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異裝

西西里島的男孩異裝成西班牙妇女。

異裝英语:Transvestism)是以传统上採取与异性相关风格穿衣模式的做法。在某些文化中,由于宗教传统礼仪原因而進行異裝。

历史

術語

「異裝」一詞曾在希伯来圣经中被提及。[1]今天,異裝一詞通常被認為是過時的和貶義的,變裝一詞被當作更合適的替代品。[2][3][4]這是因為異裝曾被視為一種精神疾病,但術語變裝是由跨性別群體認可的。[2][5]然而,在某些情況下,異裝一詞被認為更適合跨性別群體成員而非適合跨性別群體以外的人,但有些人已經收回了這段話。[6][7]

變裝

在1970年中「異裝」一詞引發討論,一大群人一言了斷地形容自己為:「穿着传统意義為女性服装的异性恋男人」。这个群体对「異裝」一词并不是特别满意,因此采用了「變裝」一词。[8]這些「變裝」者穿着女性服装,往往既钦佩和模仿女性,但自我认同与男同性恋跨性別不同,并且通常否认自己有欺骗意图。

当變裝在至少六个月的时间内出现色情的目的并且还引起显着的痛苦或認知损伤时,该行为被认为是精神疾病診斷與統計手冊中的精神障碍,精神診斷為「戀物性異裝」。[9]

參考文獻

  1. ^ Aggrawal, Anil. References to the paraphilias and sexual crimes in the Bible. J Forensic Leg Med. April 2009, 16 (3): 109–14. PMID 19239958. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2008.07.006. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Annemarie Vaccaro, Gerri August, Megan S. Kennedy. Safe Spaces: Making Schools and Communities Welcoming to LGBT Youth. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 142 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 0313393680. Cross-dresser/cross-dressing. (1) The most neutral word to describe a person who dresses, at least partially or part of the time, and for any number of reasons, in clothing associated with another gender within a particular society. Carries no implications of 'usual' gender appearance, or sexual orientation. Has replaced transvestite, which is outdated, problematic, and generally offensive since it was historically used to diagnose medical/mental health disorders. 
  3. ^ Jamie C. Capuzza, Leland G. Spencer. Transgender Communication Studies: Histories, Trends, and Trajectories. Lexington Books. 2015: 174 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 1498500064. Eventually, the transvestite label fell out of favor because it was deemed to be derogatory; cross-dresser has emerged as a more suitable replacement (GLAAD, 2014b). 
  4. ^ Charles Zastrow. Empowerment Series: Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People. Cengage Learning. 2016: 239 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 130538833X. It should be noted the term transvestite is often considered an offensive term. 
  5. ^ David A. Gerstner. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture. Routledge. 2006: 568 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 0313393680. A variety of derogatory terms are still used to describe any aspect of the transgender condition. [...] The term transvestite being older [than cross-dresser] and associated with the medical community's negative view of the practice, has come to be seen as a derogatory term. [...] The term cross-dresser, in contrast, having come from the transgender community itself, is a term seen as not possessing these negative connotations. 
  6. ^ Laura Castañeda. News and Sexuality: Media Portraits of Diversity. Sage Publications. 2006: 129 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 1412909996. Trannie is a word much like fag or nigger. It may be permitted in conversation between members of the same group but it is deemed an insult when applied to a transsexual by someone who is not transsexual. Transvestite is deemed a derogatory term when applied to a transsexual. Indiscriminate use of these three words, along with the others, shows a lack of training in and understanding of minority relations. 
  7. ^ Christina Richards, Meg Barker. Sexuality and Gender for Mental Health Professionals: A Practical Guide. Sage Publications. 2006: 162 [October 21, 2016]. ISBN 1446287165. The term transvestite should not be considered to be a safe term, and should certainly not be used as a noun, as in 'a transvestite'. Instead, and only when relevant, the term trans person should be used. [...] There are some people who have reclaimed the word transvestite and may also use the word tranny or TV to refer to themselves and others. [...] The term cross-dressing too is somewhat outdated and problematic as not only do many fashions allow any gender to wear them -- at least in many contemporary Western societies -- but it also suggests a strict dichotomy being reinforced by the person who uses it. 
  8. ^ Bullough, Vern L. Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. ISBN 0812214315
  9. ^ DSM-V (PDF). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Transvestic Fetishism. American Psychiatric Association. 2009 [February 4, 2013].