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Voiced labiodental affricate
Voiced labiodental affricate b̪v Audio sample
voiced labiodental affricate ( [b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].
Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:
manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. There are two variants of the
bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental. labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. The
fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Its
phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Labiodental; occasional allophone of /v/; distribution unclear.
Italian Some central-south dialects
[iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top'
Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals. See Italian phonology
Kam pf am Ënnergrond
[ ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm ˈənɐɡʀont] 'underground battle'
Occurs only word-finally before words beginning with vowels (when pronounced without a pause between them) in German loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect
Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [ Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi: 10.1017/S0025100312000278 Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi: 10.1017/S0025100310000083