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Viceroy of Liangjiang

Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Liangjiang
Traditional Chinese 兩江總督
Simplified Chinese 两江总督
Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督兩江等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督两江等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事

The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs, Provisions and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Because Jiangsu and Anhui were previously part of a single province, Jiangnan ("south of the Yangtze"), they were thus known, along with Jiangxi ("west of the Yangtze"), as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang" ("two Jiangs").

History

The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. It was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong, Jiangxi and Henan" (江東江西河南三省總督) and headquartered in Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu). In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" (江西總督) and its headquarters shifted to Nanchang for a short while before the old system was restored.

During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, in 1661 and 1674 two separate Viceroy offices were created for Jiangdong and Jiangxi, but they were merged under the Viceroy of Liangjiang later in 1665 and 1682 respectively. The office's name had remained as "Viceroy of Liangjiang" since then.

In 1723, the Yongzheng Emperor ordered that the Viceroy of Liangjiang would concurrently hold the appointments of Secretary of Defence (兵部尚書) and Right Censor-in-Chief (右都御史) of the Detection Branch (都察院) in the Censorate.

In 1831, the Daoguang Emperor put the Viceroy of Liangjiang in charge of the salt trade in the Huai River area.

During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, the Taiping rebels captured Jiangning (江寧; present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu) and designated it as their capital. The headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang constantly shifted across different locations, including Yangzhou, Changzhou, Shanghai, Suzhou and Anqing.

In 1866, during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the Viceroy of Liangjiang was also put in charge of trade and commerce in the five treaty ports. He also concurrently held the appointment of "Nanyang Trade Minister" (南洋通商大臣); cf. "Beiyang Trade Minister" (北洋通商大臣) held by the Viceroy of Zhili.

After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the former headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang in Nanjing was converted into a Presidential Palace for the President of the Republic of China until 1949.

