|Yusuf Adil Shah|
|Successor||Ismail Adil Shah|
Gogi, Shahpur, Karnataka
|Issue||Ismail Adil Shah|
|Dynasty||Adil Shahi Empire|
Yusuf Adil Shah (1450–1510), referred as Adil Khan or Hidalcão by the Portuguese, was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur for nearly two centuries. As the founder of the newly formed Bijapur dynasty (as the Adil Shahi dynasty is also known), Yusuf Adil Shah is credited with developing the town of Bijapur and elevating it to significant status.
Yusuf's bravery and personality raised him rapidly in the Bahmani sultan's favor, and resulted in his being appointed Governor of Bijapur.
In 1489, Yusuf took advantage of the decline of the Bahmani power to establish himself as an independent sultan at Bijapur. He waged war against the Vijayanagar empire, as also against Bijapur's Muslim neighbours. Yusuf invited Vijayanagara general Tuluva Narasa Nayaka for peace treaty and had him and his generals murdered.
Adil Shah is personally responsible for building the imposing Citadel or Arkilla and the palace named Faroukh Mahal. Yusuf was a man of culture and invited poets and artisans from Persia, Turkey and Rome to his court. He was also an accomplished musician and scholar with deep religious tolerance that was reflected in art and architecture from this time.
Adil Shah died in 1509-10, engaged in an 'annual jihad', possibly a plundering expedition, against the Vijayanagara empire to the south. The practice was initiated by Sultan Mahmood Shah Bahmani II in 1501, in which all the Bahmani chieftains participated. However, in 1509 Krishnadevaraya ascended the throne of Vijayanagara. He countered the Bahmani expedition at a location called Dewani (unidenfied) and decisively defeated it. The Sultan was thrown off the horse and had to be carried away from the battlefield. Raya then pursued the retreating army of Bijapur. Adil Shah turned around to give him battle at Koilkonda, in which he was killed.
His death occurred shortly after the loss of Goa to the Portuguese governor Afonso de Albuquerque. He was succeeded by his son Ismail Adil Shah, who being a minor, was aided in his rule by a certain Kamal Khan.
Yusuf left behind a strong if small state, one which persisted through two relatively chaotic centuries in a region rife with political ferment. The Bijapur sultanate he founded was a formidable force for close to two centuries until it was finally defeated by Aurangzeb in 1686.
Yusuf Adil Shah married Punji, the sister of a Maratha warrior, later renamed Bubuji Khanum. She was the sister of Mukund Rao, the Maratha Raja of Idar whom he had defeated in battle. By this marriage he had a son and three daughters:
In 1481, Yusuf ‘Adil Khan, a Persian slave who claimed to descend from the Ottoman sultan Murad III, became the governor of Bijapur.
Founder of the Dynasty
| Adil Shahi Rulers of Bijapur
Ismail Adil Shah