A Qing dynasty illustration of Zhuge Jin
229 – July or August 241
|Governor of Yu Province (豫州牧)|
229 – July or August 241
|Left Protector-General (左都護)|
229 – July or August 241
|General of the Left (左將軍)|
222 – 229
|Administrator of Nan Commandery|
220 – 222
|Preceded by||Lü Meng|
Yinan County, Shandong
|Died||July or August 241 (aged 67)[a]|
|Courtesy name||Ziyu (子瑜)|
|Peerage||Marquis of Wanling (宛陵侯)|
Zhuge Jin (174 – July or August 241),[a] courtesy name Ziyu, was a Chinese military general and politician of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty, Zhuge Jin started his career in the 200s as an official under the warlord Sun Quan, who later became the founding emperor of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period. In 215, he served as Sun Quan's representative in a territorial dispute over southern Jing Province between Sun Quan and his ally, Liu Bei. In 219, he joined Sun Quan's general Lü Meng in an invasion of Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province after Sun Quan broke the Sun–Liu alliance. He was subsequently appointed as a general and commandery administrator. Before the Battle of Xiaoting of 221–222, Zhuge Jin attempted to dissuade Liu Bei from going to war with Sun Quan but was unsuccessful. The battle ultimately concluded with victory for Sun Quan's side; both sides made peace later and reestablished an alliance between the Eastern Wu and Shu Han states against their rival state, Cao Wei. From 222 until his death in 241, despite being rather incompetent in military affairs, Zhuge Jin served as one of Eastern Wu's top generals and participated in some battles against Cao Wei forces.
Although Zhuge Jin was not as brilliant in statecraft and military strategy as his more famous brother Zhuge Liang, he was known throughout his life for his virtuous character. He had a reputation for conducting himself with grace and decorum, and for being thoughtful, magnanimous and tactful. In return, he gained Sun Quan's trust, and Sun Quan never questioned his loyalty towards him. Zhuge Jin was also known for helping to mediate conflicts between Sun Quan and his subjects, including Zhu Zhi and Yu Fan.
Zhuge Jin's ancestral home (and probably birthplace too) was in Yangdu County (陽都縣), Langya Commandery (琅邪郡), which is located in present-day Yinan County or Yishui County, Shandong.[Sanguozhi 1] There are two other accounts of his ancestral origins in the Wu Shu (吳書) and Fengsu Tong (風俗通).
The Wu Shu recorded that his ancestral family name was actually Ge (葛) and his ancestors were originally from Zhu County (諸縣; southwest of present-day Zhucheng, Shandong) before they settled in Yangdu County. As there was already another Ge family in Yangdu County before they came, the locals referred to the newcomers as the Zhuge – combining Zhu (County) and Ge – to distinguish them from the other Ge family. Over time, Zhuge Liang's ancestors adopted Zhuge as their family name.[Sanguozhi zhu 1]
The Fengsu Tong recorded that his ancestor was Ge Ying (葛嬰), a general who served under Chen Sheng, the rebel king who led the Dazexiang uprising against the Qin dynasty. Chen Sheng later executed Ge Ying. During the early Western Han dynasty, Emperor Wen considered that Ge Ying was unjustly put to death, so he enfeoffed Ge Ying's grandson as the Marquis of Zhu County to honour Ge Ying. Over time, Ge Ying's descendants adopted Zhuge as their family name by combining Zhu (County) and Ge.[Sanguozhi zhu 2]
The earliest known ancestor of Zhuge Jin who bore the family name Zhuge was Zhuge Feng (諸葛豐), a Western Han dynasty official who served as Colonel-Director of Retainers (司隷校尉) under Emperor Yuan (r. 48–33 BCE). Zhuge Jin's father, Zhuge Gui (諸葛珪), whose courtesy name was Jungong (君貢), served as an assistant official in Taishan Commandery (泰山郡; around present-day Tai'an, Shandong) in the late Eastern Han dynasty under Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 CE).[Sanguozhi 2]
Zhuge Jin had two younger brothers and two sisters. His brothers were Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun (諸葛均).[Sanguozhi 3] One of their two sisters married Kuai Qi (蒯祺) while the other married Pang Shanmin (龐山民), a cousin of Pang Tong.[Sanguozhi zhu 3]
