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|Original author(s)||Justin Frankel|
1.7 / 2008
|Operating system||Windows, Linux, OS X|
WASTE is a peer-to-peer and friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features instant messaging, chat rooms, and file browsing/sharing capabilities. The name WASTE is a reference to Thomas Pynchon's novel The Crying of Lot 49. In the novel, W.A.S.T.E. is (among other things) an underground postal service.
In 2003, less than 24 hours after its release, WASTE was removed from distribution by AOL, Nullsoft's parent company. The original page was replaced with a statement claiming that the posting of the software was unauthorized and that no lawful rights to it were held by anyone who had downloaded it, in spite of the original claim that the software was released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
WASTE is a decentralized chat, instant messaging and file sharing program and protocol. It behaves similarly to a virtual private network by connecting to a group of trusted computers, as determined by the users. This kind of network is commonly referred to as a darknet. It uses strong encryption to ensure that third parties cannot decipher the messages being transferred. The same encryption is used to transmit and receive instant messages, chat, and files, maintain the connection, and browse and search.
WASTE networks are decentralized (see social networks), meaning there is no central hub or server that everyone connects to. Peers must connect to each other individually. Normally, this is accomplished by having individuals sharing their RSA public keys, ensuring that their computers are accessible via the appropriate ports (one or more parties must have an IP address and port that can be reached by the other), and entering the IP address and port of someone on the network to connect to.
Once connected to the network, public keys are automatically exchanged amongst members (provided enough of the members are set to forward and accept public keys), and nodes will then attempt to connect to each other, strengthening the network (decreasing the odds that any one node going down will collapse or shut out any part of the network), as well as increasing the number of possible routes from any given point to any other point, decreasing latency and bandwidth required for communication and file transfer.
Since WASTE connects small, private groups rather than large, public ones, the network search feature is one of the fastest of all the decentralized P2P applications. Its instant messaging and file sharing capabilities are much closer to those of AOL Instant Messenger than more typical file sharing programs. Members of the network can create private and public chat rooms, instant message each other, browse each other's files, and trade files, including the pushing or active sending of files by hosts, as well as the more common downloading by users. Simple drag-and-drop to chat boxes will send files to their intended destinations.
The suggested size for a WASTE network (referred to as a mesh by users) is 10-50 nodes, though it has been suggested that the size of the network is less critical than the ratio of nodes willing to route traffic to those that are not. With original Nullsoft-client groups now exceeding ten years of age, it's not uncommon for stable meshes to host multiple terabytes of secure content.
By default, WASTE listens to incoming connections on port 1337. This was probably chosen because of 1337's leet connotations.
Since there is no central hub, WASTE networks typically employ a password or passphrase, also called a network name to prevent collision. That is, a member from one network connecting to a member of another network, thus bridging the two networks. By assigning a unique identifier (passphrase) to your network, the risk of collisions can be reduced, particularly with the original clients.
Nullnets are networks without a passphrase. It is impossible to know how many nullnets exist, but there is one primary nullnet. The best way to access the nullnet is to post your credentials to the WASTE Key Exchange. The nullnet can easily merge with other nullnets because there is no passphrase, which makes it a great place for public discussion and file sharing.
As of version 1.7, WASTE comes in an experimental and a stable release. The experimental branch implements a new 16k packet size, which improves overhead and transfer speeds, but is not compatible with previous versions which support a 4k packet size.
WASTE 1.7.4 for Windows was released on 24 December 2008, and was current as of October 2009[update]. This is a new branch on SourceForge created because of inactivity on the main WASTE development branch. This is the most fully featured version to date.
VIA Technologies released a fork of WASTE under the name PadlockSL, but removed the product's website after a few weeks. The user interface was written in Qt and the client was available for GNU/Linux and Windows.