A 1732 vote "set up a school for ye town of Uxbridge". A grammar school was followed by 13 one-room district school houses, built for $2000 in 1797. Uxbridge Academy (1818) became a prestigious New England prep school.
Uxbridge voted against the smallpox vaccine.Samuel Willard treated smallpox victims, was a forerunner of modern psychiatry, and ran the first hospital for mental illness in America. Vital records recorded many infant deaths, the smallpox death of Selectman Joseph Richardson, "Quincy", "dysentary", and tuberculosis deaths.Leonard White recorded a malaria outbreak here in 1896 that led to firsts in the control of malaria as a mosquito-borne infection. Uxbridge led Massachusetts in robberies for a quarter of the year in 1922, and the town voted to hire its first nighttime police patrolman.
Industrial era: 19th century to late 20th century
Bog iron and three iron forges marked the colonial era, with the inception of large-scale industries beginning around 1775. Examples of this development can be seen in the work of Richard Mowry, who built and marketed equipment to manufacture woolen, linen, or cotton cloth, and gristmills, sawmills, distilleries, and large industries.Daniel Day built the first woolen mill in 1809. By 1855, 560 local workers made 2,500,000 yards (2,300,000 m) of cloth (14,204 miles (22,859 km)). Uxbridge reached a peak of over twenty different industrial mills. A small silver vein at Scadden, in southwest Uxbridge, led to unsuccessful commercial mining in the 1830s.
Charles Capron House, 2 Capron Street. The Capron family was prominent in the Industrial era at Uxbridge Center where Capron Mill is located.
Local government granted the first woman in America the right to vote, nixed a smallpox vaccine in 1775, and defied the Massachusetts Secretary of State by approving women jurors. The 2009 Board of Health made Uxbridge the third community in the US to ban tobacco sales in pharmacies, but later reversed this.
State agencies control county elected offices (see info box). In fact, Uxbridge has a District Courthouse.
High tech, services, distribution, life sciences, hospitality, local government, education and tourism offer local jobs. A 618,000 square feet (57,400 m2) distribution center serves Fortune 500BJ's Wholesale Club's, northern division. Unemployment was 3.9%, lower than the state average .
Local schools include the Earl D. Taft Early Learning Center (Pre-K-3), Whitin Intermediate School (4-7), Uxbridge High School (8-12), and Our Lady of the Valley Regional.
Taft Brothers Block, prominently located in the town center at the corner of Mendon and Main Streets. It is a three-story brick structure with modest Late Victorian stylistic embellishments.
Nipmuck Dancing in the Blackstone Valley; The original Town of Mendon, MA was purchased from the Nipmuck in 1662 as Squinshepauk Plantation. Nipmuck are the indigenous people of Worcester County, Northeastern Connecticut, and northwest Rhode Island.
Nathan Webb's church (1731), first new Congregational Church in Massachusetts, First Great Awakening Period. This building was built after the church's establishment in 1727, but the Congregation's original church was the first new church in that period.
Deborah Sampson, a woman posing as a male soldier, enlisted in the Continental Army at Bellingham as "Robert Shurtlieff of Uxbridge". A minister kept her secret, and she was later honored as a heroine by the Massachusetts legislature.
The town of Uxbridge built 13 district schoolhouses in 1797. The South Uxbridge schoolhouse today houses the south Uxbridge community association at the historic site of Ironstone, Massachusetts.
Jacob Aldrich house typifies the early Quaker houses at Quaker City, and South Uxbridge.
Uxbridge Academy & Masonic Lodge. Uxbridge Academy was a sought after New England Prep School from 1818
Site of the Daniel Day Mill, 1809. Daniel Day started the first woolen mill in the Blackstone Valley later also known as "Scott's Mill", the current factory recently housed Berrocoo Inc., extending a 200-year family enterprise, now a prominent yarn company..
Richard Sayles House is a historic home built by Richard Sayles who owned the Rivulet Mill. Located at 80 Mendon Street.
The Capron Mill, 1820, built by John Capron Sr. and his sons Effingham, and John, circa 1820 manufactured the first satinets, used the first power looms for woolens in America, and made US military uniforms for over 140 years, including the first US Air Force dress uniform, "Uxbridge 1683", aka Uxbridge Blue.
Charles Capron House, 2 Capron Street. The Capron family was prominent in the industrial era.
The Company Store at Rogerson's Village, now known as the Larkin Building
Rogersons Village mill worker housing, Rhode Island System of mill villages
Joseph Richardson House, on the national historic register, Joseph Richardson was a Selectman, and landowner in South Uxbridge, who died of smallpox in 1825.
Stanley Woolen Mill, 1852, built by Moses Taft, with view of the Blackstone Canal, was the scene for two movies, The Great Gatsby, 1974, and Oliver's Story, 1978. In 1989, it had been the longest continuously operating family-owned mill in the US. This mill ran 24/7 making Civil War blue woolen cloth for military uniforms.
Canoes on the Blackstone Canal. The Blackstone Canal was built starting in 1824 and provided early freight transport by horse pulled barges from Uxbridge and Worcester, to the port of Providence and returns. Uxbridge was the overnight stopping point, and had close mercantile ties to Providence.
The Taft brothers built the first bridge across the Blackstone River in 1709. This stone arch bridge is a familiar scene walking northward at the Blackstone Canal Heritage State Park.
River Bend Farm Interpretive Center at Blacktone River and Canal Heritage State Park
Ezra Taft Benson (1811–1869) ran a hotel in Uxbridge, married two sisters from Northbridge, LDSApostle, Missionary to the Hawaiian Islands, and Utah Territorial Legislator
Unitarian Church at Uxbridge where Judge Henry Chapin, three term Worcester Mayor, delivered a famous 1864 published historical address. Judge Chapin was as a prominent Unitarian Church leader in Massachusetts. This church was prominent in the Industrial period of this community.
Judge Henry Chapin, 2nd Mayor of Worcester, 1849–1851), three term Mayor, Chief Judge, and Practicing Attorney who lived in Uxbridge, and delivered a famous historical address to the Uxbridge Unitarian Church in 1864 recording the account of America's First Woman Voter, Lydia Taft
Effingham Capron (1791–1859) was a national, state and local anti-slavery champion. He and his brother John Capron Jr. and their father, ran the Capron Mill at Uxbridge. The historic park commemorates the contributions of Effingham Capron here and to the USA.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., National Gallery Curator Northern Baroque Art, grew up in Uxbridge family which had started and operated multiple mils for 200 years. A descendant of Rev. Ralph Wheelock who pioneered public education in America.
Brian Skerry, At Boston University, 2011, born 1962, Underwater Photographer, With National Geographic, Sounding the Alarm for Global Sealife.
^ ab"Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Digital Treasures, Samuel Willard ran a "hospital for the insane", and trained young physicians, east side of Uxbridge Common (no longer standing)
^Buford, Mary Hunter (1895). Seth Read, Lieut.-Col.Continental Army; Pioneer at Geneva, New York, 1787, and at Erie, Penn., June, 1795. His Ancestors and Descendants. Boston, Mass. pp. 167 pages on CD in PDF Format.
^Preble, George Henry (1879). Origin and History of the American Flag and of the Naval and Yacht Club Signals, Seals and Arms, and of the Principal National Songs of the United States; Volume II. Philadelphia: Brown. pp. 695–696.
^"1950 Census of Population"(PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
^"1920 Census of Population"(PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
^"1890 Census of the Population"(PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
^"1870 Census of the Population"(PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
^"1860 Census"(PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
^"1850 Census"(PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.