Keitel as field marshal in 1942
|Chief of the Armed Forces High Command|
4 February 1938 – 8 May 1945
|Preceded by||Werner von Blomberg |
(as Reich Minister of War)
|Succeeded by||None (position abolished)|
|Chief of the Wehrmachtamt|
1 October 1935 – 4 February 1938
|Preceded by||Walter von Reichenau|
|Succeeded by||None (position abolished)|
Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel
22 September 1882
Helmscherode, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire
|Died||16 October 1946 (aged 64)|
Nuremberg, Allied-occupied Germany (execution)
Lisa Fontaine (m. 1909)(born 1887 - died 1959)
|Relatives||Bodewin Keitel (brother)|
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)|
Weimar Republic (to 1933)
|Years of service||1901–1945|
|Commands||Oberkommando der Wehrmacht|
|Battles/wars||World War I
World War II
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross|
|Known for||War crimes of the Wehrmacht|
|Conviction(s)||Crimes against humanity|
Crimes against peace
|Criminal penalty||Death penalty|
|Victims||Soviet prisoners of war|
Soviet civilians (Jews and Slavs)
Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command in Nazi Germany during World War II. Keitel was well known and reviled as Hitler’s dependable sycophant and habitual "yes-man" among his military colleagues.
Following the war, Keitel was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. He was found guilty, principally for issuing a series of criminal orders that led to widespread atrocities such as the execution of Jews and civilians. He was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1946.
Keitel was born in the village of Helmscherode near Gandersheim in the Duchy of Brunswick, Germany. The eldest son of Carl Keitel (1854–1934), a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering (1855–1888), he planned to take over his family's estates after completing his education at a gymnasium but this foundered on his father's resistance. Instead, he embarked on a military career in 1901, becoming an officer cadet of the Prussian Army. As a commoner, he did not join the cavalry, but a field artillery regiment in Wolfenbüttel, serving as adjutant from 1908. On 18 April 1909, Keitel married Lisa Fontaine, a wealthy landowner's daughter at Wülfel near Hanover. Together they had six children, one of whom died in infancy.
During World War I, Keitel served on the Western Front and took part in the fighting in Flanders, where he was severely wounded. After being promoted to captain, Keitel was then posted to the staff of an infantry division in 1915.
After the war, Keitel was retained in the newly created Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic and played a part in organizing the paramilitary Freikorps units on the Polish border. In 1924, Keitel was transferred to the Ministry of the Reichswehr in Berlin, serving with the Truppenamt (English: Troop Office), the post-Versailles disguised German General Staff. Three years later, he returned to field command.
Now a lieutenant-colonel, Keitel was again assigned to the Ministry of War in 1929 and was soon promoted to Head of the Organizational Department ("T-2"), a post he held until Adolf Hitler took power in 1933. Playing a vital role in the German re-armament, he traveled at least once to the Soviet Union to inspect secret Reichswehr training camps. In the autumn of 1932, he suffered a heart attack. Shortly after his recovery, in October 1933, Keitel was appointed as deputy commander of the 3rd Infantry Division; in 1934, he was given command of the 22nd Infantry Division at Bremen.
In 1935, at the recommendation of General Werner von Fritsch, Keitel was promoted to the rank of major general and appointed chief of the War Ministry's Armed Forces Office, which oversaw the army, navy, and air force. After assuming office, Keitel was promoted to lieutenant general on 1 January 1936.
On 21 January 1938, Keitel received evidence revealing that the wife of his superior, War Minister Werner von Blomberg, was a former prostitute. Upon reviewing this information, Keitel suggested that the dossier be forwarded to Hitler's deputy, Hermann Göring, who used it to bring about Blomberg's resignation.
Hitler took command of the Wehrmacht in 1938 and replaced the War Ministry with the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht), with Keitel as its chief. As a result of his appointment, Keitel assumed the responsibilities of Germany's War Minister. Soon after his promotion, Keitel convinced Hitler to appoint Walther von Brauchitsch as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, replacing von Fritsch. He became a full general in November 1938.
Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist labelled Keitel as nothing more than a "stupid follower of Hitler" because of his servile "yes man" attitude with regard to Hitler. His sycophancy was well known in the army, and he acquired the nickname 'Lakeitel', a pun on his name which translates into English as 'lackey'. Hermann Göring's description of Keitel as having "a sergeant's mind inside a field marshal's body" was a feeling commonly expressed among his peers. He had been promoted because of his craven willingness to function as Hitler's mouth-piece. He was predisposed to manipulation because of his limited intellect and nervous disposition; Hitler valued his hard work and obedience. On one occasion, Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand asked who Keitel was, upon finding out he became horrified at his own failure to salute his superior, however, Franz Halder told him: "Don't worry, it's only Keitel". German officers consistently bypassed him and went directly to Hitler.
The planning for Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union, was begun tentatively by Halder with the redeployment of the 18th Army into an offensive position against the Soviet Union. On 31 July 1940, Hitler held a major conference that included Keitel, Halder, Alfred Jodl, Erich Raeder, Brauchitsch and Hans Jeschonnek which further discussed the invasion. The participants did not object to the invasion. Hitler asked for war studies to be completed and Georg Thomas was given the task of completing two studies on economic matters. The first study by Thomas detailed serious problems with fuelling and rubber supplies. Keitel bluntly dismissed the problems, telling Thomas that Hitler would not want to see it. This influenced Thomas' second study which offered a glowing recommendation for the invasion based upon fabricated economic benefits.
Keitel issued a series of criminal orders from April 1941. The orders went beyond established codes of conduct for the military and broadly allowed the execution of Jews, civilians and non-combatants for any reason. Those carrying out the murders were exempted from court-martial or later being tried for war crimes. The orders were signed by Keitel, however, other members of the OKW and the OKH, including Halder, wrote or changed the wording of his orders. Commanders in the field interpreted and carried out the orders. In September 1941, concerned that some field commanders did not exhibit sufficient harshness in implementing the May 1941 order on the "Guidelines for the Conduct of the Troops in Russia", Keitel issued a new order, writing: "[The] struggle against Bolshevism demands ruthless and energetic action especially also against the Jews, the main carriers of Bolshevism". Also in September, Keitel issued an order to all commanders, not just those in the occupied Soviet Union, instructing them to use "unusual severity" to stamp out resistance. In this context, the guideline stated that execution of 50 to 100 "Communists" was an appropriate response to a loss of a German soldier.
Keitel received the Golden Party Badge, for (honorary) Nazi membership on occasion of the German invasion of Czechoslovakia. Keitel claimed to never have been a Nazi Party member at his trial, however, subsequent to his trial, a 1939 application for membership was discovered in the archives.
Keitel played an important role after the failed 20 July plot in 1944. As Hitler related after the explosion, Keitel rushed to Hitler's side exclaiming, "Mein Führer, you're alive, you're alive!" Hitler goes on to say, "Keitel was almost killed himself, he will show no mercy," when it came to seeking vengeance. Keitel then sat on the Army "court of honour" that handed over many officers who were involved, including Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben, to Roland Freisler's notorious People's Court. Around 7,000 people were arrested, many of whom were tortured by the Gestapo, and around 5,000 were executed.
Keitel was named by Hitler to be his deputy supreme commander of the German Armed Forces, with broad powers in terms of arming, equipping and disciplining soldiers. The Volkssturm, the civilian militia force of Germany, was also attached to the military; thus Keitel had jurisdiction over it even though its commander was Joseph Goebbels, the Minister of Propaganda. Keitel, during this time, visited German troops and auxiliary civilian forces on front lines throughout Germany and he conducted regular meetings with field commanders to coordinate military operations.
