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Wu Yi (Three Kingdoms)

Wu Yi
吳懿 / 吳壹
General of Chariots and Cavalry (車騎將軍)
In office
234 (234) – 237 (237)
MonarchLiu Shan
Inspector of Yong Province (雍州刺史)
(nominal)
In office
234 (234) – 237 (237)
MonarchLiu Shan
General of the Left (左將軍)
In office
230 (230) – 234 (234)
MonarchLiu Shan
Chief Controller of Guanzhong (關中都督)
In office
221 (221) – 230 (230)
MonarchLiu Bei / Liu Shan
Personal details
BornUnknown
Kaifeng, Henan
Died237
Hanzhong, Shaanxi
Relations
OccupationGeneral
Courtesy nameZiyuan (子遠)
PeerageMarquis of Jiyang (濟陽侯)

Wu Yi (died 237)[1] courtesy name Ziyuan was a general of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China. His younger sister, Empress Mu, was the empress consort of Shu's founding emperor, Liu Bei. Wu Yi had a younger relative, Wu Ban, who also served as a general in Shu.

Life

As information about Wu Yi's life was initially lost over the course of history, Chen Shou did not write a biography for Wu Yi in the Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi) in the third century.[2] By the fifth century, Pei Songzhi managed to recover some information about Wu Yi's life and he added it as annotations to Chen Shou's Sanguozhi.

Wu Yi was from Chenliu Commandery (陳留郡), which is around present-day Kaifeng, Henan. He accompanied Liu Yan into Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) around 188 when the latter was appointed as the Governor of Yi Province by the central government of the Eastern Han dynasty.[3][4]

Following Liu Yan's death in 194, Wu Yi continued serving under Liu Zhang, Liu Yan's son and successor as the Governor of Yi Province.[5] Liu Zhang appointed him as a General of the Household (中郎將). Between 212 and 214, when the warlord Liu Bei attacked Liu Zhang in an attempt to seize control of Yi Province, Wu Yi fought on Liu Zhang's side and led troops to fight Liu Bei's forces at Fu County (涪縣; in present-day Mianyang, Sichuan). However, he surrendered to Liu Bei after being defeated.[6][7]

After completely taking control over Yi Province by 214, Liu Bei appointed Wu Yi as General Who Protects the Army and Attacks Rebels (護軍討逆將軍) and married Wu Yi's sister. In 221 during the Three Kingdoms period, after Liu Bei declared himself emperor and established the state of Shu Han, he appointed Wu Yi as Chief Controller of Guanzhong (關中都督).[8]

After Liu Bei's death in 223, Wu Yi continued serving under Liu Bei's son and successor, Liu Shan. In 230, he followed the Shu general Wei Yan to attack Nan'an Commandery (南安郡; southeast of present-day Longxi County, Gansu), which was under the control of Shu's rival state, Wei. They defeated Wei forces led by Fei Yao in the battle. In recognition of Wu Yi's contributions, Liu Shan first enfeoffed Wu Yi as a village marquis (亭侯), but promoted him to a district marquis later under the title "Marquis of Gaoyang District" (高陽鄉侯). He also appointed Wu Yi as General of the Left (左將軍).[9]

In 234, when Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor of Shu, died, Liu Shan appointed Wu Yi as General of Chariots and Cavalry (車騎將軍), granted him imperial authority, and ordered him to oversee military affairs in Hanzhong Commandery. Liu Shan also appointed Wu Yi as the nominal Inspector (刺史) of Yong Province (because Yong Province was not under Shu control), in addition to promoting him to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Jiyang" (濟陽侯). Wu Yi died in 237.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 875. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
  2. ^ (失其行事,故不為傳。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  3. ^ (以[劉]焉為益州牧, ...) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 59.
  4. ^ (子遠名壹,陳留人也。隨劉焉入蜀。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  5. ^ (興平元年,癕疽發背而卒。州大吏趙韙等貪璋溫仁,共上璋為益州刺史, ... 璋,字季玉,旣襲焉位, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 31.
  6. ^ (璋遣其將劉璝、冷苞、張任、鄧賢、吳懿等拒備,皆敗,退保緜竹;懿詣軍降。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 66.
  7. ^ (劉璋時,為中郎將,將兵拒先主於涪,詣降。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  8. ^ (先主定益州,以壹為護軍討逆將軍,納壹妹為夫人。章武元年,為關中都督。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  9. ^ (建興八年,與魏延入南安界,破魏將費瑤,徙亭侯,進封高陽鄉侯,遷左將軍。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.
  10. ^ ([建興]十二年,丞相亮卒,以壹督漢中,車騎將軍,假節,領雍州刺史,進封濟陽侯。十五年卒。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 45.