: FORTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 88.—ADACA: FORTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 89.—MARRUBIUM OR PRASION, OTHERWISE LINOSTROPHON, PHILOPAIS, OR PHILOCHARES: TWENTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 90.—WILD THYME: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 91.—SISYMBRIUM OR THYMBRÆUM: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 92.—LINSEED: THIRTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 93.—BLITE: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 94. (23.)—MEUM, AND MEUM ATHAMANTICUM: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 95.—FENNEL: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 96.—HIPPOMARATHRON, OR MYRSINEUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 97.—HEMP: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 98.—FENNEL-GIANT: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 99.—THE THISTLE OR SCOLYMOS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 100. (24.)—THE COMPOSITION OF THERIACA. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE NATURE OF FLOWERS AND GARLANDS. CHAP. 2. (2.)—GARLANDS AND CHAPLETS. CHAP. 3.—WHO INVENTED THE ART OF MAKING GARLANDS: WHEN THEY FIRST RECEIVED THE NAME OF "COROLLÆ," AND FOR WHAT REASON. CHAP. 4. (3.)—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO GIVE CHAPLETS WITH LEAVES OF SILVER AND GOLD. LEMNISCI: WHO WAS THE FIRST TO EMBOSS THEM. CHAP. 5.—THE GREAT HONOUR IN WHICH CHAPLETS WERE HELD BY THE ANCIENTS. CHAP. 6.—THE SEVERITY OF THE ANCIENTS IN REFERENCE TO CHAPLETS. CHAP. 7.—A CITIZEN DECKED WITH FLOWERS BY THE ROMAN PEOPLE. CHAP. 8.—PLAITED CHAPLETS. NEEDLE-WORK CHAPLETS. NARD-LEAF CHAPLETS. SILKEN CHAPLETS. CHAP. 9.—AUTHORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN ON FLOWERS. AN ANECDOTE RELATIVE TO QUEEN CLEOPATRA AND CHAPLETS. CHAP. 10. (4.)—THE ROSE: TWELVE VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 11. (5.)—THE LILY: FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 12.—THE NARCISSUS: THREE VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 13.—HOW SEED IS STAINED TO PRODUCE TINTED FLOWERS. CHAP. 14. (6.)—HOW THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF THE VIOLET ARE RESPECTIVELY PRODUCED, GROWN, AND CULTIVATED. THE THREE DIFFERENT COLOURS OF THE VIOLET. THE FIVE VARIETIES OF THE YELLOW VIOLET. CHAP. 15.—THE CALTHA. THE SCOPA REGIA. CHAP. 16.—THE BACCHAR. THE COMBRETUM. ASARUM. CHAP. 17.—SAFFRON: IN WHAT PLACES IT GROWS BEST. WHAT FLOWERS WERE KNOWN AT THE TIME OF THE TROJAN WAR. CHAP. 18.—THE NATURE OF ODOURS. CHAP. 19.—THE IRIS. CHAP. 20.—THE SALIUNCA. CHAP. 21.—THE POLIUM, OR TEUTHRION. CHAP. 22. (8.)—FABRICS WHICH RIVAL THE COLOURS OF FLOWERS. CHAP. 23.—THE AMARANTH. CHAP. 24.—THE CYANOS: THE HOLOCHRYSOS. CHAP. 25.—THE PETILIUM: THE BELLIO. CHAP. 26.—THE CHRYSOCOME, OR CHRYSITIS. CHAP. 27. (9.)—SHRUBS, THE BLOSSOMS OF WHICH ARE USED FOR CHAPLETS. CHAP. 28.—SHRUBS, THE LEAVES OF WHICH ARE USED FOR CHAPLETS. CHAP. 29.—THE MELOTHRON, SPIRÆA, AND ORIGANUM. THE CNEORUM OR CASSIA; TWO VARIETIES OF IT. THE MELISSOPHYLLUM OR MELITTÆNA. THE MELILOTE, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS CAMPANIAN GARLAND. CHAP. 30.—THREE VARIETIES OF TREFOIL: THE MYOPHONUM. CHAP. 31.—TWO VARIETIES OF THYME. PLANTS PRODUCED FROM BLOSSOMS AND NOT FROM SEED. CHAP. 32.—CONYZA. CHAP. 33.—THE FLOWER OF JOVE. THE HEMEROCALLES. THE HELENIUM. THE PHLOX. PLANTS IN WHICH THE BRANCHES AND ROOTS ARE ODORIFEROUS. CHAP. 34.—THE ABROTONUM. THE ADONIUM: TWO VARIETIES OF IT. PLANTS WHICH REPRODUCE THEMSELVES. THE LEUCANTHEMUM. CHAP. 35. (11.)—TWO VARIETIES OF THE AMARACUS. CHAP. 36.—THE NYCTEGRETON, CHENOMYCHE, OR NYCTALOPS. CHAP. 37.—WHERE THE MELILOTE IS FOUND. CHAP. 38.—THE SUCCESSION IN WHICH FLOWERS BLOSSOM: THE SPRING FLOWERS. THE VIOLET. THE CHAPLET ANEMONE. THE ŒNANTHE. THE MELANION. THE HELICHRYSOS. THE GLADIOLUS. THE HYACINTH. CHAP. 39.—THE SUMMER FLOWERS—THE LYCHNIS: THE TIPHYON. TWO VARIETIES OF THE POTHOS. TWO VARIETIES OF THE ORSI- NUM. THE VINCAPERIVINCA OR CHAMÆDAPHNE—A PLANT WHICH IS AN EVER-GREEN. CHAP. 40.—THE DURATION OF LIFE IN THE VARIOUS KINDS OF FLOWERS. CHAP. 41. (12.)—PLANTS WHICH SHOULD BE SOWN AMONG FLOWERS FOR BEES. THE CERINTHA. CHAP. 42.—THE MALADIES OF BEES, AND THE REMEDIES FOR THEM. CHAP. 43.—THE FOOD OF BEES. CHAP. 44.—POISONED HONEY, AND THE REMEDIES TO BE EMPLOYED BY THOSE WHO HAVE EATEN OF IT. CHAP. 45.—MADDENING HONEY. CHAP. 46. (14.)—HONEY THAT FLIES WILL NOT TOUCH. CHAP. 47.—BEEHIVES, AND THE ATTENTION WHICH SHOULD BE PAID TO THEM. CHAP. 48.—THAT BEES ARE SENSIBLE OF HUNGER. CHAP. 49.—THE METHOD OF PREPARING WAX. THE BEST KINDS OF WAX. PUNIC WAX. CHAP. 50. (15.)—PLANTS WHICH GROW SPONTANEOUSLY: THE USE MADE OF THEM BY VARIOUS NATIONS, THEIR NATURE, AND REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH THEM. THE STRAW- BERRY, THE TAMNUS, AND THE BUTCHER'S BROOM. THE BATIS, TWO VARIETIES OF IT. THE MEADOW PARSNIP. THE HOP. CHAP. 51.—THE COLOCASIA. CHAP. 52.—THE CICHORIUM. THE ANTHALIUM OR ANTICELLIUM, OR ANTHYLLUM. THE ŒTUM. THE ARACHIDNA. THE ARACOS. THE CANDRYALA. THE HYPOCHŒRIS. THE CAUCALIS. THE ANTHRISCUM. THE SCANDIX. THE TRAGOPOGON. THE PAR- THENIUM OR LEUCANTHES, AMARACUS, PERDICIUM, OR MURALIS. THE TRYCHNUM OR STRYCHNUM, HALICACABUM, CALLIAS, DOR- YCNION, MANICON, PERITTON, NEURAS, MORIO, OR MOLY. THE CORCHORUS. THE APHACE. THE ACYNOPOS. THE EPIPETRON. PLANTS WHICH NEVER FLOWER. PLANTS WHICH ARE ALWAYS IN FLOWER. CHAP. 53.—FOUR VARIETIES OF THE CNECOS. CHAP. 54.—PLANTS OF A PRICKLY NATURE: THE ERYNGE, THE GLYCYRRIZA, THE TRIBULUS, THE ANONIS, THE PHEOS OR STŒBE, AND THE HIPPOPHAES. CHAP. 55.—FOUR VARIETIES OF THE NETTLE. THE LAMIUM AND THE SCORPIO. CHAP. 56. (16).—THE CARDUUS, THE ACORNA, THE PHONOS, THE LEUCACANTHOS, THE CHALCEOS, THE CNECOS, THE POLYACAN- THOS, THE ONOPYXOS, THE HELXINE, THE SCOLYMOS, THE CHA- MÆLEON, THE TETRALIX, AND ACANTHICE MASTICHE. CHAP. 57.—THE CACTOS; THE PIERNIX, PAPPUS, AND ASCALIAS. CHAP. 58.—THE TRIBULUS: THE ANONIS. CHAP. 59.—PLANTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR STEMS: THE CORONOPUS, THE ANCHUSA, THE ANTHEMIS, THE PHYLLANTHES, THE CREPIS, AND THE LOTUS. CHAP. 60.—PLANTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR LEAVES. PLANTS WHICH NEVER LOSE THEIR LEAVES: PLANTS WHICH BLOSSOM A LITTLE AT A TIME: THE HELIOTROPIUM AND THE ADIANTUM, THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM WHICH WILL BE MENTIONED IN THE FOLLOWING BOOK. CHAP. 61.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF EARED PLANTS: THE STAN- YOPS; THE ALOPECUROS; THE STELEPHUROS, ORTYX, OR PLAN- TAGO; THE THRYALLIS. CHAP. 62—THE PERDICIUM. THE ORNITHOGALE. CHAP. 63.—PLANTS WHICH ONLY MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE AT THE END OF A YEAR. PLANTS WHICH BEGIN TO BLOSSOM AT THE TOP. PLANTS WHICH BEGIN TO BLOSSOM AT THE LOWER PART. CHAP. 64.—THE LAPPA, A PLANT WHICH PRODUCES WITHIN ITSELF. THE OPUNTIA, WHICH THROWS OUT A ROOT FROM THE LEAF. CHAP. 65.—THE IASIONE. THE CHONDRYLLA. THE PICRIS, WHICH REMAINS IN FLOWER THE WHOLE YEAR THROUGH. CHAP. 66.—PLANTS IN WHICH THE BLOSSOM MAKES ITS APPEAR- ANCE BEFORE THE STEM. PLANTS IN WHICH THE STEM APPEARS BEFORE THE BLOSSOM. PLANTS WHICH BLOSSOM THREE TIMES IN THE YEAR. CHAP. 67.—THE CYPIROS. THE THESION. CHAP. 68.—THE ASPHODEL, OR ROYAL SPEAR. THE ANTHERICUS OR ALBUCUS. CHAP. 69. (18.)—SIX VARIETIES OF THE RUSH: FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CYPIROS. CHAP. 70.—THE CYPEROS: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. THE CYPERIS. THE CYPIRA. CHAP. 71.—THE HOLOSCHŒNUS. CHAP. 72.—TEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SWEET-SCENTED RUSH, OR TEUCHITES. CHAP. 73.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE FLOWERS BEFORE MEN- TIONED: THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE ROSE. CHAP. 74.—TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE LILY. CHAP. 75.—SIXTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE NARCISSUS. CHAP. 76.—SEVENTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE VIOLET. CHAP. 77.—SEVENTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE BACCHAR. ONE REMEDY DERIVED FROM THE COMBRETUM. CHAP. 78.—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM ASARUM. CHAP. 79. (20.)—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM GALLIC NARD. CHAP. 80.—FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE PLANT CALLED "PHU." CHAP. 81.—TWENTY REMEDIES DERIVED FROM SAFFRON. CHAP. 82.—SYRIAN CROCOMAGNA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 83.—FORTY-ONE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE IRIS: TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SALIUNCA. CHAP. 84.—EIGHTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE POLIUM. CHAP. 85.—THREE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HOLOCHRYSOS. SIX REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CHRYSOCOME. CHAP. 86.—TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MELISSOPHYLLUM. CHAP. 87.—THIRTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE MELILOTE. CHAP. 88. (21.)—FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM TREFOIL. CHAP. 89.—TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THYME. CHAP. 90.—FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HEMEROCALLES. CHAP. 91.—FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HELENIUM. CHAP. 92.—TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE ABROTONUM. CHAP. 93. (22.)—ONE REMEDY DERIVED FROM THE LEUCANTHEMUM. NINE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE AMARACUS. CHAP. 94. (23.)—TEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE ANEMONE OR PHRENION. CHAP. 95. (24.)—SIX REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE ŒNANTHE. CHAP. 96. (25.)—ELEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HELICHRYSOS. CHAP. 97. (26.)—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HYACINTH. CHAP. 98.—SEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE LYCHNIS. CHAP. 99. (27.)—FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE VINCAPERVINCA. CHAP. 100.—THREE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM BUTCHER'S BROOM. CHAP. 101.—TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE BATIS. CHAP. 102. (28.)—TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE COLOCASIA. CHAP. 103. (29.)—SIX REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE ANTHYLLIUM OR ANTHYLLUM. CHAP. 104. (30.)—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE PARTHENIUM, LEUCANTHES, OR AMARACUS. CHAP. 105. (31.)—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE STRYCHNUM OR STRYCHNUM, HALICACABUM, CALLIAS, DORCYNION, MANICON, NEURAS, MORIO, OR MOLY. CHAP. 106.—SIX MEDICINES DERIVED FROM THE CORCHORUS. CHAP. 107.—THREE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CNECOS. CHAP. 108. (33.)—ONE REMEDY DERIVED FROM THE PESOLUTA. CHAP. 109. (34.)—AN EXPLANATION OF GREEK TERMS RELATIVE TO WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. CHAP. 1.—THE PROPERTIES OF PLANTS. CHAP. 2. (1.)—PLANTS USED BY NATIONS FOR THE ADORNMENT OF THE PERSON. CHAP. 3. (2.)—EMPLOYMENT OF PLANTS FOR DYEING. EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS SAGMEN, VERBENA, AND CLARIGATIO. CHAP. 4. (3.)—THE GRASS GROWN: HOW RARELY IT HAS BEEN AWARDED. CHAP. 5. (5.)—THE ONLY PERSONS THAT HAVE BEEN PRESENTED WITH THIS CROWN. CHAP. 6. (6.)—THE ONLY CENTURION THAT HAS BEEN THUS HONOURED. CHAP. 7.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM OTHER CHAPLET PLANTS. CHAP. 8. (7.)—THE ERYNGE OR ERYNGIUM. CHAP. 9. (8.)—THE ERYNGIUM, CALLED CENTUM CAPITA: THIRTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 10. (9.)—THE ACANOS; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 11.—THE GLYCYRRHIZA OR ADIPSOS: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 12. (10.)—TWO VARIETIES OF THE TRIBULUS; TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 13. (11.)—THE STŒBE OR PHEOS. CHAP. 14. (12.)—TWO VARIETIES OF THE HIPPOPHAES: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 15. (13.)—THE NETTLE: SIXTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 16. (14.)—THE LAMIUM: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 17. (15.)—THE SCORPIO, TWO KINDS OF IT: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 18. (16.)—THE LEUCACANTHA, PHYLLOS, ISCHIAS, OR POLYGONATOS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 19. (17).—THE HELXINE: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—THE PERDICIUM, PARTHENIUM, URCEOLARIS, OR ASTERCUM: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 21. (18.)—THE CHASMÆLEON, IXIAS, ULOPRONON, OR CYNOZOLON; TWO VARIEIES OF IT: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 22. (19.)—THE CORONOPUS. CHAP. 23. (20.)—THE ANCHUSA: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 24.—THE PSEUDOANCHUSA, ECHIS, OR DORIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 25. (21.)—THE ONOCHILON, ARCHEBION, ONOCHELIS, RHEXIA, OR ENCHRYSA: THIRTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 26.—THE ANTHEMIS, LEUCANTHEMIS, LEUCANTHEMUM, CHAMÆXMELUM, OR MELANTHIUM; THREE VARIETIES OF IT: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 27.—THE LOTUS PLANT: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—THE LOTOMETRA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—THE HELIOTROPIUM, HELIOSCOPIUM, OR VERRUCARIA: TWELVE REMEDIES. THE HELIOTROPIUM, TRICOCCUM, OR SCORPIURON: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—THE ADIANTUM, CALLITRICHOS, TRICHOMANES, POLYTRICHOS, OR SAXIFRAGUM; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 31. (22.)—THE PICRIS; ONE REMEDY. THE THESION; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 32.—THE ASPHODEL; FIFTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—THE HALIMON: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—THE ACANTHUS, PÆDEROS, OR MELAMPHYLLOS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—THE BUPLEURON: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—THE BUPRESTIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 37.—THE ELAPHOBOSCON: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 38.—THE SCANDIX: NINE REMEDIES. THE ANTHRISCUM: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 39.—THE IASIONE; FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 40.—THE CAUCALIS: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—THE SIUM: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—THE SILLYBUM. CHAP. 43.—THE SCOLYMOS OR LIMONIA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 44.—THE SONCHOS; TWO VARIETIES: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—THE CONDRION OR CHONDRYLLA: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 46.—MUSHROOMS: PECULIARITIES OF THEIR GROWTH. CHAP. 47. (23.)—FUNGI; SIGNS BY WHICH THE VENOMOUS KINDS MAY BE RECOGNIZED: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 48.—SULPHUR: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 49.—LASER: THIRTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 50. (24.)—PROPOLIS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—THE VARIOUS INFLUENCES OF DIFFERENT ALIMENTS UPON THE DISPOSITION. CHAP. 52.—HYDROMEL: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 53.—HONIED WINE: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—MELITITES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—WAX: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 56.—REMARKS IN DISPARAGEMENT OF MEDICINAL COMPOSITIONS. CHAP. 57.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM GRAIN. SILIGO: ONE REMEDY. WHEAT: ONE REMEDY. CHAFF: TWO REMEDIES. SPELT: ONE REMEDY. BRAN: ONE REMEDY. OLYRA, OR ARINCA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF MEAL: TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 59.—POLENTA: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—FINE FLOUR: FIVE REMEDIES. PULS: ONE REMEDY. MEAL USED FOR PASTING PAPYRUS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 61.—ALICA: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 62.—MILLET: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 63.—PANIC: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 64.—SESAME: SEVEN REMEDIES. SESAMOIDES: THREE REMEDIES. ANTICYRICUM: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 65.—BARLEY: NINE REMEDIES. MOUSE-BARLEY, BY THE GREEKS CALLED PHŒNICE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 66.—PTISAN: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 67.—AMYLUM: EIGHT REMEDIES. OATS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 68.—BREAD: TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 69.—BEANS: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—LENTILS: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 71.—THE ELELISPHACOS, SPHACOS, OR SALVIA: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—THE CHICKPEA AND THE CHICHELING VETCH: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 73.—THE FITCH: TWENTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 74.—LUPINES: THIRTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 75.—IRIO, OR ERYSIMUM, BY THE GAULS CALLED VELA: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 76.—HORMINUM: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 77.—DARNEL: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 78.—THE PLANT MILIARIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 79.—BROMOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 80.—OROBANCHE, OR CYNOMORION: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 81.—REMEDIES FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY INSECTS WHICH BREED AMONG LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. CHAP. 82.—THE USE MADE OF THE YEAST OF ZYTHUM. CHAP. 1. (1.)—INTRODUCTION. CHAP. 2.—THE VINE. CHAP. 3.—THE LEAVES AND SHOOTS OF THE VINE: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 4.—OMPHACIUM EXTRACTED FROM THE VINE: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 5.—ŒNANTHE: TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 6.—GRAPES, FRESH GATHERED. CHAP. 7.—VARIOUS KINDS OF PRESERVED GRAPES: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 8.—CUTTINGS OF THE VINE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 9.—GRAPE-STONES: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 10.—GRAPE-HUSKS: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 11.—THE GRAPES OF THE THERIACA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 12.—RAISINS, OR ASTAPHIS: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 13—THE ASTAPHISAGRIA, OTHERWISE CALLED STAPHIS OR TAMINIA: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE LABRUSCA, OR WILD VINE: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 15.—THE SALICASTRUM: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—THE WHITE VINE, OTHERWISE CALLED AMPELOLEUCE, STAPHYLE, MELOTHRON, PSILOTRUM, ARCHEZOSTIS, CEDROSTIS, OR MADON: THIRTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 17.—THE BLACK VINE, OTHERWISE CALLED BRYONA, CHIRONIA, GYNÆCANTHE, OR APRONIA: THIRTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 18.—MUST: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 19.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO WINE. CHAP. 20.—THE SURRENTINE WINES: THREE REMEDIES. THE ALBAN WINES: TWO REMEDIES. THE FALERNIAN WINES: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 21.—THE SETINE WINES; ONE OBSERVATION UPON THEM. THE STATAN WINES; ONE OBSERVATION UPON THEM. THE, SIGNIAN WINES; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 22.—OTHER WINES: SIXTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 23.—SIXTY-ONE OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE TO WINE. CHAP. 24.—IN WHAT MALADIES WINE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED; HOW IT SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED, AND AT WHAT TIMES. CHAP. 25.—NINETY-ONE OBSERVATIONS WITH REFERENCE TO WINE. CHAP. 26.—ARTIFICIAL WINES. CHAP. 27.—VINEGAR: TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 28. (2.)—SQUILL VINEGAR: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—OXYMELI: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—SAPA: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—LEES OF WINE: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—LEES OF VINEGAR: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—LEES OF SAPA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 34. (3.)—THE LEAVES OF THE OLIVE: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 35—THE BLOSSOM OF THE OLIVE: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—WHITE OLIVES: FOUR REMEDIES. BLACK OLIVES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 37.—AMURCA OF OLIVES: TWENTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 38. (4.)—THE LEAVES OF THE WILD OLIVE: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 39.—OMPHACIUM: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 40.