|Varadaraja Perumal Temple|
|Other names||Thiru Katchi, Aththigiri, Kovil, Vezhamalai|
|Proper name||Varadaraja Perumal Kovil|
|Primary deity||Varadaraja Perumal (Vishnu)
Perundevi Thayaar (Lakshmi)
|Architectural styles||Dravidian architecture|
|History and governance|
|Creator||Chola Kings, later Achutaraya Nayak|
Varadharaja Perumal Temple or Hastagiri or Attiyuran is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu located in the holy city of Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the Divya Desams, the 108 temples of Vishnu believed to have been visited by the 12 poet saints, or Alwars. It is located in a suburb of Kanchipuram known as the Vishnu Kanchi that is a home for many famous Vishnu temples. One of the greatest Hindu scholars of Vaishnava VisishtAdvaita philosophy, Ramanuja is believed to have resided in this temple. The temple along with Ekambareswarar Temple and Kamakshi Amman Temple in Kanchipuram is popularly known as Mumurtivasam (abode of trio), while Srirangam is referred to as ‘ The Koil’ (meaning: "temple") and Tirupathi as the ‘Malai’ (Meaning: "hill"). Among the Divya Desams, Kanchipuram Varadaraja Perumal temple is known as the ‘Perumal Koil’. This is one of the most sacred places for Vaishnavites. There is another famous temple of Varadarajaswamy in Kurmai, of Palamaner mandal in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, called the Kurma Varadaraja Swamy Temple.
There is a belief that the temple was first built by the Pallava king Nandivarman II. Varadharaja Perumal Temple was originally built by the Cholas in 1053 and it was expanded during the reigns of the great Chola kings Kulottunga Chola I and Vikrama Chola. In the 14th century another wall and a gopura was built by the later Chola kings. When a Mughul invasion was expected in 1688, the main image of the deity was sent to Udayarpalayam, now part of Tiruchirapalli District. It was brought back with greater difficulty after the involvement of local preceptor who enlisted the services of general Todarmal. Robert Clive, the British general during the colonial period visited the Garuda seva festival and presented a valuable necklace (now termed Clive Maharkandi), which is adorned during a special occasion every year.
The Temple is huge within a 23-acre (93,000 m2) complex and shows the architectural skills of ancient Vishwakarma Sthapathis in temple architecture and is famous for its holiness and ancient history. The temple has 3 outer precincts (prakarams) namely Azhwar Prakaram, Madai Palli Prakaram and Thiru Malai Prakaram. There are 32 shrines, 19 vimanams, 389 pillared halls (most having the lion type yali sculpture) and sacred tanks some of which located outside the complex.
The main sanctum faces west and can be entered through a 130 feet tall, 7-tiered rajagopuram (main gateway tower). The eastern gopuram is taller than the western gopuram, which is contrasting to large temples where the rajagopuram is the tallest one. One of the most famous architectural pieces in the temple is the huge stone chain sculpted in a single stone. There is a 100 pillared hall which has sculptures depicting Ramayana and Mahabaratha. It is a masterpiece of Vijayanagara architecture.
The shrine of Varadarajaswamy is on a small hillock 10m tall and a flight of 24 steps, termed "Hasthagiri". It has murals of the late Vijayanagara empire on the ceiling. Another significant features of the temple are beautifully carved lizards and gilded with gold, over the sanctum. The vimana over the sanctum of Varadaraja Swami is called Punyakoti Vimanam and the one over Perundevi Thayar shrine is called Kalyana Koti Vimanam.
Apart from the main stone idol, the temple has the wooden image of Varadarajaswamy preserved within a silver box from which water is pumped out every 40 years. There is a shrine of Narasimha on the hillock. The origin of the mask of Narasimha is mysterious and believed to possess inexplicable powers.
The third precinct has the shrine of Goddess Perundevi Thayar - it is customary for devotees to visit the shrine first before visiting the main Perumal shrine. There are four small pillared halls, identical in structure, called Thulabara Mandapas built during the 1532 for a ceremony of Achutaraya of the Vijayanagara empire.
The image of Chakrathazwhar (Sudarsana) in the temple is depicted with six hands. There festival image of the temple has seven different images of Sudarshana depicted within the same Chakra.
Indra, the king of celestial deities, after getting released from the curse of Goddess Saraswati, installed the silver and golden lizards who were the witness of the ordeal. Brahma performed a yagna here, which was about to be washed away by the fast flowing river Vedavathi. The temple deity, Vishnu laid himself flat to stay the flow and the yagna was successfully performed. Vishnu emerged with brilliance of thousand Suns as Devarajaswamy and stayed here permanently. As is the case with the association of South Indian temples with a sacred tree, the name of the temple, Attigiri is derived from Atti tree, considered sacred to Vaishnavas.
