|Voiceless palatal affricate|
|IPA Number||107 (138)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0063 U+0361 U+00E7|
The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨c͡ç⟩ and ⟨c͜ç⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
c_C. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨cç⟩ in the IPA and
cC in X-SAMPA.
This sound is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.
The voiceless palatal affricate occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The consonant is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe (with the Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions). It usually occurs with its voiced counterpart, the voiced palatal affricate.
There is also the voiceless post-palatal affricate in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless velar affricate. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨c̠͡ç̠⟩, ⟨c͡ç˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨c͡ç⟩) or ⟨k̟͡x̟⟩ (advanced ⟨k͡x⟩) - this article uses only the first symbol. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
Especially in broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal affricate may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar affricate (⟨k͡xʲ⟩ or ⟨k͜xʲ⟩ in the IPA,
k_x_j in X-SAMPA).
Features of the voiceless palatal affricate:
|Albanian||Standard||qaj||[c͡çaj]||'I cry'||May merge with [t͡ʃ] in some dialects. Retained as [c] in some Tosk Albanian varieties, or alternatively [c͡ç]. See Albanian language|
|Asturian||Western dialects||muyyer||[muˈc͡çeɾ]||'woman'||Alternate evolution of -lj-, -c'l-, pl-, cl- and fl- in the Brañas Vaqueiras area of Western Asturias. May be also realized as [c] or [ɟ͡ʝ]|
|Dutch||bakje||[ˈbɑc̠͡ç̠jə]||'tray' (dim.)||Post-palatal; allophone of /k/ before /j/. See Dutch phonology|
|Hungarian||tyúk||[c͡çuːk]||'hen'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Kaingang||[c͡çɔi̯ɟ]||'cranefly'||Possible word-initial realization of /ç/.|
|Korean||켜다 / kyeoda||[c͡çɘː.dɐ]||'turn on'||Allophone of /kʰ/ before /i/ and /j/. See Korean phonology|
|Navajo||ashkii||[aʃc͡çiː]||'boy'||Allophone of /kʰ/ before the front vowels /i, e/. See Navajo phonology|
|Norwegian||Central and Western dialects||ikkje||[ic͡çə]||'not'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Skolt Sami||sääˊmǩiõll||[sʲaamc͡çiɘl]||'Skolt Sami'|