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Vascular disease

Vascular disease
Vein art rotating.gif
Veins and arteries
Specialty Angiology Edit this on Wikidata
Types Peripheral artery disease[1], Renal artery stenosis[2]
Diagnostic method Venography, Ultrasound[3]
Treatment Quit smoking, Lower cholesterol[4]

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal.[3]

Associated medical conditions

Types

There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease), the signs and symptoms depend on which type, among them are:[5]

Mechanism

Endothelium lines the inner wall of the vessel

Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction.[9] Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become active.[10] The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque that consists of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.[11][12] The plaque results in a restricted blood flow which will decrease the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach certain organs,[13] the plaque might rupture causing the formation of clots.

Diagnosis

It can be difficult to make a vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also family history and a physical examination are important. The physical exam may be different depending on the type of vascular disease. In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs.[14][15]

Treatment

Peripheral vascular disease-ulcer

Treatment varies with the type of vascular disease; in the case of renal artery disease, information from a meta-analysis indicated that balloon angioplasty results in improvement of diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements.[16] In the case of peripheral artery disease, preventing complications is important; without treatment, sores or gangrene (tissue death) may occur. Among the treatments are:[4]

References

  1. ^ a b "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  2. ^ a b "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  4. ^ a b "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  5. ^ "ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic): A Collaborative Report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery,⁎ Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease)". content.onlinejacc.org. Retrieved 2016-02-02. 
  6. ^ "Thromboangiitis obliterans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  7. ^ "Raynaud's Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  8. ^ "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  9. ^ Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo (2013). "The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 9 (10): 1057–1069. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7502. ISSN 1449-2288. PMC 3831119Freely accessible. PMID 24250251. 
  10. ^ Bikfalvi, Andreas (2013-12-19). Encyclopedic Reference of Vascular Biology & Pathology. Springer. ISBN 9783642570636. 
  11. ^ Rubin, Emanuel; Damjanov, Ivan (2013-11-11). Pathology Reviews · 1989. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461245025. 
  12. ^ Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Dijkstra, Albert J. (2007-03-13). The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420009675. 
  13. ^ Rolfes, Sharon Rady; Pinna, Kathryn; Whitney, Ellie (2011-06-20). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Cengage Learning. ISBN 084006845X. 
  14. ^ "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  15. ^ Andras, Alina; Ferket, Bart (2014). Screening for peripheral arterial disease. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 
  16. ^ Jenks, Sara; Yeoh, Su Ern; Conway, Bryan R. (2014). "Balloon angioplasty, with and without stenting, versus medical therapy for hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD002944. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002944.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25478936. 

Further reading

External links

Classification