—OIL OF ŒNANTHE: TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—CASTOR OIL: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—OIL OF ALMONDS: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—OIL OF LAUREL: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 44.—OIL OF MYRTLE: TWENTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—OIL OF CHAMÆMYRSINE OR OXYMYRSINE; OIL OF CYPRESS; OIL OF CITRUS; OIL OF WALNUTS; OIL OF CNIDIUM: OIL OF MASTICH; OIL OF BALANUS; VARIOUS REMEDIES. CHAP. 46.—THE CYPRUS, AND THE OIL EXTRACTED FROM IT; SIXTEEN REMEDIES. GLEUCINUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 47.—OIL OF BALSAMUM: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 48.—MALOBATHRUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 49.—OIL OF HENBANE: TWO REMEDIES. OIL OF LUPINES: ONE REMEDY. OIL OF NARCISSUS: ONE REMEDY. OIL OF RADISHES: FIVE REMEDIES. OIL OF SESAME: THREE REMEDIES. OIL OF LILIES: THREE REMEDIES. OIL OF SELGA: ONE REMEDY. OIL OF IGUVIUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 50.—ELÆOMELI: TWO REMEDIES. OIL OF PITCH: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—THE PALM: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 52. (5.)—THE PALM WHICH PRODUCES MYROBALANUM: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 53.—THE PALM CALLED ELATE: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 54. (6.)—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE BLOSSOMS, LEAVES, FRUIT, BRANCHES, BARK, JUICES, WOOD, ROOTS, AND ASHES OF VARIOUS KINDS OF TREES. SIX OBSERVATIONS UPON APPLES. TWENTY-TWO OBSERVATIONS UPON QUINCES. ONE OBSERVATION UPON STRUTHEA. CHAP. 55.—THE SWEET APPLES CALLED MELIMELA: SIX OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. SOUR APPLES: FOUR OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 56.—CITRONS: FIVE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 57.—PUNIC APPLES OR POMEGRANATES: TWENTY-SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—THE COMPOSITION CALLED STOMATICE: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 59.—CYTINUS: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—BALAUSTIUM: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 61.—THE WILD POMEGRANATE. CHAP. 62. (7.)—PEARS: TWELVE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 63.—FIGS: ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVEN OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 64.—THE WILD FIG: FORTY-TWO OBSERVATIONS UPON IT. CHAP. 65.—THE HERB ERINEON: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 66.—PLUMS: FOUR OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 67.—PEACHES: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 68.—WILD PLUMS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 69.—THE LICHEN ON PLUM-TREES: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—MULBERRIES: THIRTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 71.—THE MEDICAMENT CALLED STOMATICE, ARTERIACE, OR PANCHRESTOS. FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—CHERRIES: FIVE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 73.—MEDLARS: TWO REMEDIES. SORBS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 74. (8.)—PINE-NUTS: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 75.—ALMONDS: TWENTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 76.—GREEK NUTS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 77.—WALNUTS: TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. THE MITHRIDATIC ANTIDOTE. CHAP. 78.—HAZEL-NUTS: THREE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. PISTACHIO-NUTS: EIGHT OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHESNUTS: FIVE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. CHAP. 79.—CAROBS: FIVE OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM. THE CORNEL; ONE REMEDY. THE FRUIT OF THE ARBUTUS. CHAP. 80.—THE LAUREL; SIXTY-NINE OBSERVATIONS UPON IT. CHAP. 81.—MYRTLE; SIXTY OBSERVATIONS UPON IT. CHAP. 82.—MYRTIDANUM: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 83.—THE WILD MYRTLE, OTHERWISE CALLED OXYMYRSINE, OR CHAMÆMYRSINE, AND THE RUSCUS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE ANTIPATHIES AND SYMPATHIES WHICH EXIST AMONG TREES AND PLANTS. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE LOTUS OF ITALY: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 3. (3.)-ACORNS: THIRTEEN REMEDTES. CHAP. 4. (4.)—TIE KERMES-BERRY OF THE HOLM-OAK: THREE: REMEDIES. CHAP. 5.—GALL-NUTS: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 6.—MISTLETOE: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 7.—THE EXCRESCENCES WHICH GROW ON THE ROBUR: ONE REMEDY. THE CHRRUS: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 8.—THE-CORK TREE: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 9. (5.)—THE BEECUH: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 10.—THE CYPRESS: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 11.—THE CEDAR: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 12.—CEDRIDES: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 13.—GALBANUM: TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 14. (6.)—HAMMONIACUM: TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 15.—STORAX: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—SPONDYLIUM: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 17.—SPHAGNOS, SPHACOS, OR BRYON: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 18.—THE TEREBINTH: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 19.—THE PITCH-TREE AND THE LARCH: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—THE CHAMÆPITYS: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 21.—THE PITYUSA: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 22.—RESINS: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 23. (7.)—PITCH: TWENTY-THEEE REMEDIES. CHAP. 24.—PISSELÆON AND PALIMPISSA: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 25.—PISSASPHALTOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 26.—ZOPISSA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 27.—THE TORCH-TREE: ONE BEMEDY. CHAP. 28.—THE LENTISK: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 29. (8.)—THE PLANE-TREE: TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—THE ASH: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—THE MAPLE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 32.—THE POPLAR: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—THE ELM: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—THE LINDEN-TREE: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—THE ELDER: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—THE JUNIPER: TWENTY-OXE REMEDIES. CHAP. 37. (9.)—THE WILLOW: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. THE WILLOW OF AMLERIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 38.—THE VITEX: THIRTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 39.—THE ERICA; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 40.—THE BROOM; FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—THE MYRICA, OTHERWISE CALLED TAMARICA, OR TAMARIX: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—THE BBYA: TWENTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—THE BLOOD-RED SHRUB: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 44.—THE SILER: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—THE PRIVATE: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 46.—THE ALDER: ONE KEMEDY. CHAP. 47.—THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF THE IVY: THIRTY-NINE REMEDIES CHAP. 48.—THE CISTHOS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 49.—THE CISSOS ERYTIRANOS: TWO REMEDIES. THE CHAMÆCISSOS: TWO REMIEDIES. THE SMILAX: THREE RE- MEDIES. THE CLEMATIS: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 50. (11.)—THE REED: NINETEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—THE PAPYRUS AND THE PAPER MADE FROM IT: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 52.—THE EBONY: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 53—THE RHODODENDRON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 54.—THE RHUS OR SUMACH-TREE; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: EIGHT REMEDIES. STOMATICE. CHAP. 55.—RHUS ERYTHROS: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 56.—THE ERYTHIRODANXU: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 57.—THE ALYSSON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—THE RADICULT OR STRUTHION: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. THE APOCYNUMI: TWO OBSERVATIONS UPON IT. CHAP. 59.—ROSEMARY: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—THE SEED CALLED CACHRYS. CHAP. 61.—THE HERB SAVIN: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 62.—SELAGO: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 63.—SAMOLUS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 64.—GUM: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 65. (12.)—THE EGYPTIAN OR ARABIAN THORN: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 66.—THE WHITE THORN: TWO REMEDIES. THE ACANTHION; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 67.—GUM ACACIA: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 68. (13.)—ASPALATHOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 69.—THE ERYSISCEPTRUM, ADIPSATHEON, OR DIAXYLON: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—THE THORN CALLED APPENDIX: TWO REMEDIES. THE PYRACANTHA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 71.—THE PALIURUS: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—THE AGRIFOLIA. THE AQUIFOLIA: ONE REMEDY. THE YEW: ONE PROPERTY BELONGING TO IT. CHAP. 73.—THE BRAMBLE: FIFTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 74.—HE CYNOSBATOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 75.—THE IDÆAN BRAMBLE. CHAP. 76.—THE RHAMNOS; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 77.—LYCIIUM: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 78.—SARCOCOLLA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 79.—OPORICE: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 80.—THE TRIXAGO, CHAMÆDRYS, CHAMÆDROPS, OR TECRIA: SIXTEEN REMEDIES, CHAP. 81.—THE CHAMÆDAPHNE: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 82.—THE CHAMELÆA: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 83.—THE CHAMÆSYCE: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 84.—THE CHAMÆCISSOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 85.—THE CHAMÆLEUCE, FARFARUM, OR FARFUGIUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 86.—THE CHAMÆPEUCE: FIVE REMEDIES. THE CHAM- CYPARISSOS: TWO REMEDIES. TIHE AMPELOPRASON; SIX RE- MEDIES. THE STACHYS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 87.—THE CLINOPODION, CLEONICION, ZOPYRON, OR OCIMOÏDES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 88.—THE CLEMATIS CENTUNCULUS; THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 89.—THE CLEMATIS ECHITES, OR LAIINE. CHAP. 90.—THE EGYPTIAN CLEMATIS, DAPHNODES, OR POLY- GONOÏDES: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 91. (16.)—DIFFERENT OPINIONS ON THE DRACONTIUM. CHAP. 92.—THE AON: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 93.—THE DRACUNCLUS; TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 94.—THE ARISAXOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 95.—THE MILLEFOIJUM OR MYRIOPHYLLON; SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 96.—THE PSEUDOBUNION: FOUR REMEDIES CHAP. 97.—THE MYRRHIS, MYRZA, OR MYRIRHA: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 98.—THE ONOBRYCHIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 99. (17.)—CORACESTA AND CALLICIA. CHAP. 100.—THE MINSAS OR CORINTHIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 101.—THE APROXIS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 102.—THE AGLAOPHOTIS OR MARMARITIS. THE ACHLE- MENIS OR HIPPOPHOBAS. THE THEOBROTION OR SEMNION. THE ADAMANTIS. THE ARIANIS. THE THŒRIONARCA. THE, ÆTHIOPIS OR MEROIS. THE OPHIUSA. THE THALASSEGLE OR POTAM- AUGIS. THE THEANGELIS. THE GELOTOPHYLLIS. THE HESTI- ATORIS OR PROTOMEDIA. THE CASIGNETES OR DIONYSONYMPHAS. THE HELIANTHES OR HELIOCALLIS. HERMESIAS. THE ÆSCHY- NOMENE. THE CROCIS. THE ŒNOTHERIS. THE ANACAMPIS- EROS. CHAP. 103. (18.)—THE ERIPIHA. CHAP. 104.—THE WOOL PLANT: ONE REMEDY. THE, LACTORIS: ONE REMEDY. THE MILlTARIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 105.—THE STRATIOTES: FIVE- REMEDIES. CHAP. 106. (19.)—A PLANT GROWING ON THE HEAD OF A STATUE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 107.—A PLANT GROWING ON THE BANKS OF A RIVER: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 108.—THE HERB CALLED IJNGUA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 109.—PLANTS THAT TAKE ROOT IN A SIEVE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 110.—PLANTS GROWING UPONDUNGHILLS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 111.—PLANTS THAT HAVE BEEN MOISTENED WITH THE URINE OF A DOG: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 112.—THE RODARUM: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 113.—THE PLANT CALLED IMPIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 114.—THE PLANT CALLED VENUS' COMB: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 115.—THE EXEDUNM. THE PLANT CALLED NOTIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 116.—THE PHILANTHROPOS: ONE REMEDY. THE LAPPA CANARIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 117.—TORDYLON OR SYREON: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 118.—GRAMEN: SEVENTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 119.—DACTYLOS; FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 120.—FENUGREEK OR SILICIA: THIRTY-ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 1. (1.)—WHEN THE WAILD PLANTS WERE FIRST BROUGHT INTO USE. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE LATIN AUTHORS WHO HAVE WRITTEN UPON THESE PLANTS. CHAP. 3.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE ROMANS ACQUIRED SOME KNOW- LEDGE OF THIS SUBJECT. CHAP. 4.—GREEK AUTHORS WHO HAVE DELINEATED THE PLANTS IN COLOURS. CHAP. 5.—THE FIRST GREEK AUTHORS WHO WROTE UPON PLANTS. CHAP. 6.—WHY A FEW OF THE PLANTS ONLY HAVE BEEN USED MEDICINALLY. PLANTS, THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF WHICH HAVE BEEN MIRACULOUSLY DISCOVERED. THE CYNORRHODOS: TWO REMEDIES. THE PLANT CALLED DRACUNCULUS: ONE REMEDY. THE BRITANNICA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 7.—WHAT DISEASES ARE ATTENDED WITH THE GREATEST PAIN. NAMES OF PERSONS WHO HAVE DISCOVERED FAMOUS PLANTS. CHAP. 8. (4.)—MOLY: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 9.—THE DODECATHEOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 10.—THE PÆONIA, PENTOROBUS, OR GLYCYSIDE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 11.—THE PANACES ASCLEPION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 12.—THE PANACES HERACLEON: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 13.—THE PANACES CHIRONION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE PANACES CENTAURION OR PHARNACION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 15.—THE HERACLEON SIDERION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—THE AMPELOS CHIRONIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 17.—HYOSCYAMOS, KNOWN ALSO AS THE APOLLINARIS OR ALTERCUM; FIVE VARIETIES OF IT: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 18. (5.)—LINOZOSTIS, PARTHENION, HERMUPOA, OR MER- CURIALIS; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 19.—THE ACIIILLEOS, SIDERITIS, PANACES HERACLEON, MILLEFOLIUM, OR SCOPÆ REGLÆ; SIX VARIETIES OF IT: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—THE TEUCRION, HEMIONION, OR SPLENION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 21.—MELAMIPODIUM, HELLEBORE, OR VERATRUM: THREE VARIETES OF IT. THE WAY IN WHICH IT IS GATHERED, AND HOW THES QUALITY OF IT IS TESTED. CHAP. 22.—TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM BLACK HELLE- BORE. HOW IT SHOULD BE TAKEN. CHAP. 23.—TWENTY-THREE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM WHITE HELLEBORE. CHAP. 24.—EIGHTY-EIGHT OBSERVATIONS UPON THE TWO KINDS OF HELLEBORE. CHAP. 25.—TO WHAT PERSONS HELLEBORE SHOULD NEVER BE ADMINISTERED. CHAP. 26. (6.)—THE MITHRIDATIA. CHAP. 27.—THE SCORDOTIS OR SCORDION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—THE POLEMONIA, PHILETÆRIA, OR CHILIODYNAMUS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—THE EUPATORIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 30.—CENTAURION OR CHIRONION: TWENTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—THE CENTAURION LEPTON, OR LIBATION, KNOWN ALSO AS FELL TERRÆ: TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—THE CENTAURIS TRIORCHIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 33. (7).—CLYMENUS : TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—GENTIAN: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—THE LYSIMACHIA: EIGHT REMEDIES, CHAP. 36.—ARTEMISIA, PARTHENIS, BOTRYS, OR AMBROSIA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 37.—NYMPHÆA, HERACLEON, RHOPALON, OR MADON; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 38.—TWO VARIETIES OF EUPHORBIA: FOUR REMEDIES. THE CHAMELÆA. CHAP. 39. (8.)—TWO VARIETIES OF THE PLANTAGO: FORTY-SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 40.—BUGLOSSOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—CYNOGLOSSOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—THE BUPHTALMOS OR CACHLA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 43.—PLANTS WHICH HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED BY CERTAIN NATIONS. THE SCYTHICE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 44.—THE HIPPACE: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—THE ISCHÆMON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 46.—THE CESTROS, PSYCHOTROPEION, VETTONICA, OR SERRA- TULA: FORTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 47.—THE CANTABRICA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 48.—CONSILIGO: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 49.—THE IBERIS: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 50.—PLANTS WHICH HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED BY CERTAIN ANIMALS. CHELIDONIA: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—THE DOG-PLANT: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 52.—THE ELAPHOBOSCON. CHAP. 53.—DICTAMNON: EIGHT REMEDIES. PSEUDODICTAMNON OR CHONDRIS. IN WHAT PLACES THE MOST POWERFUL PLANTS ARE FOUND. HOW THAT MILK IS DRUNK IN ARCADIA FOR THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF THE PLANTS UPON WHICH THE CATTLE FEED. CHAP. 54.—THE ARISTOLOCHIA, CLEMATITIS, CRETICA, PLISTOTO- CHIA, LOCHIA POLYRRHIZOS, OR APPLE OF THE EARTH: TWENTY- TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—THE EMPLOYMENT OF THESE PLANTS FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY SERPENTS. CHAP. 56. (9.)—THE ARIGEMONIA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 57.—AGARIC: THIRTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—THE ECHIOS; THREE VARIETIES OF IT: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 59.—HIERABOTANE, PERISTEREON, OR VERBENACA; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—THE BLATTARIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 61.—LEMONIUM : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 62.—QUINQUEFOLIUM, KNOWN ALSO AS PENTAPETES, PEN- TAPHYLLON, OR CHAMÆZELON: THIRTY-THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 63.—THE SPARGANION : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 64.—FOUR VARIETIES OF THE DAUCUS: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 65.—THE THERIONARCA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 66.—THE PERSOLATA OR ARCION; EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 67.—CYCLAMINOS OR TUBER TERRÆ: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 68.—THE CYCLAMINOS CISSANTHEMOS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 69.—THE CYCLAMINOS CHAMÆCISSOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—PEUCEDANUM: TWENTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 71. (10.)—EBULUM : SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—POLEMONIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 73.—PHLOMOS OR VERBASCUM: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 74.—THE PHLOMIS: ONE REMEDY. THE LYCHNITIS OR THRYALLIS. CHAP. 75.—THE THELYPHONON OR SCORPIO: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 76.—THE PHLYNION, NEURAS, OR POTERION ; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 77.—THE ALISMA, DAMASONION, OR LYRON: SEYENTEEN REMEDIES CHAP. 78.—PERISTEREOS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 79.— REMEDIES AGAINST CERTAIN POISONS. CHAP. 80.—THE ANTIRREHINUM, ANARRHlNON, OR LYCHNIS AGRIA: THREE REMDIES. CHAP. 81.—EUCLEA: ONE EBMEDY. CHAP. 82.—TIE PERICARPUM; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 83. (11.)