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|Voiced pharyngeal fricative|
|Voiced pharyngeal approximant|
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is [ʕ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal.
Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [ʕ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as [ʕ̞] or as [ɑ̯], because it is the semivocalic equivalent of [ɑ].
Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:
Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /ʕ/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew – Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant, or a pharyngealized glottal stop.
|Arabic||ثعبان||[θuʕbaːn]||'snake'||See Arabic phonology|
|Assyrian Neo-Aramaic||tara||[tər'ʕɑː]||'door'||Only upheld in educated and religious speech. Majority of the speakers will utter the word as [tərɑː].|
|Chechen||Ӏан / jan||[ʕan] (help·info)||'winter'|
|Coptic||ⲁϣⲁⲓ / ʕšai||[əʕˈʃai]||'to multiply'|
|Danish||Standard||ravn||[ʕ̞ɑ̈wˀn]||'raven'||An approximant; also described as uvular [ʁ]. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Limburg||rad||[ʕ̞ɑt]||'wheel'||An approximant. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|German||Some speakers||Mutter||[ˈmutɔʕ̞]||'mother'||An approximant; occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol. See Standard German phonology|
|Swabian dialect||ändard||[ˈend̥aʕ̞d̥]||'changes'||An approximant. It's an allophone of /ʁ/ in nucleus and coda positions; pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.|
|Hebrew||Iraqi||עברית||[ʕibˈriːθ]||'Hebrew language'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Kabyle||ɛemmi||[ʕəmːi]||'my (paternal) uncle'|
|Kurdish||‘ewr||[ʕæwr]||'cloud'||Many Sorani and some Kurmanji dialects have this sound.|
|Marshallese||enana||[ɛ̯ɛnæ͡ɑʕnæ͡ɑʕ]||'it is bad'|
|Occitan||Southern Auvergnat||pala||[ˈpaʕa]||'shovel'||See Occitan phonology|
|Somali||cunto||[ʕuntɔ]||'food'||See Somali phonology|
|Syriac||Turoyo||ܐܰܪܥܳܐ||[arʕo]||'Earth'||Tends to be absent from Eastern Syriac varieties.|
|Ukrainian||гора||[ʕoˈrɑ]||'mountain'||Also described as [ɦ]. See Ukrainian phonology|