List of Viceroys of Liangjiang

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Jiangnan, Jiangxi and Henan
(1647–1649)
1 Ma Guozhu
馬國柱
19 August 1647 30 September 1649
Viceroy of Liangjiang
(1649–1661)
2 Ma Guozhu
馬國柱
30 September 1649 30 October 1654 Left office due to illness
3 Ma Mingpei
馬鳴佩
November 1654 23 June 1656 Left office due to illness
4 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
3 July 1656 2 November 1661
Viceroy of Jiangnan
(1661–1665)
5 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
2 November 1661 4 July 1665
Viceroy of Jiangxi
(1661–1665)
5 Zhang Chaolin
張朝璘
2 November 1661 4 July 1665
Viceroy of Liangjiang
(1665–1911)
6 Lang Tingzuo
郎廷佐
4 July 1665 17 December 1668 Left office due to illness
7 Maleji
麻勒吉
10 January 1669 5 July 1673 Demoted by two grades and reassigned elsewhere
8 Axixi
阿席熙
29 July 1673 January 1682 Demoted
9 Yu Chenglong
于成龍
Portrait of Yu Chenglong.jpg 1 February 1682 24 June 1684 Died in office
10 Wang Xinming
王新命
1 July 1684 18 April 1687 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
11 Dong Ne
董訥
22 April 1687 24 April 1688 Demoted by five grades and reassigned elsewhere
12 Fulata
傅拉塔
5 May 1688 22 July 1694 Died in office
13 Fan Chengxun
范承勳
10 August 1694 15 November 1698 Left office for filial mourning
14 Zhang Penghe
張鵬翮
23 December 1698 28 April 1700 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Caoyun
Taodai
陶岱
30 May 1699 Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Personnel
Taodai
陶岱
28 April 1700 27 June 1700 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
15 Ašan
阿山
1 July 1700 24 December 1706
16 Shaomubu
邵穆布
31 December 1706 August 1709
17 Gali
噶禮
27 August 1709 10 March 1712 Relieved of his appointment
Lang Tingji
郎廷極
10 March 1712 14 November 1712 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
18 Heshou
赫壽
14 November 1712 22 May 1717 Promoted to Secretary of the Board for the Administration of Outlying Regions
19 Changnai
長鼐
30 May 1717 November 1722 Died in office
20 Chabine
查弼納
27 November 1722 18 May 1726 Recalled to the imperial capital
Fan Shiyi
范時繹
18 May 1726 12 May 1730 Stand-in as the zongbing of Malan Town
Shi Yizhi
史貽直
12 May 1730 Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Personnel
21 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
高其倬.jpg 20 June 1730 8 August 1731 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Yun-Guang
Yin Jishan
尹繼善.jpg 8 August 1731 24 October 1732 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Wei Tingzhen
魏廷珍
24 October 1732 23 February 1733 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Caoyun
22 Gao Qizhuo
高其倬
高其倬.jpg 23 February 1733 8 October 1733 Recalled back to the imperial capital
Zhao Hong'en
趙宏恩
8 October 1733 18 June 1734 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Hunan
23 Zhao Hong'en
趙宏恩
18 June 1734 10 February 1737 Recalled to the imperial capital
24 Qingfu
慶復
10 February 1737 4 November 1737 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Yun-Gui
25 Nasutu
那蘇圖
4 November 1737 5 December 1739 Left office for filial mourning
26 Hao Yulin
郝玉麟
5 December 1739 18 June 1740 Relieved of his appointment
Yang Chaozeng
楊超曾
18 June 1740 26 September 1741 Stand-in as Secretary of Defence
27 Nasutu
那蘇圖
26 September 1741 9 May 1742 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
28 Depei
德沛
9 May 1742 11 March 1743 Recalled to the imperial capital
29 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 11 March 1743 28 October 1748
30 Celeng
策楞
28 October 1748 11 January 1749 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Chuan-Shaan
Ya'erhashan
雅爾哈善
11 January 1749 25 January 1749 Stand-in
31 Huang Tinggui
黃廷桂
25 January 1749 25 July 1751 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
32 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 25 July 1751 16 October 1753
Zhuang Yougong
莊有恭
莊有恭.jpg 11 November 1752 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Erong'an
鄂容安
24 February 1753 16 October 1753 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
33 Erong'an
鄂容安
16 October 1753 1755 Killed in battle
Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 26 September 1754 29 November 1756 Stand-in as Viceroy of Southern Rivers
34 Yin Jishan
尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 29 November 1756 9 May 1765 Reassigned to the Imperial Cabinet
35 Gao Jin
高晉
9 May 1765 25 February 1779 Died in office
36 Sazai
薩載
25 February 1779 21 September 1780 Left office for filial mourning
37 Chen Huizu
陳輝祖
21 September 1780 January 1781
Sazai
薩載
January 1781 17 February 1783 Acting Viceroy of Liangjiang
38 Sazai
薩載
17 February 1783 10 April 1786 Died in office
39 Li Shijie
李世傑
10 April 1786 30 December 1787 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Sichuan
Min Eyuan
閔鶚元
11 April 1786 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
40 Shulin
書麟
11 April 1786 11 July 1790 Dismissed from office
Fusong
福崧
11 July 1790 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
41 Sun Shiyi
孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 14 July 1790 25 May 1791 Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
Changlin
長麟
25 May 1791 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
42 Shulin
書麟
25 May 1791 14 August 1794 Dismissed from office
43 Fugang
富綱
14 August 1794 23 January 1795 Demoted
Suringga
蘇凌阿
14 August 1794 Stand-in as Secretary of Justice
44 Funing
福寧
23 January 1795 2 August 1796 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Sichuan
Suringga
蘇凌阿
2 August 1796 6 November 1797 Stand-in as Secretary of Justice
45 Li Fenghan
李奉翰
6 November 1797 18 March 1799 Died in office
46 Fei Chun
費淳
18 March 1799 12 August 1803 Reassigned to serve as Secretary of Defence
47 Chen Dawen
陳大文
12 August 1803 25 February 1805 Reassigned to serve as Left Censor-in-Chief
48 Tiebao
鐵保
鐵保.jpg 25 February 1805 24 August 1809 Dismissed from office
49 Alinbao
阿林保
24 August 1809 11 January 1810 Died in office
50 Songyun
松筠
11 January 1810 26 February 1811 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangguang
51 Lebao
勒保
26 February 1811 27 July 1811 Recalled back to the imperial capital
52 Bailing
百齡
27 July 1811 25 December 1816
Songyun
松筠
1 December 1816 Stand-in as Grand Secretary
53 Sun Yuting
孫玉庭
25 December 1816 9 September 1824 Promoted to Grand Secretary of Tiren Cabinet (體仁閣大學士)
54 Wei Yuanyu
魏元煜
