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Visayan languages

Visayan
Bisaya/Binisaya
EthnicityVisayans
Geographic
distribution
Visayas, most parts of Mindanao, Masbate, and Mimaropa in the Philippines, Sabah in Malaysia and immigrant communities
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Subdivisions
  • Asi
    Cebuan
    Central Visayan
    West Visayan
    South Visayan
Glottologbisa1268[1]
Visayan languages map.png
Geographic extent of Visayan languages based on Ethnologue and the National Statistics Office 2000 Census of Population and Housing

Cebuan

Central Visayan

  Waray
  Ati

West Visayan

Asi

  Asi

South Visayan

  Tausug

Other legend

  Widespread/L2 use of Cebuano
  Widespread/L2 use of Hiligaynon

Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all of which are part of the Central Philippine languages. Most Visayan languages are spoken in the whole Visayas section of the country, but they are also spoken in the southern part of the Bicol Region (particularly in Masbate), islands south of Luzon, such as those that make up Romblon, most of the areas of Mindanao and the province of Sulu located southwest of Mindanao. Some residents of Metro Manila also speak Visayan.

Over 30 languages constitute the Visayan language family. The Visayan language with the most speakers is Cebuano, spoken by 20 million people as a native language in Central Visayas, parts of Eastern Visayas, and most of Mindanao. Two other well-known and widespread Visayan languages are Hiligaynon (Ilonggo), spoken by 10 million in most of Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN; and Waray-Waray, spoken by 3 million in Eastern Visayas. Prior to colonization, the script and calligraphy of most of the Visayan peoples was the badlit, distinct from the Tagalog baybayin.

Nomenclature

Native speakers of Visayan languages, especially Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray not only refer to their language by their local name, but also by Bisaya or Binisaya, meaning Visayan language. This is misleading or may lead to confusion as different languages may be called Bisaya by their respective speakers despite their languages being mutually unintelligible. However, languages that are classified within the Visayan language family but spoken natively in places outside of the Visayas do not use the self-reference Bisaya or Binisaya. To speakers of Masbateño, Romblomanon, Surigaonon and Butuanon, the term Visaya usually refers to either Cebuano or Hiligaynon. Since Tausugs are mostly Muslims, they view the term Bisaya as a religious term referring to Christian Filipinos (mostly referring to either Cebuano and/or Hiligaynon as they are the neighboring languages).

There have been no proven accounts to verify the origins of Bisaya. However, there is an ethnic group in Malaysia and Brunei who call themselves with the same name. However, these ethnic groups in the Philippines must not be confused with those in Borneo.

Internal classification

David Zorc gives the following internal classification for the Visayan languages (Zorc 1977:32).[2] The five primary branches are South, Cebuan, Central, Banton, and West. However, Zorc notes that the Visayan language family is more like a dialect continuum rather than a set of readily distinguishable languages. The South Visayan languages are considered to have diverged first, followed by Cebuan and then the rest of the three branches. Also, in the Visayas section, the province of Romblon has the most linguistic diversity, as languages from three primary Visayan branches are spoken there aside from the indigenous Romblomanon and Banton.

Notably, Baybayanon and Porohanon have Warayan substrata, indicating a more widespread distribution of Waray before Cebuano speakers started to expand considerably starting from the mid-1800s.[3]

A total of 36 varieties are listed below. Individual languages are marked by italics.

The auxiliary language of Eskayan is grammatically Visayan, but has essentially no Visayan (or Philippine) vocabulary.

Magahat and Karolanos, both spoken in Negros, are unclassified within Visayan.[4]

Ethnologue classification

Ethnologue classifies the 25 Visayan languages into five subgroups:

Language family No. of Languages Languages
Banton 1 Bantoanon
Cebuan 1 Cebuano
Central Visayan 1 Bantayanon
Peripheral 5 Ati, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Masbateño, Porohanon
Romblon 1 Romblomanon
Warayan 3 Baybayanon, Kabalian, Northern Sorsoganon
Gubat 1 Southern Sorsoganon
Samar-Waray 1 Waray
South Visayan 2 Surigaonon, Tandaganon
Butuan-Tausug 2 Butuanon, Tausug
West Visayan 2 Aklanon, Caluyanon
Aklan 1 Malaynon
Karay-an 1 Karay-a
Cuyan 2 Cuyonon, Ratagnon
North-Central 1 Inonhan
Total 25

Names and locations

Zorc (1977: 14-15) lists the following names and locations of Visayan languages. The recently documented languages Karolanos, Magahat, and Kabalian are not listed in Zorc (1977).

