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Voiced retroflex stop

Voiced retroflex stop
IPA Number106
Entity (decimal)ɖ
Unicode (hex)U+0256
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many Indian languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ].


Features of the voiced retroflex stop:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ḷḷingüa [ɖiŋɡwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1] ডাকাত [ɖäkät̪] 'robber' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
English Indian dialects dine [ɖaɪn] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] [ɖə] (name of a letter) Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] डालना/ڈالنا [ɖäːlnäː] 'to put' Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javanese ꦣꦲꦂ/dhahar [ɖahaɽ] 'to eat'
Kannada ಸು [ʌɖʌsu] 'to join'
Malayalam പാണ്ഡവര് [ˈpäːɳɖäʋər] 'Pandavas'
Marathi[2] हा [häːɖ] 'bone' Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nihali [biɖum] 'one'
Norwegian varde [ˈʋɑɖːə] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto ډﻙ [ɖak] 'full'
Punjabi ਡੱਡੂ [ɖəɖːu] 'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu About this sound[keɾˈveɖːu]  'brain'
Sicilian coḍḍu [kɔɖːu] 'neck'
Somali dhul [ɖul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord [nuːɖ] 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5] ண்டி [ʋəɳɖi] 'cart' Subapical;[2] allophone of /ʈ/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Telugu రు [ʌɖʌru] 'to arise'
Torwali[6] ڈىغو [ɖiɣu] 'late afternoon' Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.

See also



  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hindī Bhāshā, Kitāb Mahal: Kitāb Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X

External links