—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE HEAD. NYMPHÆA HERACLIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 84.—THE LINGULACA : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 85.—THE CACALIA OR LEONTICE: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 86.—THE CALLITRICHOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 87.—HYSSOP: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 88.—THE LONCHITIS : FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 89.—THE XIPHION OR PHASGANION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 90.—PSYLLION, CYNOÏDES, CRYSTALLION, SICELICON, OR CYNOMYIA; SIXTEEN REMEDIES. TIRYSELINUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 91. (12.)—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE EYES. CHAP. 92. (13.)—THE ANAGALLIS, OR CORCHORON; TWO VARIE- TIES OF IT: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 93.—THE ÆGILOPS : TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 94.—MANDRAGORA, CIRCÆON, MORION, OR HIPPOPHLOMOS; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 95.—HEMLOCK: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 96.—CRETHMOS AGRIOS : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 97.—MOLYBDÆNA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 98.—THE FIRST KIND OF CAPNOS, KNOWN ALSO AS CHICKEN'S FOOT: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 99.—THE ARBORESCENT CAPNOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 100.—THE ACORON OR AGRION: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 101.—THE COTYLEDON: TWO VARIETIES OF IT: SIXTY-ON, REMEDIES. CHAP. 102.—THE GREATER AIZOÜM, ALSO CALLED BUPHTHALMOS, ZOÖPHTHALMOS, STERGETHRON, HYPOGESON, AMBROSION, AME- RIMNON, SEDTUM MAGNUM, OR DIGITELLUS: THIRTY-SIX REMIIE- DIES. TIHE SMALLER AIZOÜM, ALSO CALLED ERITHALES, TRI- THALES, CHRYSOTHALES, ISOETES OR SEDUM: THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 103.—THE ANDRACHLE AGRIA OR ILLECEBRA: THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 104.—A REMEDY FOR DISEASES OF THE NOSTRILS. CHAP. 105.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE TEETH. CHAP. 106.—ERIGERON, PAPPUS, ACANTHIS, OR SENECIO: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 107.—THE EPHEMERON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 108.—THE LABRUM VENEREUM : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 109.—THE BATRACHION, RANUNCULUS, OR STRUMUS ; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 110.—REMEDIAL PREPARATIONS FOR OFFENSIVE BREATH : TWO KINDS OF THEM. CHAP. 1. (1.)—NEW FORMS OF DISEASE. CHAP. 2.—THE NATURE OF LICHEN. CHAP. 3.—AT WHAT PERIOD LICHEN FIRST MADE ITS APPEARANCE IN ITALY. CHAP. 4.—CARBUNCLE. CHAP. 5—ELEPHANTIASIS. CHAP. 6.—COLIC. CHAP. 7. (3.)—TE NEW SYSTEM OF MEDICINE: ASCLEPIADES THE PHYSICIAN. CHAP. 8.—TIE CHANGES EFFECTED BY ASCLEPIADES IN THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. CHAP. 9. (4).—REMARKS IN DISPRAISE OF THE PRACTICES OF MAGIC. CHAP. 10.—LICHEN: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 11.—QUINZY. CHAP. 12. (5.)—SCROFULA. CHAP. 13.—THE PLANT CALLED BELLIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE CONDURDUM. CHAP. 15.—COUGH. CHAP. 16.—BECHION, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS ARCION, CHAMÆ LEUCE OR TUSSILAGO: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 17.—THE BECHION, KNOWN ALSO AS SALVIA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 18. (7.)—AFFECTIONS OF THE SIDE, CHEST, AND STOMACH. CHAP. 19.—MOLON OR SYRON. AMOMUM. CHAP. 20—THE EPHEDRA OR ANABASIS; THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 21.—GEUM: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 22.—TRIPOLIUM : THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 23.—THE GROMPHÆNA. CHAP. 24.—THE MALUNDRUM : TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 25.—CHALCETUM; TWO REMEDIES. MOLEMONIUM; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 26.—HALUS OR COTONEA: FIVE REMEDIES, CHAP. 27.—THE CHAMSHOPS: ONE REMEDY. THE STŒCHAS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 28. (8.)—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE BELLY. CHAP. 29.—THE ASTRAGALUS: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—LADANUM: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES CHAP. 31.—CHONDRIS OR PSEUDODICTAMNON: ONE REMEDY. HYPO- CISTHIS OR OROBETHRON; TWO VARIETIES: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—LAVER OR SION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—POTAMOGITON: EIGHT REMEDIES. THE STATICE: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—THE CERATIA: TWO REMEDIES. LEONTOPODION, LEU- CEORON, DORIPETRON, OR THORYBETHRON. LAGOPUS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—EPITHYMON OR HIPPOPHEOS: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—PYCNOCOMON; FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 37.—POLYPODION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 38.—SCAMMONY; EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 39.—THE TITHYMALOS CHARACIAS. CHAP. 40.—THE TITHYMALOS MYRTITES, OR CARYITES; TWENTY- ONE REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—THE TITHYMALOS PARALIOS, OR TITHYMALIS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—THE TITHYMALOS HELIOSCOPIOS : EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—THE TITHYMALOS CYPARISSIAS : EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 44.—THE TITHYMALOS PLATYPHYLLOS, CORYMBITES, OR AMYGDALITES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—THE TITHYMALOS DENDROÏDES, COBIOS, OR LEPTO- PHYLLOS: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 46.—THE APIOS ISCHAS, OR RAPHANOS AGRIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 47.—REMEDIES FOR GRIPING PAINS IN THE BOWELS. CHAP. 48.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN. CHAP. 49.—REMEDIES FOR CALCULI AND DISEASES OF THE BLADDER. CHAP. 50.—CRETHMOS: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CACHRY. CHAP. 51.—THE ANTHYLLION; TWO REMEDIES THE ANTHYLLIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 52.—CEPÆA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 53.— HYPERICON, CHAMÆPITYS, OR CORISON: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—CAROS OR HYPERICON: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—THE CALLITHRIX: ONE REMEDY. THE PERPRESSA: ONE REMEDY. THE CHRYSANTHEMUM: ONE REMEDY. THE ANTHEMIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 56.—SILAUS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 57.—THE PLANT OF FULVIUS. CHAP. 58.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE TESTES AND OF THE FUNDAMENT. CHAP. 59.—INGUINALIS OR ARGEMO. CHAP. 60.—REMEDIES FOR INFLAMED TUMOURS. CHRYSIPPIOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 61. (10.)—APHRODISIACS AND ANT APHRODISIACS. CHAP. 62.—THE ORCHIDS OR SERAPES: FIVE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. SATYR ION. CHAP. 63.—SATYRION: THREE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. SATY- RION ERYTHRAÏCON: FOUR MEDICINAL PROPERTIES. CHAP. 64.—REMEDIES FOR THE GOUT AND DISEASES OF THE FEET. CHAP. 65.—LAPPAGO OR MOLLUGO: ONE REMEDY. ASPERUGO: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 66.—PHYCOS THALASSION OR SEA-WEED: THREE VARIETIES OF IT. LAPPA BOARIA. CHAP. 67.—MALADIES WHICH ATTACK THE WHOLE OF THE BODY. CHAP. 68.—THE GERANION, MYRRHIS, OR MYRTIS; THREE VARIE- TIES OF IT: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 69.—THE ONOTHERAS OR ONEAR: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—REMEDIES FOR EPILEPSY. CHAP. 71.—REMEDIES FOR FEVERS. CHAP. 72.—REMEDIES FOR PHRENITIS, LETHARGY, AND CARBUNCLES. CHAP. 73.—REMEDIES FOR DROPSY. ACTE OR EBULUM. CHAMÆACTE. CHAP. 74.—REMEDIES FOR ERYSIPELAS. CHAP. 75. (12.)—REMEDIES FOR SPRAINS. CHAP. 76.—REMEDIES FOR JAUNDICE. CHAP. 77.—REMEDIES FOR BOILS. CHAP. 78.—REMEDIES FOR FISTULA. CHAP. 79.—REMEDIES FOR ABSCESSES AND HARD TUMOURS. CHAP. 80.—REMEDIES FOR BURNS. CHAP. 81.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE SINEWS AND JOINTS. CHAP. 82.—REMEDIES FOR HÆMORRHAGE. CHAP. 83. (13.)—HIPPURIS, OTHERWISE CALLED EPHEDRON, ANABASIS, OR EQUISÆTUM; THREE KINDS OF IT: EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 84.—STEPHANOMELIS. CHAP. 85.—REMEDIES FOR RUPTURES AND CONVULSIONS. ERYSITHALES: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 86.—REMEDIES FOR PHTHIRIASIS. CHAP. 87. (14.)—REMEDIES FOR ULCERS AND WOUNDS. CHAP. 88.—POLYCNEMON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 89.—REMEDIES FOR WARTS. AND APPLICATIONS FOR THE REMOVAL OF SCARS. CHAP. 90.—REMEDIES FOR FEMALE DISEASES. CHAP. 91.—ARSENOGONON: ONE MEDICINAL PROPERTY. THELY- GONON: ONE MEDICINAL PROPERTY. CHAP. 92.—MASTOS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 93.—APPLICATIONS FOR THE HAIR. LYSIMACHIA. OPHRYS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—RESEARCHES OF THE ANCIENTS UPON THIS SUBJECT. CHAP. 2. (2.)—ACONITE, OTHERWISE CALLED THELYPHONON, CAM- MARON, PARDALIANCHES, OR SCORPIO; FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 3. (4.)—-ÆTHIOPIS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 4.—AGERATON: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 5.—THE ALOE; TWENTY-NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 6.—ALCEA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 7.—THE ALYPON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 8.—ALSINE, A PLANT USED FOR THE SAME PURPOSES AS HELXINE: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 9.—THE ANDROSACES: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 10.—ANDROSÆMON OR ASCYRON: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 11.—AMBROSIA, BOTRYS, OR ARTEMISTA: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 12.—THE ADONIS OR ONONIS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 13.—THE ANAGYROS OR ACOPON: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE ANONYMOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 15. (5.)—APARINE, OMPHIALOCARPOS, OR PHILANTHROPOS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—THE ARCTION OR ARCTURUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 17.—THE ASPLENON OR HEMIONION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 18.—THE ASCLEPIAS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 19.—THE ASTER OR BUBONION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—ASCYRON AND ASCYROÏDES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 21.—THE APHACA: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 22.—ALCIBIUM : ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 23.—ALECTOROSLOPHOS OR CRISTA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 24. (6.)—ALUM, ALSO CALLED SYMPHYTON PETRÆON: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 25. (7.)—ALGA RUFA OR RED SEA-WEED: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 26.—ACTÆA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 27.—THE AMPELOS AGRIA, OR WILD VINE: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—-ABSINTHIUM OR WORMWOOD; FOUR VARIETIES: FORTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—ABSINTHIUM: MARINUM OR SERIPHUM. CHAP. 30. (8.)—THE BALLOTES, MELAMPRASION, OR BLACK LEEK: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—BOTRYS, AMBROSIA, OR ARTEMISIA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 32.—THE BRABYLA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 33.—BRYON MARITIMUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—THE BUPLEURON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 35.—THE CATANANCE; ONE OBSERVATION UPON IT. THE CEMOS: ONE OBSERVATION UPON IT. CHAP. 36.—THE CALYX: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 37.—THE CALYX, KNOWN ALSO AS ANCHUSA OR ONOCLIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 38.—THE CIRCÆA: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 39.—THE CIRSION: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 40.—THE CRATÆGONON; TWO KINDS OF IT: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—THE CROCODILEON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—THE CYNOSORCHIS OR ORCHIS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—THE CHRYSOLACHANUM; TWO VARIETIES OF IT: THREE REMEDIES. COAGULUM: TERAÆ: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 44.—THE CUCUBALUS, STRUMUS, OR STRYCHNON: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 45.—THE CONFERVA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 46. (9.)—THE COCCUS CNIDIUS, OR GRAIN OF CNIDOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 47.—THE DIPSACOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 48.—THE DRYOPTERIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 49.—THE DRYOPHONON. CHAP. 50.—THE ELATINE: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—EMPETROS. BY OUR PEOPLE CALLED CALCIFRAGA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 52.—THE EPIPACTIS OR ELLEBORINE: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 53.—THE EPIMEDION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—THE ENNEAPHYLLON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—TWO VARIETIES OF FILIX OR FERN, KNOWN TO THE GREEKS AS PTERIS, OR BLACHNON, AND AS THELYPTERIS, OR NYMPHÆ PTERIS: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 56.—FEMUR BUBULUM, OR OX THIGH. CHAP. 57.—GALEOPSIS, GALEOBDOLON, OR GALION: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 58.—THE GLAUX: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 59. (10).—GLAUCION: THREE REMEDIES. DIAGLAUCIA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 60.—THE GLYCYSIDE, PÆONIA, OR PENTOROBOS: TWENTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 61.—GNAPHALIUM OR CHAMÆZELON: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 62.—THE GALLIDRAGA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 63.—HOLCUS OR ARISTIS. CHAP. 64.—HYOSERIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 65.—THE HOLOSTEON: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 66.—THE HIPPOPHÆSTON: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 67. (11.)—THE HYPOGLOSSA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 68.—HYPECOÖN. CHAP. 69.—THE IDÆA HERBA, OR PLANT OF IDA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 70.—THE ISOPYRON OR PHASIOLON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 71.—THE LATHYRIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 72.—THE LEONTOPETALON OR PARDALION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 73.—THE LYCAPSOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 74.—THE LITHOSPERMUM, EXONYCHON, DIOSPYRON, OR HERACLEOS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 75.—LAPIDIS MUSCUS, OR STONE MOSS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 76.—THE LIMEUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 77.—THE LEUCE, MESOLEUCON, OR LEUCAS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 78.—THE LEUCOGRAPHIS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 79. (12.)—THE MEDION: TREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 80.—THE MYOSOTA OR MYOSOTIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 81.—TE MYAGROS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 82.—THE NYMA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 83.—THE NATRIX: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 84.—ODONTITIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 85.—THE OTHONNA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 86.—THE ONOSMA: ONE PROPERTY. CHAP. 87.—THE ONOPORDON: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 88.—THE OSYRIS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 89.—THE OXYS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 90.—THE POLYANTHEMUM OR BATRACHION: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 91.—THE POLYGONOS, POLYGONATOS, TEUTHALIS, CARCI- NETHRON, CLEMA, OR MYRTOPETALOS, OTHERWISE KNOW AS SANGUINARIA OR ORIOS; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT: FORTY REMEDIES. CHAP. 92.—THE PANCRATIUM: TWELVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 93.—THE PEPLIS, SYCE, MECONION, OR MECON APHRODES: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 94.—THE PERICLYMENOS: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 95.—PELECINON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 96.—POLYGALA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 97.—POTERION, PHRYNION, OR NEURAS: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 98.—THE PHALANGITIS, PHALANGION, OR LEUCACANTHA: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 99.—THE PHYTEUMA: ONE PROPERTY. CHAP. 100.—THE PHYLLON: ONE PROPERTY. CHAP. 101.—THE PHELLANDRION: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 102.—THE PHALARIS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 103.—THE POLYRRHIZON: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 104.—THE PROSERPINACA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 105.—RHACOMA: THIRTY-SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 106.—THE RESEDA: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 107.—THE STŒCHAS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 108.—THE SOLANUM, BY THE GREEKS CALLED STRYCHNON: TWO REMEDIAL PROPERTIES. CHAP. 109.—SMYRNION: THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES. SINON: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 110.—TELEPHION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 11.—THE TRICHOMANES: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 112.—THE THALICTRUM: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 113.—THLASPI AND PERSICON NAPY: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 114.—THE TRACHINIA: ONE PROPERTY. CHAP. 115.—THE TRAGONIS OR TRAGION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 116.—THE TRAGOS OR SCORPION: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 117.—THE TRAGOPOGON OR COME. CHAP. 118.—THE AGES OF PLANTS. CHAP. 119.—HOW THE GREATEST EFFICACY IN PLANTS MAY BE ENSURED. CHAP. 120.—MALADIES PECULIAR TO VARIOUS NATIONS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—INTRODUCTION. CHAP. 2.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MAN. CHAP. 3. (2.)—WHETHER WORDS ARE POSSESSED OF ANY HEALING EFFICACY. CHAP. 4.—THAT PRODIGIES AND PORTENTS MAY BE CONFIRMED, OR MADE OF NO EFFECT. CHAP. 5.—A DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS USAGES. CHAP. 6. (3.)—TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIX OBSERVATIONS ON REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MAN. EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED, FROM CHILDREN. CHAP. 7.—PROPERTIES OF THE HUMAN SPITTLE. CHAP. 8.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE WAX OF THE HUMAN EAR. CHAP. 9.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HUMAN HAIR, TEETH, ETC. CHAP. 10.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HUMAN BLOOD, THE SEXUAL CONGRESS, ETC. CHAP. 11.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE DEAD. CHAP. 12.—VARIOUS REVERIES AND DEVICES OF THE MAGICIANS. CHAP. 13.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HUMAN EXCRETIONS. CHAP. 14.—REMEDIES DEPENDING UPON THE HUMAN WILL. CHAP. 15. (6.)—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM SNEEZING. CHAP. 16.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SEXUAL CONGRESS. CHAP. 17.—VARIOUS OTHER REMEDIES. CHAP. 18.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE URINE. CHAP. 19.—INDICATIONS OF HEALTH DERIVED FROM THE URINE. CHAP. 20. (7.)—FORTY-ONE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE FEMALE SEX. CHAP. 21.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM WOMAN'S MILK. CHAP. 22.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SPITTLE OF FEMALES. CHAP. 23.—FACTS CONNECTED WITH THE MENSTRUAL DISCHARGE. CHAP. 24. (8.)—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM FOREIGN ANIMALS: THE ELEPHANT, EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 25.—TEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE LION. CHAP. 26.—TEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CAMEL. CHAP. 27.—SEVENTY-NINE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HYÆNA. CHAP. 28.—NINETEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CROCODILE. CHAP. 29.—FIFTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CHAMÆLEON. CHAP. 30.—FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SCINCUS. CHAP. 31.—SEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE HIPPOPOTAMUS. CHAP. 32.—FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE LYNX. CHAP. 33. (9.)—REMEDIES FURNISHED IN COMMON BY ANIMALS OF THE SAME CLASS, WHETHER WILD OR TAME. FIFTY-FOUR MEDICINAL USES OF MILK, WITH OBSERVATIONS THEREON. CHAP. 34.—TWELVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CHEESE. CHAP. 35.—TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM BUTTER. CHAP. 36.—OXYGALA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 37.—THE VARIOUS USES OF FAT AND OBSERVATIONS UPON IT, FIFTY-TWO IN NUMBER. CHAP. 38.—SUET. CHAP. 39.—MARROW. CHAP. 40.—GALL. CHAP. 41.—BLOOD. CHAP. 42.—PECULIAR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM VARIOUS ANIMALS, AND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE MALADIES. REMEDIES AGAINST THE POISON OF SERPENTS, DERIVED FROM THE STAG, THE FAWN, THE OPHION, THE SHE-GOAT, THE KID, AND THE ASS. CHAP. 43.—REMEDIES FOR THE BITE OF THE MAD DOG. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE CALF, THE HE-GOAT, AND VARIOUS OTHER ANIMALS. CHAP. 44.—REMEDIES TO BE ADOPTED AGAINST ENCHANTMENTS. CHAP. 45.—REMEDIES FOR POISONS. CHAP. 46. (11.)—-REMEDIES FOR DIEASES OF THE HEAD, AND FOR ALOPECY. CHAP. 47.—-REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE EYES. CHAP. 48.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES AND AFFECTIONS OF THE EARS. CHAP. 49.—REMEDIES FOR TOOTH-ACHE. CHAP. 50. (12.)—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE FACE. CHAP. 51.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE TONSILLARY GLANDS, AND FOR SCROFULA. CHAP. 52—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE NECK. CHAP. 53.—-REMEDIES FOR COUGH AND FOR SPITTING OF BLOOD. CHAP. 54. (13.)—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE STOMACH. CHAP. 55.—REMEDIES FOR LIVER COMPLAINTS AND FOR ASTHMA. CHAP. 56.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE LOINS. CHAP. 57.—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE SPLEEN. CHAP. 58. (14.)—REMEDIES FOR BOWEL COMPLAINTS. CHAP. 59.—REMEDES FOR TENESMUS, TAPEWORM, AND AFFECTIONS OF THE COLON. CHAP. 60. (15.)—-REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE BLADDER, AND FOR URINARY CALCULI. CHAP. 61.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS AND OF THE FUNDAMENT. CHAP. 62. (16.)—REMEDIES FOR GOUT AND FOR DISEASES OF THE FEET. CHAP. 63.—REMEDIES FOR EPILEPSY. CHAP. 64.—REMEDIES FOR JAUNDICE. CHAP. 65.—-REMEDIES FOR BROKEN BONES. CHAP. 66.—REMEDIES FOR FEVERS. CHAP. 67. (17.)—REMEDIES FOR MELANCHOLY, LETHARGY, AND PHTHSIS. CHAP. 68.—REMEDIES FOR DROPSY. CHAP. 69.—REMEDIES FOR ERYSIPELAS, AND FOR PURULENT ERUPTIONS. CHAP. 70.—REMEDIES FOR SPRAINS, INDURATIONS, AND BOILS. CHAP. 71.—REMEDIES FOR BURNS. THE METHOD OF TESTING BULL-GLUE; SEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. CHAP. 72.— REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE SINEWS AND FOR CONTUSIONS. CHAP. 73. (18.)—REMEDIES FOR HÆMORRHAGE. CHAP. 74.—REMEDIES FOR ULCERS AND CARACINOMATOUS SORES. CHAP. 75.—REMEDIES FOR THE ITCH. CHAP. 76.—METHODS OF EXTRACTING FOREIGN SUBSTANCES WHICH ADHERE TO THE, BODY, AND OF RESTORING SCARS TO THEIR NATURAL COLOUR. CHAP. 77. (19.)—REMEDIES FOR FEMALE DISEASES. CHAP. 78.—REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF INFANTS. CHAP. 79.—PROVOCATIVES OF SLEEP. CHAP. 80.—STIMLANTS FOR THE SEXUAL PASSIONS. CHAP. 81. (20.)—REMARKABLE FACTS RELATIVE TO ANIMALS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE ORIGIN OF THE MEDICAL ART. CHAP. 2.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO HIPPOCRATES. DATE OF THE ORIGIN OF CLINICAL PRACTICE AND OF THAT OF IATRALIPTICS. CHAP. 3.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO CHRYSIPPUS AND ERASIS- TRATUS. CHAP. 4.—THE EMPIRIC BRANCH OF MEDICINE. CHAP. 5.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO HEROPHILUS AND OTHER CELEBRATED PHYSICIANS. THE VARIOUS CHANGES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE IN THE SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. CHAP. 6.—WHO FIRST PRACTISED AS A PHYSICIAN AT ROME, AND AT WHAT PERIOD. CHAP. 7.—THE OPINIONS ENTERTAINED BY THE ROMANS ON THE ANCIENT PHYSICIANS. CHAP. 8.—EVILS ATTENDANT UPON THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. CHAP. 9.—THIRTY-FIVE REMEDIES DEEIVED FROM WOOL. CHAP. 10.—THIRTY-TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM WOOL-GREASE. CHAP. 11. (3.)—TWENTY-TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM EGGS. CHAP. 12.—SERPENTS' EGGS. CHAP. 13.—THE METHOD OF PREPARING COMMAGENUM. FOUR REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. CHAP. 14. (4.)—REMEDIES DERVED FROM THE DOO. CHAP. 15.—REMEDIES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT MALADIES. REMEDIES FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY SERPENTS. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MICE. CHAP. 16.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE WEASEL. CHAP. 17.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM BUGS. CHAP. 18.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO THE ASP. CHAP. 19.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE BASILISK. CHAP. 20.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE DRAGON. CHAP. 21.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE VIPER. CHAP. 22.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE OTHER SERPENTS. CHAP. 23.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SALAMANDER. CHAP. 24.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM BIRDS FOR INJURIES IN- FLICTED BY SERPENTS. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE VULTURE. CHAP. 25.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM POULTRY. CHAP. 26.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM OTHER BIRDS. CHAP. 27.—REMEDIES FOR THE BITE OF THE PHALANGIUM. THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF THAT INSECT, AND OF THE SPIDER. CHAP. 28.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE STELLIO OR SPOTTED LIZARD. CHAP. 29.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM VARIOUS INSECTS. CHAP. 30.—REMEDIES DERIVED :FROM CANTHARIDES. CHAP. 31.—VARIOUS COUNTER-POISONS. CHAP. 32.—REMEDIES FOR THE BITE OF THE MAD DOG. CHAP. 33.—REMEDIES FOR THE OTHER POISONS. CHAP. 34. (6.)—REMEDIES FOR ALOPECY. CHAP. 35.—REMEDIES FOR LICE AND FOR PORRIGO. CHAP. 36.—REMEDIES FOR HEAD-ACHE AND FOR WOUNDS ON THE HEAD. CHAP. 37.—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE EYELIDS. CHAP. 38.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE EYES. CHAP. 39.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS AND DISEASES OF THE EARS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE ORIGIN OF THE MAGIC ART. CHAP. 2.—WHEN AND WHERE THE ART OF MAGIC ORIGINATED: BY WHAT PERSONS IT WAS FIRST PRACTISED. CHAP. 3.—WHETHER MAGIC WAS EVER PRACTISED IN ITALY. AT WHAT PERIOD THE SENATE FIRST FORBADE HUMAN SACRIFICES. CHAP. 4.—THE DRUIDS OF THE GALLIC PROVINCES. CHAP. 5. (2.)—THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF MAGIC. CHAP. 6.—THE SUBTERFUGES PRACTISED BY THE MAGICIANS. CHAP. 7. (3.)—OPINIONS OF THE MAGICIANS RELATIVE TO THE MOLE. FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. CHAP. 8.—THE OTHER REMEDIES DERIVED FROM LIVING CREATURES. CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE RESPECTIVE DISEASES. REMEDIES FOR TOOTH-ACHE. CHAP. 9. (4.)—REMEDIES FOR OFFENSIVE ODOURS AND SORES OF THE MOUTH. CHAP. 10.—REMEDIES FOR SPOTS UPON THE FACE. CHAP. 11.—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE THROAT. CHAP. 12.—REMEDIES FOR QUINZY AND SCROFULA. CHAP. 13.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE SHOULDERS. CHAP. 14.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE VISCERA. CHAP. 15.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE STOMACH. CHAP. 16.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE LIVER, AND FOR SPITTING OF BLOOD. CHAP. 17.—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE SPLEEN. CHAP. 18.—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE SIDE AND IN THE LOINS. CHAP. 19. (7.)—REMEDIES FOR DYSENTERY. CHAP. 20.—REMEDES FOR THE ILIAC PASSION, AND FOR OTHER MALADIES OF THE BOWELS. CHAP. 21. (8.)—REMEDIES FOR URINARY CALCULI AND AFFECTIONS OF THE BLADDER. CHAP. 22.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE FUNDAMENT AND OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS. CHAP. 23. (9.)—REMEDIES FOR GOUT AND FOR DISEASES OF THE FEET. CHAP. 24. (10.)—REMEDIES FOR EVILS WHICH ARE LIABLE TO AFFECT THE WHOLE BODY. CHAP. 25.—REMEDIES FOR COLD SHIVERINGS. CHAP. 26.—REMEDIES FOR PARALYSIS. CHAP. 27.—REMEDIES FOR EPILEPSY. CHAP. 28. (11.)—REMEDIES FOR JAUNDICE. CHAP. 29.—REMEDIES FOR PHRENITIS. CHAP. 30.—REMEDIES FOR FEVERS. CHAP. 31.—REMEDIES FOR DROPSY. CHAP. 32. (12).—REMEDIES FOR ERYSIPELAS. CHAP. 33.—REMEDIES FOR CARBUNCLES. CHAP. 34.—REMEDIES FOR BOILS. CHAP. 35.—REMEDIES FOR BURNS. CHAP. 36.—REMEDIES FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE SINEWS. CHAP. 37.—REMEDIES FOR MALADIES OF THE NAILS AND FINGERS. CHAP. 38. (13.)—METHODS FOR ARRESTING HÆMORRHAGE. CHAP. 39.—REMEDIES FOR ULCEROUS SORES AND WOUNDS. CHAP. 40.—REMEDIES FOR BROKEN BONES. CHAP. 41.—APPLICATIONS FOR CICATRIZATIONS, AND FOR, THE CURE OF MORPHEW. CHAP. 42.—METHODS OF EXTRICTXING FOREIGN SUBSTANCES FROM THE BODY. CHAP. 43. (14.)—REMEDIES FOR FEMALE COMPLAINTS. CHAP. 44.—METHODS OF FACILITATING DELIVERY. CHAP. 45.—METHODS OF PRESERVING THE BREASTS FROM INJURY. CHAP. 46.—VARIOUS KINDS OF DEPILATORIES. CHAP. 47.—REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF INFANTS. CHAP. 48.—PROVOCATIYES OF SLEEP. CHAP. 49.—APHRODISIACS AND ANTAPHRODISIACS. CHAP. 50.—REMEDIES FOR PHTHIRIASIS, AND FOR VARIOUS OTHER AFFECTIONS. CHAP. 51.—REMEDIES FOR INTOXICATION. CHAP. 52.—PECULIARITIES RELATIVE TO CERTAIN ANIMALS. CHAP. 53. (16.)—OTHER MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH ANIMALS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—REMARKABLE FACTS CONNECTED WITH WATER. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF WATERS. CHAP. 3.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM WATER. CHAP. 4.—WATERS PRODUCTIVE OF FECUNDITY. WATERS CURATIVE OF INSANITY. CHAP. 5.—WATERS REMEDIAL FOR URINARY CALCULI. CHAP. 6.—WATERS CURATIVE OF WOUNDS. CHAP. 7.—WATERS PREVENTIVE OF ABORTION. CHAP. 8.—WATERS WHICH REMOVE MORPHEW. CHAP. 9.—WATERS WITCH COLOUR THE HAIR. CHAP. 10.—WATERS WHICH COLOUR THE HUMAN BODY. CHAP. 11.—WATERS WHICH AID THE MEMORY, OR ARE PRODUCTIVE OF FORGETFULNESS. CHAP. 12.—WATERS WHICH SHARPEN OR DULL THE SENSES. WATERS WHICH IMPROVE THE VOICE. CHAP. 13.—WATERS WHICH CAUSE A DISTASTE FOR WINE. WATERS WHICH PRODUCE INEBRIETY. CHAP. 14.—WATERS WHICH SERVE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR OIL. CHAP. 15.—SALT AND BITTER WATERS. CHAP. 16.—WATERS WHICH THROW UP STONES. WATERS WHICH CAUSE LAUGHTER AND WEEPING. WATERS WHICH ARE SAID TO BF CURATIVE OF LOVE. CHAP. 17.—WATERS WHICH PRESERVE THEIR WARMTH FOR THREE DAYS. CHAP. 18.—OTHER MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH WATER. WATERS IN WHICH EVERYTHING WILL SINK. WATERS IN WHICH NOTHING WILL SINK. CHAP. 19.—DEADLY WATERS. POISONOUS FISHES. CHAP. 20.—WATERS WHICH PETRIFY, THEMSELVES, OR CAUSE OTHER OBJECTS TO PETRIFY. CHAP. 21. (3.)—THE WHOLESOMIENESS OF WATERS. CHAP. 22.—THE IMPURITIES OF WATER. CHAP. 23.—THE MODES OF TESTING WATER. CHAP. 24.—THE MARCIAN WATERS. CHAP. 25.—THE VIRGIN WATERS. CHAP. 26.—TE METHOD OF SEARCHING FOR WATER. CHAP. 27.—SIGNS INDICATIVE OF THE PRESENCE OF WATER. CHAP. 28.—DIFFERENCES IN WATERS, ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF THE SOIL. CHAP. 29.—THE QUALITIES OF WATER AT THE DIFFERENT SEASONS OF THE YEAR. CHAP. 30.—HISTORICAL OBSERVATIONS UPON WATERS WHICH HAVE SUDDENLY MADE THEIR APPEARANCE OR SUDDENLY CEASED. CHAP. 31. (6.)—THE METHOD OF CONVEYING WATER. CHAP. 32—HOW MINERAL WATERS SHOULD BE USED. CHAP. 33.—THE USES OF SEA-WATER. THE ADVANTAGES OF A SEA-VOYAGE. CHAP. 34.—HOW ARTIFICIAL SEA-WATER MAY BE MADE IN PLACES AT A DISTANCE FROM THE SEA. CHAP. 35.—HOW THALASSOMELI IS MADE. CHAP. 36.—How HYDROMELI IS MADE. CHAP. 37.—METHODS OF PROVIDING AGAINST THE INCONVENIENCE OF DRINKING SUSPECTED WATER. CHAP. 38.—SIX REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MOSS. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM SAND. CHAP. 39. (7.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF SALT; THE METHODS OF PREPARING IT, AND THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. TWO HUNDRED AND FOUR OBSERVATIONS THERE UPON. CHAP. 40.—MURIA. CHAP. 41.—THE VARIOUS PROPERTIES OF SALT: ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY HISTORICAL REMARKS RELATIVE THERETO. CHAP. 42.—FLOWER OF SALT: TWENTY REMEDIES. SALSUGO: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 43.—GARUM: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 44.—ALEX: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 45. (9.)—THE NATURE OF SALT. CHAP. 46. (10.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF NITRUM, THE METHODS OF PREPARING IT, AND THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT: TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-ONE OBSERVATIONS THEREON. CHAP. 47. (11.)—SPONGES, AND THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THEM: NINETY-TWO OBSERVATIONS THEREON. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE POWER OF NATURE AS MANIFESTED IN ANTIPATHIES. THE ECHENEÏS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 2.—THE TORPEDO: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 3.—THE SEA HARE: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 4.—MARVELS OF THE RED SEA. CHAP. 5. (2.)—THE INSTINCTS OF FISHES. CHAP. 6.—MARVELLOUS PROPERTIES BELONGING TO CERTAIN FISHES. CHAP. 7.—PLACES WHERE FISH EAT FROM THE HAND. CHAP. 8.—PLACES WHERE FISH RECOGNIZE THE HUMAN VOICE. ORACULAR RESPONSES GIVEN BY FISH. CHAP. 9.—PLACES WHERE BITTER FISH ARE FOUND, SALT, OR SWEET. CHAP. 10.—WHEN SEA-FISH WERE FIRST EATEN BY THE PEOPLE OF ROME. THE ORDINANCE OF KING NUMA AS TO FISH. CHAP. 11.—CORAL: FORTY-THREE REMEDIES AND OBSERVATIONS. CHAP. 12. —THE ANTIPATHIES AND SYMPATHIES WHICH EXIST BETWEEN CERTAIN OBJECTS. THE HATREDS MANIFESTED BY CERTAIN AQUATIC ANIMALS. THE PASTINACA: EIGHT REMEDIES. THE GALEOS: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. THE SUR-MULLET: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 13. (3).—AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. CASTOREUM: SIXTY-SIX REMEDIES AND OBSERVATIONS. CHAP. 14. (4)—THE TORTOISE: SIXTY-SIX REMEDIES AND OBSERVATIONS. CHAP. 15.—REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE AQUATIC ANIMALS, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE RESPECTIVE DISEASES. CHAP. 16. (5.)—REMEDIES FOR POISONS, AND FOR NOXIOUS SPELLS. THE DORADE: FOUR REMEDIES. THE SEA-STAR: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 17.—REMEDIES FOR THE STINGS OF SERPENTS, FOR THE BITES OF DOGS, AND FOR INJURIES INFLICTED BY VENOMOUS ANIMALS, THE SEA-DRAGON: THREE REMEDIES. TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM SALTED FISH. THE SARDA: ONE REMEDY. ELEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CYBIUM. CHAP. 18.—THE SEA-FROG: SIX REMEDIES. THE RIVER-FROG: FIFTY-TWO REMEDIES. THE BRAMBLE-FROG: ONE REMEDY. THIRTY-TWO OBSERVATIONS ON THESE ANIMALS. CHAP. 19.—THE ENHYDRIS: SIX REMEDIES. THE RIVER-CRAB: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. THE SEA-CRAB: SEVEN REMEDIES. THE RIVER-SNAIL: SEVEN REMEDIES. THE CORACINUS: FOUR REMEDIES. THE SEA-PIG: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 20.—THE SEA-CALF: TEN REMEDIES. THE MURÆNA: ONE REMEDY. THE HIPPOCAMPUS: NINE REMEDIES. THE SEA-URCHIN: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 21. (6.)—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF OYSTERS: FIFTY-EIGHT REMEDIES AND OBSERVATIONS. PURPLES: NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 22.—SEA-WEED: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 23. (7.)—REMEDIES FOR ALOPECY, CHANGE OF COLOUR IN THE HAIR, AND ULCERATIONS OF THE HEAD. THE SEA-MOUSE: TWO REMEDIES. THE SEA-SCORPION: TWELVE REMEDIES. THE LEECH: SEVEN REMEDIES. THE MUREX: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. THE CONCHYLIUM: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 24.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE EYES AND EYE-LIDS. TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE FAT OF FISHES. THE CALLIONYMUS: THREE REMEDIES. THE GALL OF THE CORACINUS: ONE REMEDY. THE SÆPIA: TWENTY-FOUR REMEDIES. ICHTHYOCOLLA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 25.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE EARS. THE BATIA: ONE REMEDY. THE BACCHUS OR MYXON: TWO REMEDIES. THE SEA-LOUSE: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 26.—REMEDIES FOR TOOTH-ACHE. THE DOG-FISH : FOUR REMEDIES. WHALE'S FLESH. CHAP. 27.—REMEDIES FOR LICHENS, AND FOR SPOTS UPON THE FACE. THE DOLPHIN: NINE REMEDIES. COLUTHIA OR CORYPHIA: THREE REMEDIES. HALCYONEUM : SEVEN REMEDIES. THE TUNNY : FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—REMEDIES FOR SCROFULA, IMPOSTHUMES OF THE PAROTID GLANDS, QUINSY, AND DISEASES OF THE FAUCES. THE MÆNA: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. THE SEA-SCOLOPENDRA: TWO REMEDIES. THE SAURUS: ONE REMEDY. SHELL-FISH: ONE REMEDY. THE SILURUS: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—REMEDIES FOR COUGH AND DISEASES OF THE CHEST. CHAP. 30. (9.)—REMEDIES FOR PAINS IN THE LIVER AND SIDE. THE ELONGATED CONCH: SIX REMEDIES. THE TETHEA: FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE BOWELS. SEA-WORT: ONE REMEDY. THE MYAX: TWENTY-FIVE REMEDIES. THE MITULUS: EIGHT REMEDIES. PELORIDES: ONE REMEDY. SERIPHUM: TWO REMEDIES. THE ERYTHINUS: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN, FOR URINARY CALCULI, AND FOR AFFECTIONS OF THE BLADDER. THE SOLE: ONE REMEDY. THE TURBOT: ONE REMEDY. THE BLENDIUS: ONE REMEDY. THE SEA-NETTLE: SEVEN REMEDIES. THE PULMO MARINUS: SIX REMEDIES. ONYCHES: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—REMEDIES FOR INTESTINAL HERNIA, AND FOR DISEASES OF THE RECTUM. THE WATER-SNAKE: ONE REMEDY. THE HYDRUS: ONE REMEDY. THE MULLET: ONE REMEDY. THE PELAMIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—REMEDIES FOR INFLAMED TUMOURS, AND FOR DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS. THE SCIÆNA: ONE REMEDY. THE PERCH: FOUR REMEDIES. THE SQUATINA: THREE REMEDIES. THE SMARIS: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—REMEDIES FOR GOUT, AND FOR PAINS IN THE FEET. THE BEAVER: FOUR REMEDIES. BRYON: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 37.—REMEDIES FOR EPILEPSY. CHAP. 38. (10.)—REMEDIES FOR FEVERS. THE FISH CALLED ASELLUS: ONE REMEDY. THE PHAGRUS: ONE REMEDY. THE BALÆNA: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 39.—REMEDIES FOR LETHARGY, CACHEXY, AND DROPSY. CHAP. 40.—REMEDIES FOR BURNS AND FOR ERYSIPELAS. CHAP. 41.—REMEDIES FOR DISEASES OF THE SINEWS. CHAP. 42.—METHODS OF ARRESTING HÆMORRHAGE AND OF LETTING BLOOD. THE POLYP: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 43.—METHODS OF EXTRACTING FOREIGN BODIES FROM THE FLESH. CHAP. 44.—REMEDIES FOR ULCERS, CARCINOMATA, AND CARBUNCLES. CHAP. 45.—REMEDIES FOR WARTS, AND FOR MALFORMED NAILS. THE GLANIS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 46.—REMEDIES FOR FEMALE DISEASES. THE GLAUCISCUS: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 47.—METHODS OF REMOVING SUPERFLUOUS HAIR. DEPILATORIES. CHAP. 48.—REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF INFANTS. CHAP. 49.—METHODS OF PREVENTING INTOXICATION. THE FISH CALLED RUBELLIO: ONE REMEDY. THE EEL: ONE REMEDY. THE GRAPE-FISH: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 50.—ANTAPHRODISIACS AND APHRODISIACS. THE HIPPOPOTAMUS: ONE REMEDY. THE CROCODILE: ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 51.—REMEDIES FOR THE DISEASES OF ANIMALS. CHAP. 52.—OTHER AQUATIC PRODUCTIONS. ADARCA OR CALAMOCHNOS: THREE REMEDIES. REEDS: EIGHT REMEDIES. THE INK OF THE SÆPIA. CHAP. 53. (11.)—THE NAMES OF ALL THE ANIMALS THAT EXIST IN THE SEA, ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SIX IN NUMBER. CHAP. 54.—ADDITIONAL NAMES OF FISHES FOUND IN THE POEM OF OVID. CHAP. 1. (1.)—METALS. CHAP. 2.—GOLD. CHAP. 3.—WHAT WAS THE FIRST RECOMMENDATION OF GOLD. CHAP. 4.—THE ORIGIN OF GOLD RINGS. CHAP. 5.—THE QUANTITY OF GOLD POSSESSED BY THE ANCIENTS. CHAP. 6.—THE RIGHT OF WEARING GOLD RINGS. CHAP. 7.—THE DECURIES OF THE JUDGES. CHAP. 8.—PARTICULARS CONNECTED WITH THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER. CHAP. 9.—HOWOFTEN THE NAME OF THE EQUESTRIAN ORDER HAS BEEN CHANGED. CHAP. 10.—GIFTS FOR MILITARY SERVICES, IN GOLD AND SILVER. CHAP. 11.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE FIRST CROWN OF GOLD WAS PRESENTED. CHAP. 12. (3.)—OTHER USES MADE OF GOLD, BY FEMALES. CHAP. 13.—COINS OF GOLD. AT WHAT PERIODS COPPER, GOLD, AND SILVER WERE FIRST IMPRESSED. HOW COPPER WAS USED BEFORE GOLD AND SILVER WERE COINED. WHAT WAS THE LARGEST SUM OF MONEY POSSESSED BY ANY ONE AT THE TIME OF OUR FIRST CENSUS. HOW OFTEN, AND AT WHAT PERIODS, THE VALUE OF COPPER AND OF COINED MONEY HAS BEEN CHANGED. CHAP. 14.—CONSIDERATIONS ON MAN'S CUPIDITY FOR GOLD. CHAP. 15.