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Uttaradi Matha

Sri Uttaradi Matha (also Uttaradi Mutt or Uttaradi Math) Śrī Uttarādi Maṭha is one of the three premier Dvaita Vedanta monasteries (matha) descended from Jagadguru Śrī Madhvācārya through Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha and their disciples.[1] The Uttarādi Matha is an important institution among the Mādhvas and also deeply respected among the Vaishnavas.[2] The Uttarādi Matha is one of the major Hindu monastic institutions that has historically coordinated Madhva tradition and monastic activities through satellite institutions in South India, preserved Sanskrit literature and pursued Dvaita studies. The Uttarādi Matha has been a library and a source of historic Sanskrit manuscripts.[3] Along with other Hindu monasteries Sri matha has been active in preserving the Vedas, sponsoring students and recitals, Sanskrit scholarship, and celebrating annual Madhva Jayanthi. The current pīṭādhipati or the acharya holding the pontifical seat is His Holiness Śrī Satyātma Tīrtha Swāmīji (officially known as Śrī 1008 Śrī Satyātma Tīrtha Śrīpādaṅgaḷavaru). The Uttaradi matha has huge following in South India compared to other Madhva mathas.[4][5]

Uttaradi Matha, along with Vyasaraja Matha and Raghavendra Matha , are considered to be the three premier apostolic institutions of Dvaita Vedanta and are jointly referred as Mathatraya .[6][7][8] It is the pontiffs and pandits of the Mathatraya that have been the principle architects of post-Madhva Dvaita Vedanta through the centuries.[9]

Etymology

According to tradition, "Uttarādi" (Sanskrit: उत्तराधी) refers to "Lord Vishnu who lifts us from the ocean of samsara" and "Matha" (Sanskrit: मठ) refers to "cloister, institute" or temple for spiritual studies.[10] It is 494th name of Lord Vishnu in Vishnu Sahasranama. Sharma opines that, "The Uttaradi Mutt has a territorial designation as its Pontificate has been occupied by Uttara -Karnatakas or Uttaradi-Karnatakas".[11]

History

During the time's of Satyaprajna Tirtha there was a continuous conflict between the followers of Dvaita and Advaita Vedantas. According to Manimanjari and Madhva Vijaya, Ananda Tirtha was born as an incarnation of Vayu (the wind God) to give correct interpretation of Vedanta and challenge the doctrain of Shankara, who taught Advaita Vedanta in which the individual souls or jivas were considered same as Brahman. Shankara's followers destroyed the monasteries of their opponents, and indulged in a sinful acts like killing cattle, woman, and children. The teacher Satyaprajna Tirtha was also killed, his disciple and successor Prajna Tirtha was converted to faith of Advaita by force.[12][13] However the disciples of Satya-prajna Tirtha and Prajna Tirtha remained secretly attached to true Vedanta and continued to practice their doctrine secretly. Achyuta Preksha Tirtha, the teacher of Madhvacharya was of this line.[14]

According to a tradition, it was said that at the time of Sri Achyuta Preksha who was the pontiff of Adi matha, on the ordain of Veda Vyasa, Lord Vayu incarnated in this world as Sri Madhvacharya on the day of Vijaya dasami in 1238 AD for the purpose of consolidating Hindu dharma.[15][16] Uttaradi Matha is one of three mathas, which was descended from Madhva through Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha and his disciples. Most of the Deshastha Madhvas consider Uttaradi Matha as their supreme religious authority and are its followers.[17] An overwhelming majority of Madhwas, widely scattered all over India ows it's allegiance to the Uttaradi Matha. The Uttaradi Matha does not have any headquarters as such, though sometimes some places have received special attention. It is mainly an itinerant institution moving and camping from place to place, busy carrying the torch of spiritual learning where ever it goes.[18]

Spread of Dvaita

In the first quarter of the 17th century, Vidyadhisha Tirtha (16th pontiff of Uttaradi Matha) was able to gain some converts to the Madhva fold, in Bihar, from among the Brahmins of Gaya, who still profess allegiance to Madhva school.[19] Sri Satyanatha Tirtha during his time as the peetadhipathi of Uttarādi mutt visited Gaya and strengthened the hold of the mutt among Gayapalas, who had been converted to Madhvism by his predecessor Vidyadhisha Tirtha.[20]

Pontifical lineage

Origin

As per authoritative Dvaita scripture "The Supreme God also wanted to bless the souls with divine knowledge, by which they can attain salvation. For this purpose, the Supreme God — Śrī Nārāyana Himself incarnated as Śrī Hamsa and adorned the pontifical seat called the Hamsa-Pīṭha."

