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|Voiceless labiodental affricate|
The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga has this affricate, as in [tiɱp̪͡fuβu] "hippopotamuses" and aspirated [ɱp̪͡fʰuka] "distance" (compare [ɱfutsu] "tortoise", which shows that the stop is not epenthetic), as well as a voiced labiodental affricate, [b̪͡v], as in [ʃileb̪͡vu] "chin". There is no voiceless labiodental fricative [f] in this dialect of Tsonga, only a voiceless bilabial fricative, as in [ɸu] "finished". (Among voiced fricatives, both [β] and [v] occur, however.)
German has a similar sound /p͡f/ in Pfeffer /ˈp͡fɛfər/ ('pepper') and Apfel /ˈap͡fəl/ ('apple'). Phonotactically, this sound does not occur after long vowels, diphthongs or /l/. It differs from a true labiodental affricate in that it starts out bilabial but then the lower lip retracts slightly for the frication.
The sound occurs occasionally in English, in compound words where one syllable ends with "p" and the next starts with "f", like in "helpful" or "stepfather".
Features of the voiceless labiodental affricate:
|English||Helpful||'helpful'||Occurs occasionally, only in the middle of compound words where one syllable ends with "p" and the next starts with "f". See English phonology|
|German||Standard||Pfirsiche||[ˈp͡fɪɐ̯zɪçə] (help·info)||'peaches'||Bilabial-labiodental. See Standard German phonology|
|Swiss dialects||Soipfe||[ˈz̥oi̯p͡fə]||'soap'||Bilabial-labiodental. The example word is from the Zurich dialect.|
|Italian||Some central-south dialects||infatti||[iɱˈp̪͡fät̪̚t̪i]||'indeed'||Labiodental, allophone of /f/ after nasals. See Italian phonology|
|Luxembourgish||Kampf||[ˈkʰɑmp͡f]||'fight'||Occurs only in German loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Tsonga||XiNkuna dialect||timpfuvu||[tiɱp̪͡fuβu]||'hippopotami'||Contrasts with aspirated form.|