—THE PERSONS WHO HAVE POSSESSED THE GREATEST QUANTITY OF GOLD AND SILVER. CHAP. 16.—AT WHAT PERIOD SILVER FIRST MADE ITS APPEARANCE UPON THE ARENA AND UPON THE STAGE. CHAP. 17.—AT WHAT PERIODS THERE WAS THE GREATEST QUANTITY OF GOLD AND SILVER IN THE TREASURY OF THE ROMAN PEOPLE. CHAP. 18.—AT WHAT PERIOD CEILINGS WERE FIRST GILDED. CHAP. 19.—FOR WHAT REASONS THE HIGHEST VALUE IS SET UPON GOLD. CHAP. 20.—THE METHOD OF GILDING. CHAP. 21. (4.)—HOW GOLD IS FOUND. CHAP. 22.—ORPIMENT. CHAP. 23.—ELECTRUM. CHAP. 24.—THE FIRST STATUES OF GOLD. CHAP. 25.—EIGHT REMEDIES DERIVED FROM GOLD. CHAP. 26. (5.)—CHRYSOCOLLA. CHAP. 27.—THE USE MADE OF CHRYSOCOLLA IN PAINTING. CHAP. 28.—SEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CHRYSOCOLLA. CHAP. 29.—THE CHRYSOCOLLA OF THE GOLDSMITHS, KNOWN ALSO AS SANTERNA. CHAP. 30.—THE MARVELLOUS OPERATIONS OF NATURE IN SOLDERING METALLIC SUBSTANCES, AND BRINGING THEM TO A STATE OF PERFECTION. CHAP. 31. (6.)—SILVER. CHAP. 32.—QUICKSILVER. CHAP. 33.—STIMMI, STIBI, ALABASTRUM, LARBASIS, OR PLATYOPHTHALMON. CHAP. 34.—SEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM STIMMI. CHAP. 35.—THE SCORIA OF SILVER. SIX REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. CHAP. 36. (7.)—MINIUM: FOR WHAT RELIGIOUS PURPOSES IT WAS USED BY THE ANCIENTS. CHAP. 37.—THE DISCOVERY AND ORIGIN OF MINIUM. CHAP. 38.—CINNABARIS. CHAP. 39.—THE EMPLOYMENT OF CINNABARIS IN PAINTING. CHAP. 40.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF MINIUM. THE USE MADE OF IT IN PAINTING. CHAP. 41. (8.)—HYDRARGYROS. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM MINIUM. CHAP. 42.—THE METHOD OF GILDING SILVER. CHAP. 43.—TOUCHSTONES FOR TESTING GOLD. CHAP. 44.—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SILVER, AND THE MODES OF TESTING IT. CHAP. 45. (9.)—MIRRORS. CHAP. 46.—EGYPTIAN SILVER. CHAP. 47. (10.)—INSTANCES OF IMMENSE WEALTH. PERSONS WHO HAVE POSSESSED THE GREATEST SUMS OF MONEY. CHAP. 48.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE ROMAN PEOPLE FIRST MADE VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS. CHAP. 49. (11.)—INSTANCES OF LUXURY IN SILVER PLATE. CHAP. 50.—INSTANCES OF THE FRUGALITY OF THE ANCIENTS IN REFERENCE TO SILVER PLATE. CHAP. 51.—AT WHAT PERIOD SILVER WAS FIRST USED AS AN ORNAMENT FOR COUCHES. CHAP. 52.—AT WHAT PERIOD SILVER CHARGERS OF ENORMOUS SIZE WERE FIRST MADE. WHEN SILVER WAS FIRST USED AS A MATERIAL FOR SIDEBOARDS. WHEN THE SIDEBOARDS CALLED TYMPANA WERE FIRST INTRODUCED. CHAP. 53.—THE ENORMOUS PRICE OF SILVER PLATE. CHAP. 54. (12.)—STATUES OF SILVER. CHAP. 55.—THE MOST REMARKABLE WORKS IN SILVER, AND THE NAMES OF THE MOST FAMOUS ARTISTS IN SILVER. CHAP. 56.—SIL: THE PERSONS WHO FIRST USED IT IN PAINTING, AND THE METHOD THEY ADOPTED. CHAP. 57. (13.)—CÆRULEUM. CHAP. 58.—TWO REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CÆRULEUM. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE ORES OF BRASS. CHAP. 2.—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COPPER. CHAP. 3.—THE CORINTHIAN BRASS. CHAP. 4.—THE DELIAN BRASS. CHAP. 5.—THE ÆGINETAN BRASS. CHAP. 6. (3.)—STANDS FOR LAMPS. CHAP. 7.—ORNAMENTS OF THE TEMPLES MADE OF BRASS. CHAP. 8.—COUCHES OF BRASS. CHAP. 9. (4.)—WHICH WAS THE FIRST STATUE OF A GOD MADE OF BRASS AT ROME. THE ORIGIN OF STATUES, AND THE RESPECT PAID TO THEM. CHAP. 10. (5.)—THE DIFFERENT KINDS AND FORMS OF STATUES. STATUES AT ROME WITH CUIRASSES. CHAP. 11.—IN HONOUR OF WHOM PUBLIC STATUES WERE FIRST ERECTED: IN HONOUR OF WHOM THEY WERE FIRST PLACED ON PILLARS: WHEN THE ROSTRA WERE FIRST ERECTED. CHAP. 12.—IN HONOUR OF WHAT FOREIGNERS PUBLIC STATUES WERE ERECTED AT ROME. CHAP. 13.—THE FIRST EQUESTRIAN STATUES PUBLICLY ERECTED AT ROME, AND IN HONOUR OF WHAT FEMALES STATUES WERE PUBLICLY ERECTED THERE. CHAP. 14.—AT WHAT PERIOD ALL THE STATUES ERECTED BY PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS WERE REMOVED FROM THE PUBLIC PLACES. CHAP. 15.—THE FIRST STATUES PUBLICLY ERECTED BY FOREIGNERS. CHAP. 16. (7.)—THAT THERE WERE STATUARIES IN ITALY ALSO AT AN EARLY PERIOD. CHAP. 17.—THE IMMODERATE PRICES OF STATUES. CHAP. 18.—THE MOST CELEBRATED COLOSSAL STATUES IN THE CITY. CHAP. 19.—AN ACCOUNT OF THE MOST CELEBRATED WORKS IN BRASS, AND OF THE ARTISTS, 366 IN NUMBER. CHAP. 20.—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COPPER AND ITS COMBINATIONS. PYROPUS. CAMPANIAN COPPER. CHAP. 21.—THE METHOD OF PRESERVING COPPER. CHAP. 22. (10.)—CADMIA. CHAP. 23.—FIFTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CADMIA. TEN MEDICINAL EFFECTS OF CALCINED COPPER. CHAP. 24. (11.)—THE SCORIA OF COPPER. CHAP. 25.—STOMOMA OF COPPER; FORTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 26.—VERDIGRIS; EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 27.—HIERACIUM. CHAP. 28. (12.)—SCOLEX OF COPPER; EIGHTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 29.—CHALCITIS: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 30.—SORY: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 3—MISY: THIRTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—CHALCANTHUM, OR SHOEMAKERS' BLACK: SIXTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 33. (13.)—POMPHOLYX. CHAP. 34.—SPODOS; FIVE REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—FIFTEEN VARIETIES OF ANTISPODOS. CHAP. 36.—SMEGMA. CHAP. 37.—DIPHRYX. CHAP. 38.—PARTICULARS RELATIVE TO THE SERVILIAN TRIENS. CHAP. 39. (14).—IRON ORES. CHAP. 40.—STATUES OF IRON; CHASED WORKS IN IRON. CHAP. 41.—THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF IRON, AND THE MODE OF TEMPERING IT. CHAP. 42.—THE METAL CALLED LIVE IRON. CHAP. 43. (15.)—METHODS OF PREVENTING RUST. CHAP. 44.—SEVEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IRON. CHAP. 45.—FOURTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM RUST. CHAP. 46.—SEVENTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SCALES OF IRON. HYGREMPLASTRUM. CHAP. 47. (16.)—THE ORES OF LEAD. CHAP. 48. (17.)—STANNUM. ARGENTARIUM. CHAP. 49.—BLACK LEAD. CHAP. 50. (18.)—FIFTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM LEAD. CHAP. 51.—FIFTEEN REMEDIES DERIVED FROM THE SCORIA OF LEAD. CHAP. 52.—SPODIUM OF LEAD. CHAP. 53.—MOLYBDÆNA: FIFTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—PSIMITHIUM, OR CERUSE; SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 55.—SANDARACH; ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 56.—ARRHENICUM. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE HONOUR ATTACHED TO PAINTING. CHAP. 2. (2.)—THE HONOUR ATTACHED TO PORTRAITS. CHAP. 3. (3.)—WHEN SHIELDS WERE FIRST INVENTED WITH PORTRAITS UPON THEM; AND WHEN THEY WERE FIRST ERECTED IN PUBLIC. CHAP. 4.—WHEN THESE SHIELDS WERE FIRST PLACED IN PRIVATE HOUSES. CHAP. 5.—THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE ART OF PAINTING. MO- NOCHROME PAINTINGS. THE EARLIEST PAINTERS. CHAP. 6.—THE ANTIQUITY OF PAINTING IN ITALY. CHAP. 7. (4.)—ROMAN PAINTERS. CHAP. 8.—AT WHAT PERIOD FOREIGN PAINTINGS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED AT ROME. CHAP. 9.—AT WHAT PERIOD PAINTING WAS FIRST HELD IN HIGH ESTEEM AT ROME, AND FROM WHAT CAUSES. CHAP. 10.—WHAT PICTURES THE EMPERORS HAVE EXHIBITED IN PUBLIC. CHAP. 11. (5.)—THE ART OF PAINTING. CHAP. 12. (6.)—PIGMENTS OTHER THAN THOSE OF A METALLIC ORIGIN. ARTIFICIAL COLOURS. CHAP. 13.—SINOPIS: ELEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—RUBRICA; LEMNIAN EARTH: FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 15.—EGYPTIAN EARTH. CHAP. 16.—OCHRA: REMEDIES DERIVED FROM RUBRICA. CHAP. 17.—LEUCOPHORON. CHAP. 18.—PARÆTONIUM. CHAP. 19.—MELINUM: SIX REMEDIES. CERUSE. CHAP. 20.—USTA. CHAP. 21.—ERETRIA. CHAP. 22.—SANDARACH. CHAP. 23.—SANDYX. CHAP. 24.—SYRICUM. CHAP. 25.—ATRAMENTUM. CHAP. 26.—PURPURISSUM. CHAP. 27.—INDICUM. CHAP. 28.—ARMENIUM; ONE REMEDY. CHAP. 29.—APPIANUM. CHAP. 30.—ANULARIAN WHITE. CHAP. 31. (7.)—WHICH COLOURS DO NOT ADMIT OF BEING LAID ON A WET COATING. CHAP. 32.—WHAT COLOURS WERE USED BY THE ANCIENTS IN PAINTING. CHAP. 33.—AT WHAT TIME COMBATS OF GLADIATORS WERE FIRST PAINTED AND PUBLICLY EXHIBITED. CHAP. 34. (8.)—THE AGE OF PAINTING; WITH THE NAMES OF THE MORE CELEBRATED WORKS AND ARTISTS, FOUR HUNDRED AND FIVE IN NUMBER. CHAP. 35. (9.)—THE FIRST CONTEST FOR EXCELLENCE IN THE PICTORIAL ART. CHAP. 36.—ARTISTS WHO PAINTED WITH THE PENCIL. CHAP. 37.—VARIOUS OTHER KINDS OF PAINTING. CHAP. 38. (11.)—AN EFFECTUAL WAY OF PUTTING A STOP TO THE SINGING OF BIRDS. CHAP. 39.—ARTISTS WHO HAVE PAINTED IN ENCAUSTICS OR WAX, WITH EITHER THE CESTRUM OR THE PENCIL. CHAP. 40.—THE FIRST INVENTORS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF PAINTING. THE GREATEST DIFFICULTIES IN THE ART OF PAINTING. THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF PAINTING. THE FIRST ARTIST THAT PAINTED CEILINGS. WHEN ARCHED ROOFS WERE FIRST PAINTED. THE MARVELLOUS PRICE OF SOME PICTURES. CHAP. 41.—ENCAUSTIC PAINTING. CHAP. 42.—THE COLOURING OF TISSUES. CHAP. 43. (12.)—THE INVENTORS OF THE ART OF MODELLING. CHAP. 44.—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO MOULD FIGURES IN IMITATION OF THE FEATURES OF LIVING PERSONS, OR OF STATUES. CHAP. 45.—THE MOST FAMOUS MODELLERS. CHAP. 46.—WORKS IN POTTERY. CHAP. 47. (13.)—VARIOUS KINDS OF EARTH. THE PUTEOLAN DUST, AND OTHER EARTHS OF WHICH CEMENTS LIKE STONE ARE MADE. CHAP. 48. (14.)—FORMACEAN WALLS. CHAP. 49.—WALLS OF BRICK. THE METHOD OF MAKING BRICKS. CHAP. 50. (15.)—SULPHUR, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT: FOURTEEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 51.—BITUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; TWENTY-SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 52.—ALUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; THIRTY-EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 53. (16.)—SAMIAN EARTH: THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 54.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF ERETRIA. CHAP. 55.—THE METHOD OF WASHING EARTHS FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES. CHAP. 56.—CHIAN EARTH; THREE REMEDIES. SELINUSIAN EARTH; THREE REMEDIES. PNIGITIS; NINE REMEDIES. AMPELITIS; FOUR REMEDIES. CHAP. 57. (17.)—CRETACEOUS EARTHS USED FOR SCOURING CLOTH. CIMOLIAN EARTH; NINE REMEDIES. SARDINIAN EARTH. UMBRIAN EARTH. SAXUM. CHAP. 58.—ARGENTARIA. NAMES OF FREEDMEN WHO HAVE EITHER RISEN TO POWER THEMSELVES, OR HAVE BELONGED TO MEN OF INFLUENCE. CHAP. 59. (19.)—THE EARTH OF GALATA; OF CLYPEA; OF THE BALEARES; AND OF EBUSUS. CHAP. 1. (1.)—LUXURY DISPLAYED IN THE USE OF VARIOUS KINDS OF MARBLE. CHAP. 2.—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO EMPLOY MARBLE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS. CHAP. 3. (3.)—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO ERECT COLUMNS OF FOREIGN MARBLE AT ROME. CHAP. 4. (4.)—THE FIRST ARTISTS WHO EXCELLED IN THE SCULPTURE OF MARBLE, AND THE VARIOUS PERIODS AT WHICH THEY FLOURISHED. THE MAUSOLEUM IN CARIA. THE MOST CELEBRATED SCULPTORS AND WORKS IN MARBLE, TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE IN NUMBER. CHAP. 5. (6.)—AT WHAT PERIOD MARBLE WAS FIRST USED IN BUILDINGS. CHAP. 6.—WHO WERE THE FIRST TO CUT MARBLE INTO SLABS, AND AT WHAT PERIOD. CHAP. 7.—WHO WAS THE FIRST TO ENCRUST THE WALLS OF HOUSES AT ROME WITH MARBLE. CHAP. 8.—AT WHAT PERIOD THE VARIOUS KINDS OF MARBLE CAME INTO USE AT ROME. CHAP. 9.—THE METHOD OF CUTTING MARBLE INTO SLABS. THE SAND USED IN CUTTING MARBLE. CHAP. 10. (7.)—STONE OF NAXOS. STONE OF ARMENIA. CHAP. 11.—THE MARBLES OF ALEXANDRIA. CHAP. 12.—ONYX AND ALABASTRITES; SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 13.—LYGDINUS; CORALLITIC STONE; STONE OF ALABANDA; STONE OF THEBAIS; STONE OF SYENE. CHAP. 14.—OBELISKS. CHAP. 15. (10.)—THE OBELISK WHICH SERVES AS A DIAL IN THE CAMPUS MARTIUS. CHAP. 16. (12.)—MARVELLOUS WORKS IN EGYPT. THE PYRAMIDS. CHAP. 17.—THE EGYPTIAN SPHINX. CHAP. 18.—THE PHAROS. CHAP. 19. (13.)—LABYRINTHS. CHAP. 20.—HANGING GARDENS. A HANGING CITY. CHAP. 21. (14.)—THE TEMPLE OF DIANA AT EPHESUS. CHAP. 22. (15.)—MARVELS CONNECTED WITH OTHER TEMPLES. CHAP. 23.—THE FUGITIVE STONE. THE SEVEN-FOLD ECHO. BUILDINGS ERECTED WITHOUT THE USE OF NAILS. CHAP. 24.—MARVELLOUS BUILDINGS AT ROME, EIGHTEEN IN NUMBER. CHAP. 25. (16.)—THE MAGNET: THREE REMEDIES CHAP. 26.—STONE OF SCYROS. CHAP. 27. (17.)—SARCOPHAGUS, OR STONE OF ASSOS: TEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 28.—CHERNITES. CHAP. 29. (18.)—OSSEOUS STONES. PALM STONES. CORANI. BLACK STONES. CHAP. 30.—MOLAR STONES. PYRITES; SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 31.—OSTRACITES; FOUR REMEDIES. AMIANTHUS; TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 32.—GEODES; THREE REMEDIES. CHAP. 33.—MELITINUS; SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 34.—GAGATES: SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 35.—SPONGITES: TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 36.—PHRYGIAN STONE. CHAP. 37. (20.)—HÆMATITES: FIVE REMEDIES. SCHISTOS: SEVEN REMEDIES. CHAP. 38.—ÆTHIOPIC HÆMATITES. ANDRODAMAS; TWO REMEDIES. ARABIAN HÆMATITES. MILTITES OR HEPATITES. ANTHRACITES. CHAP. 39. (21)—AËTITES. TAPHIUSIAN STONE. CALLIMUS. CHAP. 40.—SAMIAN STONE: EIGHT REMEDIES. CHAP. 41.—ARABIAN STONE; SIX REMEDIES. CHAP. 42.—PUMICE; NINE REMEDIES. CHAP. 43. (22.)—STONES FOR MORTARS USED FOR MEDICINAL AND OTHER PURPOSES. ETESIAN STONE. THEBAIC STONE. CHALAZIAN STONE. CHAP. 44.—STONE OF SIPHNOS. SOFT STONES. CHAP. 45.—SPECULAR STONES. CHAP. 46.—PHENGITES. CHAP. 47.—WHETSTONES. CHAP. 48.—TOPHUS. CHAP. 49.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF SILEX.. CHAP. 50.—OTHER STONES USED FOR BUILDING. CHAP. 51.—THE VARIOUS METHODS OF BUILDING. CHAP. 52. (23.)—CISTERNS. CHAP. 53.—QUICK-LIME. CHAP. 54.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF SAND. THE COMBINATIONS OF SAND WITH LIME. CHAP. 55.—DEFECTS IN BUILDING. PLASTERS FOR WALLS. CHAP. 56.—COLUMNS. THE SEVERAL KINDS OF COLUMNS. CHAP. 57. (24.)—FIVE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM LIME. CHAP. 58.—MALTHA. CHAP. 59.—gypsum. CHAP. 60. (25.)—PAVEMENTS. THE ASAROTOS ŒCOS. CHAP. 61.—THE FIRST PAVEMENTS IN USE AT ROME. CHAP. 62.—TERRACE-ROOF PAVEMENTS. CHAP. 63.—GRÆCANIC PAVEMENTS. CHAP. 64.—AT WHAT PERIOD MOSAIC PAVEMENTS WERE FIRST INVENTED. AT WHAT PERIOD ARCHED ROOFS WERE FIRST DECORATED WITH GLASS. CHAP. 65. (26.)—THE ORIGIN OF GLASS. CHAP. 66.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF GLASS, AND THE MODE OF MAKING IT. CHAP. 67.—OBSIAN GLASS AND OBSIAN STONE. CHAP. 68. (27.)—MARVELLOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH FIRE. CHAP. 69.—THREE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM FIRE AND FROM ASHES. CHAP. 70.—PRODIGIES CONNECTED WITH THE HEARTH. CHAP. 1. (1.)—THE FIRST USE OF PRECIOUS STONES. CHAP. 2.—THE JEWEL OF POLYCRATES. CHAP. 3.—THE JEWEL OF PYRRBUS. CHAP. 4.—WHO WERE THE MOST SKILFUL LAPIDARIES. THE FINEST SPECIMENS OF ENGRAVING ON PRECIOUS STONES. CHAP. 5.—THE FIRST DACTYLIOTHECÆ AT ROME. CHAP. 6.—JEWELS DISPLAYED AT ROME IN THE TRIUMPH OF POMPEIUS MAGNUS. CHAP. 7.—AT WHAT PERIOD MURRHINE VESSELS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED AT ROME. INSTANCES OF LUXURY IN REFERENCE TO THEM. CHAP. 8.—THE NATURE OF MURRHINE VESSELS. CHAP. 9.—THE NATURE OF CRYSTAL. CHAP. 10.—LUXURY DISPLAYED IN THE USE OF CRYSTAL. REMEDIES DERIVED FROM CRYSTAL. CHAP. 11.—AMBER: THE MANY FALSEHOODS THAT HAVE BEEN TOLD ABOUT IT. CHAP. 12.—THE SEVERAL KINDS OF AMBER: THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. CHAP. 13.—LYNCURIUM: TWO ASSERTED REMEDIES. CHAP. 14.—THE VARIOUS PRECIOUS STONES, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR PRINCIPAL COLOURS. CHAP. 15. (4.)—ADAMAS: SIX VARIETIES OF IT. TWO REMEDIES. CHAP. 16.—SMARAGDUS. CHAP. 17.—TWELVE VARIETIES OF THE SMARAGDUS. CHAP. 18.—DEFECTS IN THE SMARAGDUS. CHAP. 19.—THE PRECIOUS STONE CALLED TANOS. CHALCOSMA-RAGDOS. CHAP. 20.—BERYLS: EIGHT VARIETIES OF THEM. DEFECTS IN BERYLS. CHAP. 21. (6.)—OPALS: SEVEN VARIETIES OF THEM. CHAP. 22.—DEFECTS IN OPALS: THE MODES OF TESTING THEM. CHAP. 23.—SARDONYX; THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT. DEFECTS IN THE SARDONYX. CHAP. 24.—ONYX: THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 25. (7.)—CARBUNCULUS: TWELVE VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 26.—DEFECTS IN CARBUNCULUS, AND THE MODE OF TESTING IT. CHAP. 27. —ANTHRACITIS. CHAP. 28. —SANDASTROS. SANDARESOS. CHAP. 29.—LYCHNIS: FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 30.—CARCHEDONIA. CHAP. 31.—SARDA : FIVE VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 32. (8.)—TOPAZOS: TWO VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 33.—CALLAINA. CHAP. 34.—PRASIUS; THREE VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 35.—NILION. CHAP. 36.—MOLOCHITIS. CHAP. 37.—IASPIS; FOURTEEN VARIETIES OF IT. DEFECTS FOUND IN IASPIS. CHAP. 38.—CYANOS; THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 39.—SAPPHIROS. CHAP. 40.—AMETHYSTOS; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. SOCONDION. SAPENOS. PHARANITIS. APHRODITES BLEPHARON, ANTEROS, OR PÆDEROS. CHAP. 41.—HYACINTHOS. CHAP. 42.—CHRYSOLITHOS: SEVEN VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 43.—CHRYSELECTRUM. CHAP. 44.—LEUCOCHRYSOS: FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 45.—MELICHRYSOS. XUTHON. CHAP. 46.—PÆDEROS, SANGENON, OR TENITES. CHAP. 47.—ASTERIA. CHAP. 48.—ASTRION. CHAP. 49.—ASTRIOTES. CHAP. 50.—ASTROBOLOS. CHAP. 51.—CERAUNIA; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 52.—IRIS; TWO VARIETIES OF IT. CHAP. 53.—LEROS. CHAP. 54.—ACHATES; THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT. ACOPOS; THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. ALABASTRITIS; THE REMEDIES DERIVED FROM IT. ALECTORIA. ANDRODAMAS. ARGYRODAMAS. ANTIPATHES. ARABICA. AROMATITIS. ASBESTOS. ASPISATIS. ATIZÖE. AUGETIS. AMPHIDANES OR CHRYSOCOLLA. APHRODISIACA. APSYCTOS. ÆGYPTILLA. CHAP. 55.—BALANITES. BATRACHITIS. BAPTES. BELI OCULUS. BELUS. BAROPTENUS OR BARIPPE. BOTRYITIS. BOSTRYCHITIS. BUCARDIA. BRONTEA. BOLOS. CHAP. 56.—CADMITIS. CALLAIS. CAPNITIS. CAPPADOCIA. CALLAICA. CATOCHITIS. CATOPTRITIS. CEPITIS OR CEPOLATITIS. CERAMITIS. CINÆDIA. CERITIS. CIRCOS. CORSOÏDES. CORALLOACHATES. CORALLIS. CRATERITIS. CROCALLIS. CYITIS. CHALCOPHONOS. CHELIDONIA. CHELONIA. CHELONITIS. CHLORITIS. CHOASPITIS. CHRYSOLAMPIS. CHRYSOPIS. CEPONIDES. CHAP. 57.—DAPHNEA. DIADOCHOS. DIPHYES. DIONYSIAS. DRACONITIS. CHAP. 58.—ENCARDIA OR ARISTE. ENORCHIS. EXEBENUS. ERYTHALLS. EROTYLOS. AMPHICOMOS, OR HIEROMNEMON. EUMECES. EUMITHRES. EUPETALOS. EUREOS. EUROTIAS. EUSEBES. EPIMELAS. CHAP. 59.—GALAXIAS. GALACTITIS, LEUCOGÆA, LEUCOGRAPRITIS, OR SYNNEPHITIS. GALLAICA. GASSINADE. GLOSSOPETRA. GORGONIA. GONIAÆA. CHAP. 60.—HELIOTROPIUM. HEPILESTITIS. HERMUAIDOION. HEXLCONTALITROS. HIERACITIS. HAMMITIS. HAMMONIS CORNU. HORMISCION. HYÆNIA. HÆMATITIS. CHAP. 61.—IDÆI DACTYLI. ICTERIAS. JOVIS GEMMA. INDICA. ION. CHAP. 62—LEPIDOTIS. LESBIAS. LEUCOPHTHALMOS. LEUCOPŒCILOS. LIBANOCHRUS. LIMONIATIS. LIPAREA. LYSIMACHOS. LEUCOCHRYSOS. CHAP. 63.—MEMNONIA. MEDIA. MECONITIS. MITHRAX, MOROCHTHOS. MORMORION OR PROMNION. MURRHITIS. MYRMECIAS. MYRSINITIS. MESOLEUCOS. MESOMELAS. CHAP. 64.—NASAMONITIS. NEBRITIS. NIPPARENE. CHAP. 65.—OICA. OMBRIA OR NOTIA. ONOCARDIA. ORITIS OR SIDERITIS. OSTRACIAS. OSTRITIS. OPHICARDELON. OBSIAN STONE. CHAP. 66.—PANCHRUS. PANGONUS. PANEROS OR PANERASTOS. PONTICA; FOUR VARIETIES OF IT. PHLOGINOS OR CHRYSITIS. PHŒNICITIS. PHYCITIS. PERILEUCOS. PÆANITIS OR GÆANIS. CHAP. 67.—SOLIS GEMMA. SAGDA. SAMOTHRACIA. SAURITIS. SARCITIS. SELENITIS. SIDERITIS. SIDEROPŒCILOS. SPONGITIS. SYNODONTITIS. SYRTITIS. SYRINGITIS. CHAP. 68.—TRICHRUS. THELYRRHIZOS. THELYCARDIOS OR MULC. THRACIA; THREE VARIETIES OF IT. TEPHRITIS. TECOLITHOS. CHAP. 69.—VENERIS CRINES. VEIENTANA. CHAP. 70.—ZATHENE. ZMILAMPIS. ZORANISCÆA. CHAP. 71. (11.)—PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY. HEPATITIS. STEATITIS. ADADUNEPHROS. ADADUOPHTHALMOS. ADADUDACTYLOS. TRIOPHTHALMOS. CHAP. 72.—PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM ANIMALS. CARCINIAS. ECHITIS. SCORPITIS. SCARITIS. TRIGLITIS. ÆGOPHTHALMOS. HYOPHTHALMOS. GERANITIS. HIERACITIS. AETITIS. MYRMECITIS. CANTHARIAS. LYCOPHTHALMOS. TAOS. TIMICTONIA. CHAP. 73.—PRECIOUS STONES WHICH DERIVE THEIR NAMES FROM OTHER OBJECTS. HAMMOCHRYSOS. CENCHRITIS. DRYITIS. CISSITIS. NARCISSITIS. CYAMIAS. PYREN. PHŒNICITIS. CHALAZIAS. PYRITIS. POLYZONOS. ASTRAPÆA. PHLOGITIS. ANTHEACITIS. ENHYGROS. POLYTHRIX. LEONTIOS. PAEDALIOS. DROSOLITHOS. MELICHRUS. MELICHLOROS, CROCIAS. POLIAS. SPARTOPOLIAS. RHODITIS. CHALCITIS. SYCITIS. BOSTRYCHITIS. CHERNITIS. ANANCITIS. SYNOCHITIS. DENDRITIS. CHAP. 74. (12.)—PRECIOUS STONES THAT SUDDENLY MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE. COCHLIDES. CHAP. 75.—THE VARIOUS FORMS OF PRECIOUS STONES. CHAP. 76. (13.)—THE METHODS OF TESTING PRECIOUS STONES. CHAP. 77.—A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF NATURE AS SHE APPEARS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. THE COMPARATIVE VALUES OF THINGS.