List of Pontiffs

The complete list of pontiffs (Peetādhipathi's / ācāryas) who had taken the seat of this math is as below:[21][22] This list represents the authorized guru-paramparā (disciplic succession) of Śrī Uttaradi Math till date (2010-2011 AD).

  • Śrī Hamsa (A name of The Supreme Person/Supreme Godhead, Śrī Nārāyana or Śrī Hari; Paramātmā)
  • Śrī Chaturmukha Brahmā
  • Śrī Sanakādi
  • Śrī Dūrvāsa
  • Śrī Jñāna-nidhi Tīrtha
  • Śrī Garuḍa-vāhana Tīrtha
  • Śrī Kaivalya Tīrtha
  • Śrī Jñāneśa Tīrtha
  • Śrī Para Tīrtha
  • Śrī Satya-prajña Tīrtha
  • Śrī Prājña Tīrtha
  • Śrī Acyuta-prekṣa Tīrtha
The list of Peetadhipathis beginning from Śrī Madhvācārya[23][24]
No. Peetadhipathis Reign Brindavana [a] Purvashrama name[b]
1 Jagadguru Śrī Madhvācārya (Śrī Pūrnaprajña Tīrtha or Śrīmad-Ānanda Tīrtha Bhagavat-pādācārya) 1238-1317 - Vāsudeva
2 Śrī Padmanābha Tīrtha 1317-1324 Nava Brindavana, Hampi Shobhana Bhatta
3 Śrī Nṛhari Tīrtha 1324-1333 Venkatapura, Hampi Shyama Shastri
4 Śrī Mādhava Tīrtha 1333-1350 Mannuru Vishnu Shastri
5 Śrī Akṣhobhya Tīrtha 1350-1365 Malkheda Govinda Shastri
6 Śrī Jaya Tīrtha[26][27] 1365-1388 Malkheda Dhondupant Raghunatha
7 Śrī Vidyādhirāja Tīrtha 1388-1392 Yeragola Krishna Bhatt
8 Śrī Kavīndra Tīrtha 1392-1398 Nava Brindavana, Hampi Vasudeva Shastri
9 Śrī Vāgīśa Tīrtha 1398-1406 Nava Brindavana, Hampi Raghunathacharya
10 Śrī Rāmacandra Tīrtha 1406-1435 Yaragola Madhava Shastri
11 Śrī Vidyā-nidhi Tīrtha 1435-1442 Yaragola Krishtacharya
12 Śrī Raghunātha Tīrtha 1442-1502 Malakheda Vishnu Shastri
13 Śrī Raghuvarya Tīrtha 1502-1557 Anegundi, Karnataka Ramachandra Shastri
14 Śrī Raghūttama Tīrtha 1557-1595 Tirukoilur Ramachandra Bhatt
15 Śrī Veda-vyāsa Tīrtha 1595-1619 Penugonda Anantha Vyasacharya
16 Śrī Vidyā-dhīśa Tīrtha 1619-1631 Ranebennur Narasimhacharya
17 Śrī Veda-nidhi Tīrtha 1631-1635 Pandarpura Koratagi Pradyumnacharya
18 Śrī Satya-vrata Tīrtha 1635-1638 Sangli Raghunathacharya
19 Śrī Satya-nidhi Tīrtha 1638-1660 Kurnool Kauligi Raghupathyacharya
20 Śrī Satya-nātha Tīrtha 1660-1673 Veeracholapuram Narashimacharya
21 Śrī Satyābhinava Tīrtha 1673-1706 Nachiarkoil, Kumbhakonam Kesavacharya
22 Śrī Satya-pūrṇa Tīrtha 1706-1726 Kolpur (near Raichur) Krishnacharya
23 Śrī Satya-vijaya Tīrtha 1726-1737 Satya Vijaya Nagaram Pandurangi Balacharya
24 Śrī Satya-priya Tīrtha 1737-1744 Manamadurai Garlapad Ramacharya
25 Śrī Satya-bodha Tīrtha 1744-1783 Savanur Ramacharya
26 Śrī Satya-sandha Tīrtha 1783-1794 Mahishi Haveri Ramacharya
27 Śrī Satya-vara Tīrtha 1794-1797 Santebidanur Haveri Krishnacharya
28 Śrī Satya-dharma Tīrtha 1797-1830 Holehonnur Navaratna Purushottamacharya
29 Śrī Satya-saṅkalpa Tīrtha 1830-1841 Mysore Navaratna Shrinivasacharya.
30 Śrī Satya-santuṣṭa Tīrtha 1841-1842 Mysore Ghuli Balacharya
31 Śrī Satya-parāyaṇa Tīrtha 1842-1863 Santebidanur Haveri Gururayacharya
32 Śrī Satya-kāma Tīrtha 1863-1871 Athakuru Pachapura Srinivasacharya
33 Śrī Satyeṣṭa Tīrtha 1871-1872 Athakuru Hattimuttur Narasimhacharya
34 Śrī Satya-parākrama Tīrtha 1872-1879 Chittapura Vykar Srinivasacharya
35 Śrī Satya-vīra Tīrtha 1879-1886 Korlahalli Korlahalli Bhodaramacharya
36 Śrī Satya-dhīra Tīrtha 1886-1906 Korlahalli Korlahalli Jayacharya
37 Śrī Satya-jñāna Tīrtha 1906-1911 Rajahmundry Kinhal Jayacharya
38 Śrī Satya-dhyāna Tīrtha 1911- 24 March 1942 Pandarpura Korlahalli Sethuramacharya
39 Śrī Satya-prajña Tīrtha 24 March 1942 - 14 April 1945 Athakuru Pandurangi Jayacharya
40 Śrī Satyābhijña Tīrtha 14 April 1945 - 2 February 1948 Ranebennur Katti Venkannacharya
41 Śrī Satya-pramoda Tīrtha 2 February 1948 - 3 November 1997 Tirukoilur Guttal Guru Rajacharya
42 Śrī Satyātma Tīrtha (the current presiding pontiff) 3 November 1997 - till date (Sannyasa accepted on: 24 April 1996) [28][29] - Guttal Sarvajñāchārya

