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Zhuge Xuan

Zhuge Xuan
諸葛玄
Administrator of Yuzhang (豫章太守)
In office
? (?) – 195 (195)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Personal details
BornUnknown
Yinan County / Yishui County, Shandong
Diedc. February 197
Chongren County, Jiangxi or
Xiangyang, Hubei
RelativesZhuge Liang
Zhuge Jin
Zhuge Dan
OccupationOfficial

Zhuge Xuan (About this soundpronunciation ) (died c. February 197)[a] was a government official who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for briefly serving as the Administrator of Yuzhang Commandery (around present-day Nanchang, Jiangxi) in the mid-190s. He was also a cousin-uncle (first/second cousin once removed) of Zhuge Liang, a prominent statesman of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.

Life

Zhuge Xuan was from Yangdu County (陽都縣), Langya Commandery (琅邪郡), which is located in present-day Yinan County or Yishui County, Shandong.[3] His ancestor, Zhuge Feng (諸葛豐), was a Western Han dynasty official who served as Colonel-Director of Retainers (司隷校尉) under Emperor Yuan (r48–33 BCE). One of his cousins, Zhuge Gui (諸葛珪), served as an assistant official in Taishan Commandery (泰山郡; around present-day Tai'an, Shandong) during the late Eastern Han dynasty under Emperor Ling (r168–189 CE).[4]

As Zhuge Gui and his wife died early, Zhuge Xuan raised their two younger sons, Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun (諸葛均). Sometime in the mid-190s, the warlord Yuan Shu appointed Zhuge Xuan as the Administrator (太守) of Yuzhang Commandery (豫章郡; around present-day Nanchang, Jiangxi). Zhuge Xuan brought Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun with him to Yuzhang Commandery and wanted to appoint them as his subordinates.[5] Around 195,[6] However, he soon left Yuzhang Commandery when the Han central government officially designated Zhu Hao as the new Administrator. Zhuge Xuan then brought Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun to Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan) to live with his friend Liu Biao, who was also Jing Province's governor.[7] After Zhuge Xuan's death, Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun moved to Longzhong (隆中), an area about 20 li west of Xiangyang, the capital of Jing Province.[8][9]

The Xiandi Chunqiu (獻帝春秋) by Yuan Wei (袁暐) recorded a completely different account about Zhuge Xuan. It mentioned that Liu Biao – instead of Yuan Shu – appointed Zhuge Xuan as the Administrator of Yuzhang Commandery to replace the previous Administrator, Zhou Shu (周術), who died in office. However, the Han central government, upon receiving news of Zhou Shu's death, appointed Zhu Hao as the new Administrator. As Zhuge Xuan was reluctant to transfer power to Zhu Hao, the latter allied with Liu Yao, the Inspector of Yang Province, to attack him. Zhuge Xuan retreated to Xicheng County (西城縣; south of present-day Chongren County, Jiangxi) after he lost Yuzhang Commandery's capital, Nanchang. In February 197, the people in Xicheng County rebelled against Zhuge Xuan, killed him and sent his head to Liu Yao.[2]

The Zizhi Tongjian by Sima Guang endorsed the Xiandi Chunqiu account up to the point where Zhu Hao allied with Liu Yao to force Zhuge Xuan out of Yuzhang Commandery.[10] It does not confirm that Zhuge Xuan died in Xicheng County in February 197.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Rafe de Crespigny erroneously recorded in A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD that Zhuge Xuan died in 196.[1] The Xiandi Chunqiu (獻帝春秋) recorded that he died in the 1st month of the 2nd year of the Jian'an era (196–220) in the reign of Emperor Xian of Han.[2] This date corresponds to sometime in February 197 in the Gregorian calendar.

References

  1. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 1173.
  2. ^ a b (獻帝春秋曰:初,豫章太守周術病卒,劉表上諸葛玄為豫章太守,治南昌。漢朝聞周術死,遣朱皓代玄。皓從揚州刺史劉繇求兵擊玄,玄退屯西城,皓入南昌。建安二年正月,西城民反,殺玄,送首詣繇。此書所云,與本傳不同。) Xiandi Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  3. ^ (吳書曰:其先葛氏,本琅邪諸縣人,後徙陽都。陽都先有姓葛者,時人謂之諸葛,因以為氏。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  4. ^ (諸葛亮字孔明,琅邪陽都人也。漢司隷校尉諸葛豐後也。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  5. ^ (亮早孤,從父玄為袁術所署豫章太守,玄將亮及亮弟均之官。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  6. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 61.
  7. ^ (會漢朝更選朱皓代玄。玄素與荊州牧劉表有舊,往依之。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  8. ^ (玄卒,亮躬耕隴畒,好為梁父吟。) Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  9. ^ (漢晉春秋曰:亮家于南陽之鄧縣,在襄陽城西二十里,號曰隆中。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 35.
  10. ^ (劉繇使豫章太守朱皓攻袁術所用太守諸葛玄,玄退保西城。及繇泝江西上,駐於彭澤,使融助皓攻玄。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 61.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.