CHAP. 52.—ALUMEN, AND THE SEVERAL VARIETIES OF IT; THIRTY-EIGHT REMEDIES.

Not less important, or indeed very dissimilar, are the uses that are made of alumen;1 by which name is understood a sort of brine2 which exudes from the earth. Of this, too, there are several kinds. In Cyprus there is a white alumen, and another kind of a darker colour. The difference, however, in their colour is but trifling in reality, though the uses made of them are very dissimilar; the white liquid alumen being employed for dyeing3 wool of bright colours, and the black, on the other hand, for giving wool a tawny or a sombre tint. Gold, too, is purified4 by the agency of black alumen. Every kind of alumen is a compound of slime and water, or in other words, is a liquid product exuding from the earth; the concretion of it commencing in winter, and being completed by the action of the summer sun. That portion of it which is the first matured, is the whitest in appearance.

The countries which produce this substance, are Spain, Ægypt, Armenia, Macedonia, Pontus, Africa,5 and the islands of Sardinia, Melos, Lipara, and Strongyle:6 the most esteemed, however, is that of Egypt,7 the next best being the produce of Melos. Of this last kind there are also two varieties, the liquid alumen, and the solid. Liquid alumen, to be good, should be of a limpid, milky, appearance: when rubbed between the fingers it should be free from grit, and productive of a slight sensation of heat. The name given to it is "phorimon."8 The mode of detecting whether or not it has been adulterated, is by the application of pomegranate-juice; for if genuine, it will turn black on combining with the juice. The other, or solid alumen, is pale and rough in ap- pearance, and turns black on the application of nut-galls; for which reason it is known by the name of "paraphoron."9