In his youth, Zhuge Jin visited Luoyang, the imperial capital, where he studied classical texts such as the Mao Commentary on the Classic of Poetry, Book of Documents, and Zuo Zhuan. When his mother died, he went home and dutifully performed filial mourning. He also treated his stepmother in a courteous and respectful manner, which earned him fame for his filial piety.[Sanguozhi zhu 4]
When chaos broke out throughout China towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Zhuge Jin fled from home and headed south to the Jiangdong region for shelter. He travelled around the region with Bu Zhi and Yan Jun, and they earned themselves fine reputations as learned men.[Sanguozhi zhu 5] At the time (c. 200s), Sun Quan had recently succeeded his deceased elder brother, Sun Ce, as the warlord ruling over the territories in Jiangdong. Hong Zi, a brother-in-law of Sun Quan,[b] noticed and recognised Zhuge Jin's talent so he recommended Zhuge Jin to serve under Sun Quan. Sun Quan treated Zhuge Jin, Lu Su and other talents who came to join him like honoured guests. Zhuge Jin then started his career under Sun Quan as a Chief Clerk (長史). Later, he was reassigned to the position of a Central Major (中司馬).[Sanguozhi 4]
Sometime between June and August 215,[c] Sun Quan sent Zhuge Jin as his representative to visit his ally, Liu Bei, who had recently seized control of Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing). Zhuge Jin's task was to ask Liu Bei to "return" the territories in southern Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan) to Sun Quan, according to an earlier agreement that Liu Bei would only use Jing Province as a temporary base and would return them to Sun Quan once he found another base. However, Liu Bei refused and said he would return the territories after he seized Liang Province.
Sun Quan ignored Liu Bei and sent his officials to assume office in the three commanderies of Changsha (長沙), Lingling (零陵) and Guiyang (桂陽) in southern Jing Province. However, Guan Yu, Liu Bei's general in charge of defending those territories, drove Sun Quan's officials away. An enraged Sun Quan then ordered his general Lü Meng to lead 20,000 troops to seize the three commanderies by force. After a standoff between both sides and tense negotiations, Liu Bei agreed to divide southern Jing Province between his and Sun Quan's domains along the Xiang River: Liu Bei would keep Nan, Lingling and Wuling commanderies in the west, while Sun Quan would take Changsha, Jiangxia and Guiyang commanderies in the east.
The territorial dispute was resolved by mid August to early September 215.[d] Sun Quan then sent Zhuge Jin as his representative to visit Liu Bei again. During this trip, Zhuge Jin met his second brother Zhuge Liang, who was serving as an adviser to Liu Bei. They refrained from meeting each other in private[Sanguozhi 5] to dispel any suspicions that either of them was secretly collaborating with his brother against his lord.
In 219, Sun Quan broke the Sun–Liu alliance and ordered his general Lü Meng to lead troops to seize Liu Bei's territories in southern Jing Province, which were guarded by Liu Bei's general Guan Yu, who was away at the Battle of Fancheng at the time. Zhuge Jin participated in the invasion, which turned out successful. Guan Yu was eventually captured and executed by Sun Quan's forces. Lü Meng died of illness a few months after the victory. In recognition of Zhuge Jin's contributions during the campaign, Sun Quan enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Xuancheng (宣城侯) and appointed him as General Who Pacifies the South (綏南將軍) to replace Lü Meng as the Administrator (太守) of Nan Commandery (南郡; around present-day Jingzhou, Hubei), the former headquarters of Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province. Zhuge Jin was stationed at Gong'an County, one of the key counties in Nan Commandery.[Sanguozhi 6]
In 220, Cao Pi usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, ended the Eastern Han dynasty, and established the state of Cao Wei (or Wei) with himself as the new emperor. This event marked the end of the Eastern Han dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. Sun Quan pledged nominal allegiance to Cao Pi and became a vassal of Wei. In return, Cao Pi awarded Sun Quan the title "King of Wu" and granted him autonomous rule over the Jiangdong (or Wu) territories. A year later, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and established the state of Shu Han (or Shu) to contest Cao Pi's legitimacy.