In April and May 1945, during the Battle of Berlin, Keitel called for counterattacks to drive back the Soviet forces and relieve Berlin. However, there were insufficient German forces to carry out such counterattacks. After Hitler's suicide on 30 April, Keitel stayed on as a member of the short-lived Flensburg government under Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz. Upon arriving in Flensburg, Albert Speer, the Minister of Armaments and War Production, said that Keitel grovelled to Dönitz in the same way as he had done to Hitler. On 7 May 1945, Alfred Jodl, on behalf of Donitz, signed Germany's unconditional surrender on all fronts. This did not please Stalin, so, on 8 May, Dönitz sent Keitel to the Berlin suburb Karlshorst, where he signed the German surrender to the Soviet Union. He then expected to be arrested and shot, but, to his surprise, the Russians let him go. Five days later he was arrested along with the rest of the Flensburg Government, at the request of the U.S.
Keitel had full knowledge of the Holocaust and its criminal nature during the planning and the subsequent Invasion of Poland; he agreed to its aims in principle. The Nazi plans included mass arrests, population transfers and systematic genocide. He did not contest the regime's assault upon basic human rights or counter the role of the Einsatzgruppen in the murders. The Wehrmacht leadership including Keitel, Walther von Brauchitsch and Franz Halder did not initially share their knowledge of the Holocaust with their subordinate officers. The criminal nature of the regime became obvious but local commanders continued to express shock and protest over the events they were witnessing. Keitel continued to ignore the protests among the officer corps while they became morally numbed to the atrocities. On 13 March 1940, at Gerd von Rundstedt's headquarters in Koblenz, Himmler gave a speech to a wider circle of officers and made it clear that SS actions in Poland were authorised by Hitler himself. The speech ended open discontent and the criticism of a few who dissented from the policy. Having failed to prevent the Holocaust in Poland, the military became an accomplice in war crimes during the remainder of World War II.
After the war, Keitel faced the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which indicted him on all four counts before it: conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Most of the case against him was based on his signature being present on dozens of orders that called for soldiers and political prisoners to be killed or disappeared.
Keitel admitted that he knew many of Hitler's orders were illegal. Not only did Keitel approve the Night and Fog Decree, he also presided over the Nazi "Court of Honour" (which condemned the 20 July plotters), signed the Commissar Order, encouraged the lynching of downed Allied aircrews by civilians, and sanctioned extreme measures against partisan fighters in the East. His defence relied almost entirely on the argument he was merely following orders in conformity to "the leader principle" (Führerprinzip) and his personal oath of loyalty to Hitler.
The IMT rejected this defence and convicted him on all charges. Although the tribunal's charter allowed "superior orders" to be considered a mitigating factor, it found Keitel's crimes were so egregious that "there is nothing in mitigation." In its judgment against him, the IMT wrote, "Superior orders, even to a soldier, cannot be considered in mitigation where crimes as shocking and extensive have been committed consciously, ruthlessly and without military excuse or justification." It was also pointed out that while he claimed the Commando Order, which ordered Allied commandos to be shot without trial, was illegal, he had reaffirmed it and extended its application. It also noted several instances where he issued illegal orders on his own authority.
In his statement before the Tribunal, Keitel said: "As these atrocities developed, one from the other, step by step, and without any foreknowledge of the consequences, destiny took its tragic course, with its fateful consequences." To underscore the criminal rather than military nature of Keitel's acts, the Allies denied his request to be shot by firing squad. Instead, he was executed at Nuremberg Prison by hanging.
The execution was performed by the American Army Sgt. John C. Woods. Keitel's body, as those of the other nine executed men and the corpse of Hermann Göring, was cremated at Ostfriedhof (Munich) and the ashes were scattered in the river Isar. The facial blood stains seen in the photo of Keitel's corpse were due to the trapdoor being too small, causing him and several others of the condemned to suffer head injuries through hitting the trapdoor during the drop. Donald E. Wilkes Jr., a professor of law at the University of Georgia School of Law, noted that many of the executed Nazis fell from the gallows with insufficient force to snap their necks, resulting in a macabre, suffocating death struggle that in Keitel's case lasted 24 minutes.
Before his execution, Keitel published his memoirs which were titled in English as In the Service of the Reich. It was later re-edited as The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Keitel by Walter Görlitz ISBN 978-0-8154-1072-0. Another work by Keitel later published in English was named Questionnaire on the Ardennes offensive.