28 January 1825 7 July 1825 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Caoyun
55 Qishan
琦善
7 July 1825 5 June 1827 Dismissed from office
Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
19 April 1827 5 June 1827 Stand-in as Grand Secretary of Tiren Cabinet (體仁閣大學士)
56 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
5 June 1827 11 October 1830 Recalled to the imperial capital
Tao Zhu
陶澍
陶澍.jpg 24 July 1830 11 October 1830 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
57 Tao Zhu
陶澍
陶澍.jpg 11 October 1830 22 April 1839 Left office due to illness
58 Lin Zexu
林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 22 April 1839 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Liangguang before he assumed office
Chen Luan
陳鑾
22 April 1839 5 January 1840 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
59 Deng Tingzhen
鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 5 January 1840 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Yun-Gui before he assumed office
60 Yilibu
伊里布
21 January 1840 3 May 1841 Recalled to the imperial capital
Linqing
麟慶
21 January 1840 Stand-in as Viceroy of Caoyun
Yuqian
裕謙
6 August 1840 10 February 1841 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
61 Yuqian
裕謙
3 May 1841 22 October 1841 Died in office
Niu Jian
牛鑑
19 October 1841 17 October 1842 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Henan
62 Qiying
耆英
Portrait of Keying.jpeg 17 October 1842 19 March 1844
Bichang
璧昌
6 April 1843 1 December 1843 Stand-in as General of Fuzhou
Sun Shanbao
孫善寶
6 April 1843 1 December 1843 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Bichang
璧昌
19 March 1844 21 January 1845 Stand-in as General of Fuzhou
Sun Shanbao
孫善寶
19 March 1844 21 January 1845 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
63 Bichang
璧昌
21 January 1845 30 April 1847 Promoted to Interior Minister
Lu Jianying
陸建瀛
8 March 1847 30 April 1847 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
64 Li Xingyuan
李星沅
李星沅.jpg 30 April 1847 26 April 1849 Left office due to illness
65 Lu Jianying
陸建瀛
26 April 1849 6 March 1853 Dismissed from office
Xianghou
祥厚
6 March 1853 31 March 1853 Stand-in as General of Jiangning
Yang Wending
楊文定
31 March 1853 27 May 1853 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
66 Yiliang
怡良
27 March 1853 5 May 1857
Zhao Dezhe
趙德轍
5 May 1857 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
He Guiqing
何桂清
5 May 1857 26 July 1857 Stand-in as former Provincial Governor of Zhejiang
67 He Guiqing
何桂清
26 July 1857 8 June 1860 Dismissed from office
Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 8 June 1860 10 August 1860 Stand-in as former Vice Secretary of Defence
Xu Youren
徐有壬
Xu Youren.jpg 8 June 1860 18 June 1860 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu; killed in battle
Xue Huan
薛煥
18 June 1860 Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangsu
68 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 10 August 1860 6 September 1868 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Zhili
Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 23 May 1865 7 December 1866 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
69 Ma Xinyi
馬新貽
6 September 1868 29 August 1870 Assassinated in office
Kuiyu
魁玉
29 August 1870 Stand-in as General of Jiangning
70 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 29 August 1870 20 March 1872 Died in office
He Jing
何璟
20 March 1872 25 November 1872 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
25 November 1872 3 February 1873 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
71 Li Zongxi
李宗羲
3 February 1873 12 January 1875 Left office due to illness
Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 12 January 1875 1 September 1875 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangxi
72 Shen Baozhen
沈葆楨
Sing Bo-ting2.jpg 30 May 1875 26 December 1879 Died in office
Wu Yuanbing
吳元炳
28 March 1878 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Wu Yuanbing
吳元炳
26 December 1879 July 1880 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
73 Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 27 December 1879 22 August 1881 Recalled to the imperial capital
74 Peng Yulin
彭玉麟
22 August 1881 28 October 1881 Dismissed from office
75 Zuo Zongtang
左宗棠
Zuo Zongtang2.jpg 28 October 1881 8 February 1884 Left office due to illness
Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 8 February 1884 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Anhui; never assumed office
Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
平定粵匪功臣像─曾國荃像.jpg 16 February 1884 6 September 1887 Stand-in as Secretary of Rites
Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 6 September 1887 October 1887 Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
Zeng Guoquan
曾國荃
平定粵匪功臣像─曾國荃像.jpg October 1887 22 November 1890 Acting Viceroy of Liangjiang
Shen Bingcheng
沈秉成
22 November 1890 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Anhui
76 Liu Kunyi
劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 22 November 1890 7 October 1902 Died in office
Zhang Zhidong
張之洞
張之洞朝服照.jpg 2 November 1894 2 January 1896 Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
Lu Chuanlin
鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 24 December 1899 3 May 1900 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
Li Youfen
李有棻
7 October 1902 Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangning
Zhang Zhidong
張之洞
張之洞朝服照.jpg 7 October 1902 20 March 1903 Stand-in as Viceroy of Huguang
77 Wei Guangtao
魏光燾
Wei Guangtao.jpg 5 December 1902 1 September 1904 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Min-Zhe
78 Li Xingrui
李興銳
1 September 1904 31 October 1904 Died in office
79 Zhou Fu
周馥
31 October 1904 2 September 1906 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Min-Zhe
Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 31 October 1904 2 September 1906 Stand-in as Provincial Governor of Jiangsu
80 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 2 September 1906 28 June 1909 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Zhili
Fan Zengxiang
樊增祥
樊增祥.jpg 28 June 1909 Stand-in as Lieutenant-Governor of Jiangning
81 Zhang Renjun
張人駿
Zhang Renjun.jpg 28 June 1909 23 January 1912 Dismissed from office
Zhang Xun
張勳
Zhangxun.jpg 23 January 1912 Stand-in as Provincial Military Commander of Jiangnan

References