In 221, when Liu Bei started the Battle of Xiaoting against Sun Quan to retake his lost territories in southern Jing Province, Sun Quan sent Zhuge Jin as his representative to meet Liu Bei and begin peace talks.[Sanguozhi 7] Zhuge Jin told Liu Bei:
"I heard that your army has come from Baidicheng, and that your subjects have advised you to reject peace talks due to the hostilities between us which arose from the King of Wu's occupation of Jing Province and Guan Yu's death. I am deeply worried because such thinking shows narrow-mindedness on their part, as well as their failure to take the bigger picture into consideration. I shall attempt to explain the gravity of the situation to Your Majesty. If Your Majesty can temporarily lower your pride, put aside your anger, and carefully think through what I am about to say, I am sure that Your Majesty will be able to finalise your decision. There will also be no need to seek further counsel from your subjects. Is Your Majesty's relationship with Guan Yu comparable to that with the emperors (of the Han dynasty)? Is one Jing Province comparable to the entire Empire? Between your two enemies, whom do you hate more? If you can answer these questions, then I am sure it won't be difficult for you to finalise your decision."[Sanguozhi 8]
In his annotations to Zhuge Jin's biography in the Sanguozhi, the fifth-century historian Pei Songzhi rebutted Zhuge Jin's speech to Liu Bei. From Pei Songzhi's point of view, Liu Bei had good reason(s) to go to war with Sun Quan because Sun Quan thwarted his attempts to revive the Eastern Han dynasty when he broke the Sun–Liu alliance and seized Jing Province. Pei Songzhi also noted that Liu Bei's relationship with Guan Yu was so close that it could not be described in words. He remarked that if Liu Bei and Guan Yu's relationship were to be described in words in the Sanguozhi, it would take up so much space that it becomes a waste of space.[Sanguozhi zhu 6]
The Battle of Xiaoting ended in late 222 with victory for Sun Quan's forces, which were led by Sun Quan's general Lu Xun. Liu Bei retreated to Baidicheng (in present-day Fengjie County, Chongqing) after his disastrous defeat and died of illness in early 223.
In late 222, Sun Quan, who was previously a vassal king under the Cao Wei state, broke ties with the Wei emperor Cao Pi and declared himself the independent ruler of his Eastern Wu state. He promoted Zhuge Jin to General of the Left (左將軍), granted him acting imperial authority, and ordered him to station at Gong'an County to oversee the Wu defences in southern Jing Province. He also enfeoffed Zhuge Jin as the Marquis of Wanling (宛陵侯).[Sanguozhi 9]
Between 222 and 223, the Wei generals Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang led their troops to attack the Wu-controlled Jiangling County (江陵縣; in present-day Jingzhou, Hubei), which was defended by the Wu general Zhu Ran. At the same time, another detachment of Wei troops occupied Zhongzhou (中州), an island in the Yangtze River near Jiangling County. When Zhuge Jin heard about it, he led Wu forces from Gong'an County to reinforce Zhu Ran. However, he turned out to be an incompetent military commander as he showed weak leadership, adopted a slow and reactive approach, and spent too much time on discussion and planning as opposed to actively seizing opportunities to attack the enemy. Due to his incompetence, the siege dragged on, and Sun Quan became rather unhappy with him. The siege on Jiangling County was eventually lifted after the Wu general Pan Zhang came up with a plan to burn down the Wei forces' pontoon bridges and drive them back. Although Zhuge Jin did not make any significant achievements in the battle, he received credit for contributing to the Wu forces' overall success in defending Jiangling County.[Sanguozhi zhu 7]
Between September and early November 226,[e] following Cao Pi's death and Cao Rui's accession to the Wei throne, Sun Quan personally led Wu forces to attack the Wei-controlled Jiangxia Commandery (江夏郡; around present-day Xinzhou District, Wuhan, Hubei), which was defended by the Wei general Wen Ping. At the same time, he ordered Zhuge Jin and Zhang Ba (張霸) to lead a separate Wu army to attack the Wei-controlled city of Xiangyang. However, Zhuge Jin lost the battle against Wei forces led by Sima Yi. Zhang Ba was killed in battle and the Wu army lost over 1,000 men. In the meantime, Sun Quan mistakenly believed that Wei reinforcements had arrived at Jiangxia Commandery, so he pulled back his troops and returned to Wu.