Hagiology

The "Gurucarya" is a hagiological work on the Pontiffs of the Uttaradi Mutt (from Madhvacharya down to Satyanidhi Tirtha). These floating traditions of the Mutt came to be defined and recorded during the days of Sripadaraja.[30] "Guruvamsakathakalpataru" is another hagiological work on the lives of all Madhva Pontiffs of Uttarādi Matha order upto Satyasandha Tirtha, authored by Bhimadaivajna of Bijapur.[31]

Mission

The chief mission of the Sri matha is to practice, protect, preach and propagate the ancient Vedic dharma (sanātana dharma). Since the time of its origin, till date, Uttaradi Math has been and continuing to be the strong advocate of the true Vedic dharma. The Sri Math has extended its services to mankind in all spheres of life like medical care, education, disaster, calamities, wars, etc.[32]

Vidyapeethas

The Sri Matha has established three to four Vidyapeethas most prominent among them being Sri Jayateertha Vidyapeetha in Bangalore and Sri Satyadhyana Vidyapeetha in Mumbai (Old Hindu Style Gurukuls) with boarding facilities where in students stay and continue their study in Vedas and Madhwa Shastras. Students are rigorously trained here in various branches of knowledge like Grammar, Linguistics, Logic, Mimamsa, Sankhya, Yoga, Veda, Jyotisha, Advaita, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita systems and Modern Philosophies.[33]

