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Vasopressin receptor 2

Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesAVPR2, ADHR, DI1, DIR, DIR3, NDI, V2R, arginine vasopressin receptor 2
External IDsOMIM: 300538 MGI: 88123 HomoloGene: 20064 GeneCards: AVPR2
Gene location (Human)
X chromosome (human)
Chr.X chromosome (human)[1]
X chromosome (human)
Genomic location for AVPR2
Genomic location for AVPR2
BandXq28Start153,902,531 bp[1]
End153,907,166 bp[1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr X: 153.9 – 153.91 MbChr X: 73.89 – 73.9 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R), or arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (officially called AVPR2), is a protein that acts as receptor for vasopressin.[5] AVPR2 belongs to the subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. Its activity is mediated by the Gs type of G proteins, which stimulate adenylate cyclase.

AVPR2 is expressed in the kidney tubule, predominantly in the membrane of cells of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, in fetal lung tissue and lung cancer, the last two being associated with alternative splicing. AVPR2 is also expressed outside the kidney in vascular endothelium.[6] Stimulation causes the release of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII from the endothelial cells.[6] Because von Willebrand factor helps stabilize circulating levels of factor VIII, the vasopressin analog desmopressin can be used to stimulate the AVPR2 receptor and increase levels of circulating factor VIII. This is useful in the treatment of hemophilia A as well as Von Willebrand disease.

In the kidney, AVPR2's primary property is to respond to arginine vasopressin by stimulating mechanisms that concentrate the urine and maintain water homeostasis in the organism. When the function of AVPR2 is lost, the disease nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) results.


Vasopressin receptor antagonists that are selective for the V2 receptor include:

Their main uses are in hyponatremia, such as that caused by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure, however these agents should be avoided in patients with cirrhosis.[7]

Demeclocycline and lithium carbonate act as indirect antagonists of renal vasopressin V2 receptors by inhibiting activation of the second messenger cascade of the receptors.[8][9]


Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 has been shown to interact with C1QTNF1.[10]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126895 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031390 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ van den Ouweland AM, Knoop MT, Knoers VV, Markslag PW, Rocchi M, Warren ST, Ropers HH, Fahrenholz F, Monnens LA, van Oost BA (Aug 1992). "Colocalization of the gene for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DIR) and the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene (AVPR2) in the Xq28 region". Genomics. 13 (4): 1350–2. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90067-3. PMID 1324225.
  6. ^ a b Jackson EK (2018). "Drugs Affecting Renal Excretory Function". In: Brunton LL, Hilal-Dandan R, Knollmann BC. eds. Goodman & Gilman's: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 13e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  7. ^ "SAMSCA (tolvaptan) prescribing information" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration.
  8. ^ Ajay K. Singh, Gordon H. Williams (12 January 2009). Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology. Academic Press. pp. 250–251. ISBN 978-0-08-092046-7.
  9. ^ L. Kovács, B. Lichardus (6 December 2012). Vasopressin: Disturbed Secretion and Its Effects. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-94-009-0449-1.
  10. ^ Innamorati G, Whang MI, Molteni R, Le Gouill C, Birnbaumer M (Nov 2002). "GIP, a G-protein-coupled receptor interacting protein". Regulatory Peptides. 109 (1–3): 173–9. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(02)00201-X. PMID 12409230.

Further reading

External links