Subgroup Language Other names Location(s)
Banton Banton Banton Island, Romblon
Banton Sibale Banton Sibale (Maestre de Campo) Island, Romblon
Banton Odionganon Corcuera Island dialect Odiongan area, Tablas Island, Romblon
Western Alcantaranon Alcantara, Tablas Island, Romblon
Western Dispoholnon San Andres (Despujols), Tablas Island
Western Looknon Inunhan Look and Santa Fe, Tablas Island
Western Datagnon Ratagnun, Latagnun Ilin Island and Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro
Western Santa Teresa Barrio Santa Teresa of Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro
Western Bulalakawnon Bulalacao (San Pedro), southern Oriental Mindoro
Western Semirara Semirara Island Group
Western Kuyonon Cuyuno Cuyo Island, except Agutaya; coastal area around Puerto Princesa, Palawan; Culion and Busuanga Islands
Western Aklanon Aklano, Aklan Aklan and northern Capiz, Panay Island
Western Pandan Pandan area, Antique, including the Buruanga, Aklan area of Panay
Western Kinaray-a Antiqueño, Hinaray-a, Sulud, Panayano most of Antique, Panay Island; most inland areas of Iloilo and Capiz; southern Guimaras Island off of Iloilo
Western Gimaras Guimaras Island, Iloilo
Central Romblomanon Romblon and Sibuyan Island; San Agustin area, Tablas Island
Central Bantayan Bantayan Island
Central Capiznon Ilonggo Capiz area, Panay Island
Central Hiligaynon Ilonggo Negros Occidental and coastal areas of Iloilo from Oton to Estancia
Central Kawayan Cauayan, Negros Occidental
Central Masbate Masbate Masbate and Ticao Island
Central Camotes Camotes Island, between Cebu and Leyte
Central Northern Samar Samareño, Waray-Waray northern Samar
Central Samar-Leyte Samareño, Waray-Waray, Sinamar central Samar; northern half of Leyte
Central Waray Samareño, Waray-Waray, Binisayâ southern Samar Island, Eastern Samar
Central Sorsogon Sorsogonon, Bikol northern Sorsogon, Bikol
Central Gubat Sorsogonon southern Sorsogon, Bikol (including Gubat)
Cebuan Cebuano Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Cebuan, Sebuano Cebu Island; Negros Oriental; eastern Visayas and the coastal areas of northern and eastern Mindanao
Cebuan Boholano Bohol Island
Cebuan Leyte Kanâ, Leyteño central western Leyte; immigrants to Dinagat Island
Southern Butuanon Butuan City, Agusan del Norte area
Southern Surigaonon Jaun Bisayâ Surigao del Norte
Southern Jaun-Jaun Siargaonon Siargao Island, Surigao del Norte
Southern Kantilan Cantilan and Madrid, Surigao del Sur
Southern Naturalis Tandag and Tago, Surigao del Sur
Southern Tausug Moro, Taw Sug Jolo Island; southern and western Palawan

Reconstruction

David Zorc's reconstruction of Proto-Visayan had 15 consonants and 4 vowels (Zorc 1977:201).[2] Vowel length, primary stress (penultimate and ultimate), and secondary stress (pre-penultimate) are also reconstructed by Zorc.

Proto-Visayan Consonants
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d ɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative s h
Lateral l
Approximant w j
Proto-Visayan Vowels
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ə /ə/
Open a /a/

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bisayan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Zorc, David Paul (1977). The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. doi:10.15144/PL-C44. ISBN 0858831570.
  3. ^ Lobel, Jason (2009). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 914–917.
  4. ^ Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

External links