Between mid June and early September 234,[f] Sun Quan personally led a 100,000 strong Wu army to attack the Wei fortress of Xincheng at Hefei. At the same time, he ordered Lu Xun and Zhuge Jin to lead another 10,000 troops to attack Xiangyang, and Sun Shao and Zhang Cheng to lead their troops to attack Huaiyin County (淮陰縣) in Guangling Commandery (around present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu). The Wei general Man Chong, who oversaw Xincheng's defences, successfully repelled the Wu invaders and killed Sun Quan's nephew Sun Tai in battle. Sun Quan eventually ordered a retreat when a plague broke out in his army and after he heard that the Wei emperor Cao Rui was personally leading reinforcements to Hefei. Sun Shao and Zhang Cheng also pulled back from Guangling Commandery after learning of Sun Quan's retreat from Hefei.
In the meantime, Lu Xun ordered a close aide, Han Bian (韓扁), to deliver a report to Sun Quan. On the journey back, Han Bian was captured by a Wei patrol. When Zhuge Jin learnt of Han Bian's capture, he became fearful so he wrote to Lu Xun and urged him to make a hasty retreat from Xiangyang. Lu Xun did not respond, and he instructed his men to plant turnips and peas while he played weiqi and other games with his officers as though nothing had happened. Zhuge Jin believed that Lu Xun knew what he was doing so he did not panic. He came to see Lu Xun, who told him: "The enemy knows that His Majesty (Sun Quan) has withdrawn his forces, so they have no worries and will concentrate their attacks on us. Besides, they have already stationed troops at critical positions and are poised to strike. Hence, we should remain composed and calm our men, after which we will have a change of plans and prepare to withdraw. If we display signs of retreat now, the enemy will think that we are afraid and will definitely attack us, resulting in defeat for us."[Sanguozhi 10]
Lu Xun then secretly conveyed his plan to Zhuge Jin and ordered him to supervise the fleet of vessels on which they would sail back to Wu, while he gathered his troops and headed towards Xiangyang. The Wei forces had been wary of Lu Xun all this while so they immediately retreated back into the city when they saw Lu Xun's army approaching. Lu Xun organised his men in an orderly manner and instructed them to pretend to prepare for an attack on Xiangyang. By then, Zhuge Jin and the fleet had shown up, so Lu Xun and his forces progressively retreated to the vessels and left. The Wei forces in Xiangyang did not dare to make any move.[Sanguozhi 11]
In 229, after Sun Quan declared himself emperor of Eastern Wu, he appointed Zhuge Jin as General-in-Chief (大將軍), Left Protector-General (左都護), and as the nominal[g] Governor (牧) of Yu Province.[Sanguozhi 12]
After the Lü Yi scandal ended in 238, Sun Quan sent a personal representative to meet all his senior generals and apologise to them, as well as to seek their views on how he could reform the bureaucracy to prevent corrupt officials like Lü Yi from abusing their powers again. However, to his disappointment, Zhuge Jin and other generals such as Bu Zhi, Zhu Ran and Lü Dai gave the excuse that they were not in charge of civil affairs and said that civil affairs were best left to civil officials such as Lu Xun and Pan Jun. Sun Quan then wrote an emotional letter to them, blaming himself for the mistakes and urging them to give him honest advice and point out his mistakes. After receiving the letter, Zhuge Jin was so moved that he wrote a clear, detailed and well-reasoned response to the Lü Yi scandal and Sun Quan's queries.[Sanguozhi 13]
Zhuge Jin died in July or August 241[a] at the age of 68 (by East Asian age reckoning). Before his death, he expressed a desire to be dressed in plain clothes and to have a simple funeral.[Sanguozhi 14]
Throughout his life, Zhuge Jin was known for conducting himself with grace and decorum, and for being thoughtful and magnanimous. These traits earned him much admiration and respect from his contemporaries. Sun Quan also regarded him highly and often consulted him on important issues.[Sanguozhi 15]
Zhuge Jin was known for being tactful whenever he spoke to Sun Quan, be it giving advice or small talk. He spoke in a toned-down and indirect manner, gave only a brief outline of what he wanted to say, and stopped immediately once he sensed that Sun Quan got his point. When he realised that Sun Quan's views were at odds with his, he would subtly change the topic of the conversation and use other topics as analogies to persuade Sun Quan to see things from his point of view. He was successful as Sun Quan understood his views better and became more receptive of them.[Sanguozhi 16]