Liquid alumen is naturally astringent, indurative, and corrosive: used in combination with honey, it heals ulcerations of the mouth, pimples, and pruriginous eruptions. The remedy, when thus used, is employed in the bath, the proportions being two parts of honey to one of alumen. It has the effect, also, of checking and dispersing perspiration, and of neutralizing offensive odours of the arm-pits. It is taken too, in the form of pills, for affections of the spleen, and for the purpose of carrying off blood by the urine: incorporated with nitre and melanthium,10 it is curative of itch-scab.

There is one kind of solid alumen, known to the Greeks as "schiston,"11 which splits into filaments of a whitish colour; for which reason some have preferred giving it the name of "trichitis."12 It is produced from the mineral ore known to us as "chalcitis,"13 from which copper is also produced, it being a sort of exudation from that mineral, coagulated into the form of scum. This kind of alumen is less desiccative than the others, and is not so useful as a check upon bad humours of the body. Used, however, either in the form of a liniment or of an injection, it is highly beneficial to the ears; as also for ulcerations of the mouth, and for tooth-ache, if retained with the saliva in the mouth. It is employed also as a serviceable ingredient in compositions for the eyes, and for the generative organs in either sex. The mode of preparing it is to roast it in crucibles, until it has quite lost its liquid form.

There is another variety of alumen also, of a less active nature, and known as "strongyle;"14 which is again subdivided into two kinds; the fungous, which easily dissolves in any liquid, and is looked upon as altogether worthless; and the porous, which is full of small holes like a sponge, and in pieces of a globular form, more nearly approaching white alumen in appearance. It has a certain degree, too, of unctuousness, is free from grit, friable, and not apt to blacken the fingers. This last kind is calcined by itself upon hot coals, unmixed with any other substance, until it is entirely reduced to ashes.

