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February 22, 1930 |
|Residence||New York, New York, United States|
|Awards||Grawemeyer Award in Psychology (2011)|
|Fields||Delayed gratification, personality psychology, social psychology|
Walter Mischel (German: [ˈmɪʃəl]; born February 22, 1930) is an Austrian-born American psychologist specializing in personality theory and social psychology. He is the Robert Johnston Niven Professor of Humane Letters in the Department of Psychology at Columbia University. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Mischel as the 25th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Mischel was born on February 22, 1930 in Vienna, Austria, When he was 8 years old his Jewish family fled with him to the United States after the Nazi occupation in 1938. He grew up in Brooklyn, New York where he attended New York University and received his Bachelor's degree (1951) and Master's degree (1953). He continued his studies under George Kelly and Julian Rotter at The Ohio State University, where he received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1956. An important fact about Walter Mischel is his background outside of his profession as a psychologist. Walter was a heavy smoker through his life. In an interview, he admitted to being a "three-packs-a-day smoker, supplemented by a pipe." Walter tried to stop smoking, realizing it was poor for his health; however, the addictive nature of nicotine won him over time and time again. This part about Walter is important to his work as a psychologist, since he spent much of his career studying delayed gratification and life outcomes of those who were able to maintain self-control when studied.
Mischel taught at the University of Colorado from 1956 to 1958, at Harvard University from 1958 to 1962, and at Stanford University from 1962 to 1983. Since 1983, Mischel has been in the Department of Psychology at Columbia University.
Mischel was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2004 and to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1991. In 2007, Mischel was elected president of the Association for Psychological Science. Mischel's other honors include the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the Distinguished Scientist Award of the Society of Experimental Social Psychologists, the Distinguished Contributions to Personality Award of the Society of Social and Personality Psychologists, and the Distinguished Scientist Award of American Psychological Association's Division of Clinical Psychology. He is past editor of Psychological Review and past president of the American Psychological Association Division of Social and Personality Psychology and of the Association for Research in Personality.
In 1968, Mischel published the controversial book, Personality and Assessment, which created a paradigm crisis in personality psychology. The book touched upon the problem in trait assessment that was first identified by Gordon Allport in 1937. Mischel found that empirical studies often failed to support the fundamental traditional assumption of personality theory, that an individual's behavior with regard to an inferred trait construct (e.g. conscientiousness; sociability) remained highly consistent across diverse situations. Instead, Mischel cautioned that an individual's behavior was highly dependent upon situational cues, rather than expressed consistently across diverse situations that differed in meaning. Mischel maintained that behavior is shaped largely by the exigencies of a given situation, and that the notion that individuals act in consistent ways across different situations, reflecting the influence of underlying personality traits, is a myth.
(see main article Person–situation debate)
Mischel made the case that the field of personality psychology was searching for consistency in the wrong places. Instead of treating situations as the noise or "error of measurement", Mischel's work proposed that by including the situation as it is perceived by the individual and by analyzing behavior in its situational context, the consistencies that characterize the individual would be found. He argued that these individual differences would not be expressed in consistent cross-situational behavior, but instead, he suggested that consistency would be found in distinctive but stable patterns of if-then, situation-behavior relations that form contextualized, psychologically meaningful "personality signatures" (e.g., "s/he does A when X, but does B when Y").
These signatures of personality have been in fact revealed in a large observational study of social behavior across multiple repeated situations over time. Contradicting the classic assumptions, the data showed that individuals who were similar in average levels of behavior, for example in their aggression, nevertheless differed predictably and dramatically in the types of situations in which they exhibited aggression. As predicted by Mischel, they were characterized by highly psychologically informative if-then behavioral signatures. Collectively, this work has allowed a new way to conceptualize and assess both the stability and variability of behavior that is produced by the underlying personality system, and has opened a window into the dynamic processes within the system itself.
In a second direction, beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Mischel pioneered work illuminating the ability to delay gratification and to exert self-control in the face of strong situational pressures and emotionally "hot" temptations. His studies with preschoolers in the late 1960s, often referred to as "the marshmallow experiment", examined the processes and mental mechanisms that enable a young child to forego immediate gratification and to wait instead for a larger desired but delayed reward. The test was simple: give the child an option between an immediate treat or more of a delayed treat. For example, the proctor would give the child an option to eat one marshmallow immediately or to wait ten minutes and receive not one, but two marshmallows to eat. The test didn't have to be conducted with marshmallows specifically; it could be done with Oreo cookies, M&Ms, or other desirable treats. As Walter followed up with the parents of the children who took the test years later, he found a staggering correlation between those kids who had difficulty delaying gratification and their outcomes in life as an adult. Some of the outcomes were higher rates of obesity and below-average levels of academic achievement. Still a stark contrast appeared when studying children who were raised by parents below the poverty line compared with children whose parents were college-educated. A significantly larger portion of the low-income children ate the treat immediately conversely from the counterparts who waited.
Continuing research with these original participants has examined how preschool delay of gratification ability links to development over the life course, and may predict a variety of important outcomes (e.g., SAT scores, social and cognitive competence, educational attainment, and drug use), and can have significant protective effects against a variety of potential vulnerabilities. This work also opened a route to research on temporal discounting in decision-making, and most importantly into the mental mechanisms that enable cognitive and emotional self-control, thereby helping to demystify the concept of willpower. Comedy Central Television's Stephen Colbert interviewed Dr. Mischel on the Colbert Report on September 25, 2014. In this interview, Mischel's work with preschoolers and gratification was highlighted humorously with Colbert acting the part of an impulsive child.
Dr. Mischel appeared on The Colbert Report in September 2014 to discuss his studies shortly after the release of his first book meant for the eyes of the public, "The Marshmallow Test". On June 24, 2016, Walter was interviewed for the Invisibilia Podcast "The Personality Myth" on National Public Radio. He discussed the way that personality works and how it can change over time when a person is presented with new situational circumstances.
Walter Mischel lives on Manhattan Island in New York City, and enjoys painting and travel. He has three children: Linda Mischel, Rebecca Mischel, and Judy Mischel. Walter speaks several languages, including English and French, and spends time in Paris, France on a regular basis.