After the Battle of Xiaoting of 221–222, someone secretly reported to Sun Quan that Zhuge Jin had sent a close aide to speak with Liu Bei. Sun Quan did not suspect Zhuge Jin's loyalty towards him and instead remarked, "I have made an oath with Ziyu. As long as Ziyu doesn't let me down, I won't let him down."[Sanguozhi 17]
The Jiang Biao Zhuan (江表傳) recorded that when Zhuge Jin was serving as the Administrator of Nan Commandery, someone secretly reported to Sun Quan that Zhuge Jin had covert dealings with Liu Bei. When Lu Xun heard of such rumours, he wrote a memorial to Sun Quan to speak up for Zhuge Jin and reassure his lord that Zhuge Jin was loyal towards him.[Sanguozhi zhu 8] Sun Quan wrote a reply to Lu Xun as follows:
"Ziyu and I have worked together for many years. We are as close as siblings and I know him well. He is someone who will not do anything that is unprincipled, and will not say anything that is unrighteous. In the past, when Xuande sent Kongming to Wu, I told Ziyu: 'You and Kongming are brothers. It is proper and righteous for a younger brother to follow in the footsteps of his elder brother. Why don't you ask Kongming to stay here? If Kongming wishes to follow you and stay here, I will write to Xuande to explain to him and I think he will understand.' Ziyu replied: 'My younger brother, (Zhuge) Liang, has dedicated himself to serving his lord. He has committed himself to this mission and won't waver in his commitment. His refusal to stay here is as firm as my resolve to not leave you.' He showed great wisdom and insight when he said this. How can the rumours be true? I have previously received reports and heard rumours casting doubts on Ziyu's loyalty towards me, yet I collected and disclosed them to Ziyu. I also wrote a letter to him. In his reply, he discussed the roles of lords and subjects, and their places. My relationship with Ziyu is like a friendship in spirit; no one can sow discord between us. I understand the purpose of you writing to me. I will seal your memorial and send it to Ziyu to let him know of your good intentions."[Sanguozhi zhu 9]
Apart from being one of Sun Quan's most trusted subjects, Zhuge Jin was also known for helping to mediate conflicts between his lord and his subjects on a number of occasions as follows.
Zhu Zhi was the official who recommended Sun Quan as a xiaolian (civil service candidate) to serve in the government when Sun Quan was still in his youth. After Sun Quan became the warlord ruling over the Jiangdong territories, Zhu Zhi served under Sun Quan and was held in high regard. Later, for some reason, Sun Quan became unhappy with Zhu Zhi but he could not bring himself to scold the latter, out of respect for him.[Sanguozhi 18] Zhuge Jin noticed Sun Quan's frustration and figured out why. However, he kept quiet and decided to use an indirect method to help Sun Quan resolve the problem. He set up a hypothetical scenario similar to the conundrum Sun Quan faced, asked Sun Quan questions and guided his thoughts, and wrote them down as Sun Quan spoke.[Sanguozhi 19] Once they were done, he presented his writing to Sun Quan, who was so pleased after reading it that he remarked: "You have helped me resolve my frustration. Yan Hui spoke of promoting harmony among people as a virtue. Isn't this an example of that?"[Sanguozhi 20]
On one occasion, Sun Quan got angry at Yin Mo (殷模),[h] a colonel serving under him, and accused him of committing an offence so severe that Sun Quan's other subjects were shocked. When his subjects pleaded with him to spare Yin Mo, Sun Quan became even more furious and he started quarrelling with them. Only Zhuge Jin remained silent. Sun Quan noticed it and asked him: "Ziyu, why are you the only person who hasn't spoken?"[Sanguozhi 21] Zhuge Jin then left his seat, stood up and said:
"Yin Mo and I had no choice but to leave our native lands due to chaos and war. Lives were lost and we were forced to abandon our ancestors' burial grounds. We brought along our relatives – young and old – and overcame much adversity on our journey in search of a more civilised place to settle in. We owe it to you, My Lord, as you took us in as refugees and gave us a new means of livelihood. We ought to support, encourage and watch over each other as we strive hard to serve you and repay your great kindness. However, I am most guilty of failing to fulfil these obligations, and that resulted in Yin Mo letting you down. I have yet to admit my guilt and that is why I don't dare to speak up now."[Sanguozhi 22]