The best kind of all, however, is that called "melinum,"15 as coming from the Isle of Melos, as already mentioned; none being more effectual for acting as an astringent, staining black, and indurating, and none assuming a closer consistency. It removes granulations of the eye-lids, and, in a calcined state, is still more efficacious for checking defluxions of the eyes: in this last form, too, it is employed for the cure of pruriginous eruptions on the body. Whether taken internally, or employed externally, it arrests discharges of blood; and if it is applied with vinegar to a part from which the hair has been first removed, it will change into a soft down the hair which replaces it. The leading property of every kind of alumen is its remarkable astringency, to which, in fact, it is indebted for its name16 with the Greeks. It is for this property that the various kinds are, all of them, so remarkably good for the eyes. In combination with grease, they arrest discharges of blood; and they are employed in a similar manner for checking the spread of putrid ulcers, and for removing sores upon the bodies of infants.

Alumen has a desiccative effect upon dropsical eruptions; and, in combination with pomegranate juice, it removes diseases of the ears, malformed nails, indurations resulting from cicatrization, hangnails, and chilblains. Calcined, with vinegar or nut-galls, in equal proportions, it is curative of phagedænic ulcers; and, in combination with extracted juice of cabbage, of leprosy. Used in the proportion of one part of alumen to two of salt, it arrests the progress of serpiginous eruptions; and an infusion of it in water destroys lice and other parasitical insects that infest the hair. Employed in a similar manner, it is good for burns; and, in combination with the serous17 part of pitch, for furfuraceous eruptions on the body. It is used also as an injection for dysentery, and, employed in the form of a gargle, it braces the uvula and tonsillary glands. For all those maladies which we have men- tioned as being treated with the other kinds of alumen, that imported from Melos, be it understood, is still more efficacious. As to the other uses that are made of it for industrial purposes, such as preparing hides and wool, for example, they have been mentioned already.18

1 Beckmann is of opinion that our alum was not known to the Greeks or Romans, and that what the latter called "alumen" was green vitriol, or sulphate of the protoxide of iron, in an impure state. Hist. Inv. Vol. I. p. 180. Bohn's Edition. Dr. Pereira remarks, however, that "there can be little doubt that Pliny was acquainted with our alum, but did not distinguish it from sulphate of iron, for he informs us that one kind of alum was white, and was used for dyeing wool of bright colours." Materia Medica, Vol. I. Delafosse identifies the "alumen" of Pliny with double sulphate of alum and iron.

2 "Salsugo terræ."

3 See Note 11 above.

4 For gilding, Hardouin says.

5 The Roman provinces in Africa, other than Egypt.

6 Now Strombolo. See B. iii. c. 14.

7 Herodotus, B. ii., mentions the fact that King Amasis sent the people of Delphi a thousand talents of this substance, as his contribution towards rebuilding their temple.

8 "Fruitful," or "useful."

9 "Adulterated."

10 See B. xx. c. 71.

11 "Split" alum. Probably iron alum, the French alum de plume; of a flaky, silky appearance.

12 "Hairy alum."

13 See B. xxxiv. cc. 2, 29.

14 So called, according to Dioscorides, from the "round" form of the pieces.

15 He has previously said that the most esteemed kind was the Egyptian, that of Melos being the next best.

16 στυπτηρία, the "styptic."

17 "Sero picis." Hardouin is of opinion that under this name pisselæon is intended. See B. xv. c. 7, B. xxiv. cc. 11, 24, and B. xxv. c. 22.

18 At the beginning of this Chapter in part.

The Natural History. Pliny the Elder. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 1855.


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