Sri Thirukkachi Nambigal
Sri Thirukkachi Nambigal(Also known as Kanchi Purnar) was an ardent devotee of this temple. He is a Vaishnavite who used to bring flowers everyday, from Poovirundhavalli, where he grows them for the temple. Not only that, he did 'Aalavatta Kaingariyam' to God, which is the generation of gentle breeze by the use of hand fan. It is said that Lord Vardharaja used to converse with him, while he was doing that seva. 'Aalavatta Kaingariyam' is done because the lord in this temple appeared directly from fire(Yagna) and he thus needs to cool down his body. He also composed Devarajaashtakam(A Sanskrit poem of 8 verses) on the presiding deity.
Sri Ramanujar, another great Vaishnavite, got answers to his six questions from Lord Varadharaja through Sri Thirukkachi Nambigal.
The temple is famous for its huge umbrella used during festive occasions. During the bhramotsavam (major festival) in Vaigasi (May/June), thousands of people throng the temple and that increases at least by a two-fold during the Garuda Vahanam and the Ther festival (temple chariot).
On normal days the temple is generally free except for some locals and a few tourists.
There are inscriptions dated 1532 CE (record 544 of 1919) indicating the gift of number of villages made by Achutaraya. Vira Narasingaraya Saluva Nayaka who was directed by Achutaraya broke the royal order by giving more lands to Ekambaranathar temple than the Varadaraja Swamy temple against the instruction of an equal gift to either of the temples. Achutaraya on hearing this equally distributed the lands to both the temples.
|Part of a series on|
- "He is the single root-source for this entire universe,
- beginning with space,and all other elements;
- like the pupil in the eye of the Vedas."
Vedanta Desika, ( of Thooppul) visits Varadaraja Perumal once a year during the month of Puratasi(Sept-Oct). This is the only Divya Desam, where Desikar enters the Sanctum of Lord Varadaraja. No other Azhvaar has this privilege
Tyagaraja and Muthuswami Dikshitar, the celebrated composers of the 18th century created compositions on the festival. Thirumangai Alvar - 4 Paasurams, Bhoothathalvar - 2 Paasurams and Peyalvar - 1 Paasuram.
Close-up of a warhorse
- Hindu Pilgrimage: A Journey Through the Holy Places of Hindus All Over India. Sunita Pant Bansal. page 82
- "The Templenet Encyclopedia - Varadaraja Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram".
- Rao 2008, p. 154
- Ramaswamy 2007, p. 273
- "Abodes of Vishnu - Thirukkachchi".
- Rao 2008, p. 108
- Rao 2008, p. 107
- Davidson 2002, p. 305
- N. 2000, p. 93
- Rao 2008, p. 106
- Tourist guide to Tamil Nadu 2007 , pp. 76-77.
- Schreitmüller, p. 545
- "Gateway to Kanchipuram district - Varadaraja Temple".
- Rao 2008, p. 105
- Massey 2004, p. 91
- Madhavan 2007, pp. 87-88
- Hopkins 2000, p. 272
- V. 1995, p. 19
- Palanithurai 2004, p. 64
- Hopkins 2000, pp. 108-109
- Davidson, Linda Kay; Gitlitz, David Martin (2002), Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland: An Encyclopedia, University of California, Santa Barbara, ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8
- Madhavan, Chithra (2007). Vishnu Temples of South India Volume 1 (Tamil Nadu). Chithra Madhavan. ISBN 978-81-908445-0-5.
- Gaur, Mahendra (2005), Indian affairs annual, Volume 2, Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, ISBN 81-7835-461-6
- Hopkins, Steven (2002). Singing the body of God: the hymns of Vedāntadeśika in their South Indian tradition. Oxford University Press.
- Massey, Reginald (2004). India's dances: their history, technique, and repertoire. Abhinav Publications.
- N., Jayapalan (2001). History Of India (from National Movement To Present Day) IV. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 81-7156-928-5.
- Palanithurai, Ganapathy (2004), Rural transformation and peoples entitlements, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, ISBN 81-8069-058-X
- Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008), Kanchipuram - Land of Legends, Saints & Temples, New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd., ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007), Historical dictionary of the Tamils, United States: Scarecrow Press, INC., ISBN 978-0-470-82958-5
- Schreitmüller, Karen (2009), India, Germany: Karl Baedeker Verlag.
- Tourist guide to Tamil Nadu (2007), Tourist guide to Tamil Nadu, Chennai: T. Krishna Press, ISBN 81-7478-177-3.
- V., Vriddhagirisan (1995), Nayaks of Tanjore, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0996-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Varadharaja Perumal Temple.|
- Local government page
- Indian temples article
- Photos of Varadaraja temple, 1280x960
- About Kanchipuram Divya Desam
- News report on Brahmotsavam