Sun Quan felt deeply saddened after hearing Zhuge Jin's words. He then said: "I'll let him off because of you."[Sanguozhi 23]
When Yu Fan, one of Sun Quan's advisers, was banished to the remote Jiao Province for his disrespectful and offensive behaviour, Zhuge Jin not only repeatedly tried to persuade Sun Quan to pardon Yu Fan, but was also the only one among Sun Quan's subjects who spoke up for Yu Fan.[Sanguozhi 24]
Later, Yu Fan wrote a letter to a relative as follows:
"Zhuge (Jin) is sincere and kind. He saves lives in the same ways the gods do. I owe much to him when he spoke up for me and helped me safeguard my reputation. However, I have offended too many people and committed grave sins. (Sun Quan) hates me deeply. Even if someone like Qi Xi (祁奚) were to help me, I am not as virtuous as the people of the Yangshe clan (羊舌氏). Therefore, there is not much that can be done to save me."[Sanguozhi 25]
Sometime between 229 and 239, Zhou Yin (周胤), a son of Zhou Yu, committed an offence and was exiled to Luling Commandery (廬陵郡; around present-day Ji'an, Jiangxi) as punishment. In 239, Zhuge Jin and Bu Zhi wrote a memorial to Sun Quan, requesting for Zhou Yin to be pardoned and restored of his titles on account of his father's contributions. Sun Quan was reluctant to do so, as he noted the severity of Zhou Yin's offence and said that Zhou Yin had not shown any sign of remorse. However, after much urging from Zhuge Jin, Bu Zhi, Zhu Ran and Quan Cong, Sun Quan eventually agreed, but Zhou Yin had already died of illness in exile by then.[Sanguozhi 26]
During Zhuge Jin's lifetime, his family was one of the most illustrious families in China. While he was serving as General-in-Chief in Wu, his second brother Zhuge Liang served as the Imperial Chancellor of Wu's ally state, Shu, and their cousin Zhuge Dan served as a general in Wu and Shu's rival state, Wei. Two of Zhuge Jin's sons, Zhuge Ke and Zhuge Rong, also served as generals in Wu.[Sanguozhi zhu 10]
Although Zhuge Jin was not as talented and brilliant as his better known brother Zhuge Liang, he was noted for his exemplary conduct and virtuous character. After his wife died, he did not promote his favourite concubine to the status of his formal spouse to replace his deceased wife. He also did not show any favouritism towards his son(s) born to his concubine.[Sanguozhi zhu 11]
Zhuge Jin's eldest son, Zhuge Ke, was not only famous in Wu, but also highly regarded by Sun Quan. However, Zhuge Jin disapproved of Zhuge Ke's behaviour, treated him coldly, and constantly worried that his eldest son would bring doom to their family.[Sanguozhi 27] After Zhuge Jin died, his third son Zhuge Rong inherited his peerage as the Marquis of Wanling (宛陵侯); Zhuge Ke did not inherit his father's peerage because he had already received a peerage of his own. Zhuge Rong also took control of the troops previously under his father's command at Gong'an County.[Sanguozhi 28]
In 253, Zhuge Ke, who briefly served as a regent for Sun Quan's successor Sun Liang, was overthrown and assassinated in a coup d'état by Sun Jun, a distant relative of Sun Liang. Zhuge Ke's two surviving sons, along with Zhuge Rong and Zhuge Rong's three sons, as well as other members of Zhuge Ke's extended family, were rounded up and executed.
Zhuge Jin's second son, Zhuge Qiao, was adopted by his uncle Zhuge Liang because Zhuge Liang initially had no son and needed a male heir. Zhuge Qiao came to serve in Shu and died in 223. His son, Zhuge Pan (諸葛攀), also served as an official in Shu. However, after Zhuge Jin's descendants were purged in 253, Zhuge Pan reverted to his original lineage and moved to Wu to continue Zhuge Jin's bloodline there.[Sanguozhi 29]
Zhang Cheng, a general serving under Sun Quan, was a friend of Zhuge Jin. When his wife died, his father Zhang Zhao suggested that he marry Zhuge Jin's daughter. Zhang Cheng initially felt awkward about becoming his friend's son-in-law, but eventually agreed after Sun Quan persuaded him to do so. Zhang Cheng and Zhuge Jin's daughter had a daughter, Consort Zhang (張妃), who married Sun Quan's third son Sun He.[Sanguozhi 30]