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Vanadium(II) chloride

Vanadium(II) chloride
Plan view of a single layer in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride
Layer stacking in the crystal structure of vanadium(II) chloride
IUPAC name
Vanadium(II) chloride
Other names
Vanadous chloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.057
RTECS number YW1575000
Molar mass 121.847 g/mol
Appearance pale green solid
Density 3.230 g/cm3
Melting point 1,027 °C (1,881 °F; 1,300 K)
Boiling point 1,506 °C (2,743 °F; 1,779 K)
+2410.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Main hazards Reacts with oxygen rapidly
R-phrases (outdated) 20/21/22-34
S-phrases (outdated) 26-27-36/37/39-45
Related compounds
Other anions
vanadium(II) fluoride,
vanadium(II) bromide,
vanadium(II) iodide
Other cations
titanium(II) chloride, chromium(II) chloride
Related compounds
vanadium(III) chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Vanadium(II) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl2, and is the most reduced vanadium chloride. Vanadium(II) chloride is an apple-green solid that dissolves in water to give purple solutions.[1]

Preparation, properties, and related compounds

Solid VCl2 is prepared by thermal decomposition of VCl3, which leaves a residue of VCl2:[1]

2 VCl3 → VCl2 + VCl4

VCl2 dissolves in water to give the purple hexaaquo ion [V(H2O)6]2+. Evaporation of such solutions produces crystals of [V(H2O)6]Cl2.[2]


Solid VCl2 adopts the cadmium iodide structure, featuring octahedral coordination geometry. VBr2 and VI2 are structurally and chemically similar to the dichloride. All have the d3 configuration, with a quartet ground state, akin to Cr(III).[3]

Vanadium dichloride is a powerful reducing species, being able to convert sulfoxides to sulfides, organic azides to amines, as well as reductively coupling some alkyl halides.


  1. ^ a b Young, R. C.; Smith, M. E. "Vanadium(II) Chloride" Inorganic Syntheses, 1953, volume IV, page 126-127.doi:10.1002/9780470132357.ch42
  2. ^ Martin Pomerantz, Gerald L. Combs, N. L. Dassanayake, "Vanadium Dichloride Solution" Inorganic Syntheses, 1982, vol. XXI, pp. 185–187. doi:10.1002/9780470132524.ch42
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.