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|Voiceless alveolar trill|
|IPA Number||122 402A|
A voiceless alveolar trill differs from the voiced alveolar trill /r/ only by the vibrations of the vocal cord. It occurs in a few languages, usually alongside the voiced version, as a similar phoneme or an allophone.
Proto-Indo-European *sr developed into a sound spelled ⟨ῥ⟩, with the letter for /r/ and the diacritic for /h/, in Ancient Greek. It was probably a voiceless alveolar trill and became the regular word-initial allophone of /r/ in standard Attic Greek that has disappeared in Modern Greek.
Features of the voiceless alveolar trill:
|Estonian||[example needed]||Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t, s, h/. See Estonian phonology|
|Icelandic||hrafn||[ˈr̥apn̥]||'raven'||Contrasts with /r/. For some speakers it may actually be a voiceless flap. Also illustrates [n̥]. See Icelandic phonology|
|Lezgian||крчар/krčar||[ˈkʰr̥t͡ʃar]||'horns'||Allophone of /r/ between voiceless obstruents|
|Limburgish||Hasselt dialect||geer||[ɣeːr̥]||'odour'||Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be uvular [ʀ̥] instead.|
|Moksha||нархне||[ˈnar̥nʲæ]||'these grasses'||Contrasts with /r/: нарня [ˈnarnʲæ] "short grass". It has the palatalized counterpart /r̥ʲ/: марьхне [ˈmar̥ʲnʲæ] "these apples", but марьня [ˈmarʲnʲæ] "little apple"|
|Nivkh||р̌ы||[r̥ɨ]||'door'||Contrasts with /r/|
|Northern Qiang||[example needed]||Contrasts with /r/|
|Polish||krtań||[ˈkr̥täɲ̟]||'larynx'||Allophone of /r/ when surrounded by voiceless consonants, or word finally after voiceless consonants. See Polish phonology|
|Ukrainian||центр||[t̪͡s̪ɛn̪t̪r̥]||'centre'||Word-final allophone of /r/ after /t/. See Ukrainian phonology|
|Welsh||Rhagfyr||[ˈr̥aɡvɨr]||'December'||Contrasts with /r/. See Welsh phonology|
|Zapotec||Quiegolani||rsil||[r̥sil]||'early'||Allophone of /r/.|
|Voiceless alveolar fricative trill|
|IPA Number||122 402A 429|
The voiceless alveolar fricative trill is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language. However, it occurs allophonically in Czech.
Features of the voiceless alveolar fricative trill:
|Czech||třista||[ˈt̪r̝̊ɪs̪t̪ä]||'three hundred'||Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants; may be a tapped fricative instead. See Czech phonology|
|Norwegian||Areas around Narvik||norsk||[nɔr̝̊k]||'Norwegian'||Allophone of the sequence /ɾs/ before voiceless consonants.|
|Some subdialects of Trøndersk|
|Polish||Some dialects||przyjść||[ˈpr̝̊ɘjɕt͡ɕ]||'to come'||Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants for speakers that don't merge it with /ʐ/. Present in areas from Starogard Gdański to Malbork and those south, west and northwest of them, area from Lubawa to Olsztyn to Olecko to Działdowo, south and east from Wieleń, around Wołomin, southeast from Ostrów Mazowiecka and west from Siedlce, from Brzeg to Opole and those north of them, and roughly from Racibórz to Nowy Targ. Most speakers, as well as standard Polish pronounce it the same as /ʂ/, and speakers maintaining the distinction (which is mostly the elderly) sporadically do that too.|
|Silesian||Gmina Istebna||[example needed]||Allophone of /r̝/ after voiceless consonants. It's pronounced the same as /ʂ/ in most Polish dialects|