Sri Jayateertha Vidyapeetha

Sri Jayateertha Vidyapeetha was established by Sri Satyapramoda Tīrtha Swamiji in the year 1989, which presently holds more than 200 students and 15 teaching faculty members.[34] The uniqueness of this institution is that its students are specially trained under the guidance of Shri 1008 Shri Satyatma Teertha Swamiji for 12 years with initial 9 years of training at the Jayateertha Vidyapeetha Residential Campus where they attain mastery over Kāvya, Vyākaraṇa, Sahitya, Vedas, Sankhya, Yoga, Jaina, Bauddha, Shakta, Advaita, Vishistadvaita and Dvaita Philosophies under the guidance of Kulapati Guttala Rangacharya, Principal Vidwan Satyadhyanacharya and several other experienced Adhyapakas. During the last 3 years of the course, the students are given extensive classes in Shriman Nyaya Sudha, Tatparya Chandrika, Tarkatandava etc., on tour directly by the learned Swamiji, thus giving the student an opportunity to expand his knowledge base by way of getting exposed, at an early age, to the scholarly world, with opportunity to meet several esteemed scholars and conducting debates and discussions with them in esteemed centers of learning across the entire country like Kashi, Prayag, Delhi, Pune, Rajahmundry etc. After successfully completing the 12 year course, the students are awarded the title "Sudha Vidwan" in a grand convocation function called the "Sudha Mangala", held at various prime centers of learning.[35] To make themselves eligible for the title the students have to present a paper orally before distinguished scholars and also take an oral exam in Shriman Nyaya Sudha, the magnum opus of Dvaita Philosophy. The candidate is tested for all round skills and then declared to be eligible for the title by a jury of scholars headed by His Holiness Satyatma Tirtha.[36]

Sri Satyadhyana Vidyapeetha

Satyadhyana Vidyapeetha is an institution of advanced learning. It caters for the needs of scholars interested in higher studies and research. By 1972, It has brought out 26 authoritative volumes on philosophy.[37]

Official website

[www.uttaradimath.org]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brindavana refers to sacred burial places in the tradition of Uttaradi Matha.[25]
  2. ^ Purvashrama name refers to the name of the Peetadhipathi before taking Sannyasa.

References

  1. ^ The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society (Bangalore)., Volume 83. The Society (Mythic Society). 1992. p. 133. In addition to the eight Mathas at Udupi, Acharya Madhwa had also founded the Uttaradi Matha with Padmanabha and Jayateertha being its Peethadhipatis in succession.
  2. ^ Chinya V. Ravishankar. Sons of Sarasvati: Late Exemplars of the Indian Intellectual Tradition. SUNY Press. p. 211. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  3. ^ P. Sesha Giri Kumar (2008). Library movement and library development in Karnataka. B.R. Publishing Corporation. p. 102.
  4. ^ Steven Rosen (30 November 1994). Vaisnavism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 132.
  5. ^ Vasudha Dalmia; Heinrich von Stietencron (2009). The Oxford India Hinduism Reader. Oxford University Press. p. 161-162. The Desastha or Kannada-Marathi Madhvas have a few mathas, of which the Uttaradimatha is the largest.
  6. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 199.
  7. ^ Steven Rosen (30 November 1994). Vaisnavism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 132.
  8. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 193.
  9. ^ B. N. Hebbar (2004). Viśiṣṭādvaita and Dvaita: A Systematic and Comparative Study of the Two Schools of Vedānta with Special Reference to Some Doctrinal Controversies. Bharatiya Granth Niketan. p. 29.
  10. ^ Monier Monier-Williams (1923). A Sanskrit–English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 730.
  11. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 198.
  12. ^ Manu V. Devadevan. A Prehistory of Hinduism. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 54. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  13. ^ Garry Trumpf (1992). Religious Traditions, Volumes 15-20. School of studies in religion, University of Sydney. p. 148.
  14. ^ Roshen Dalal. Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin UK. p. 771. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  15. ^ Itihas, volume 24. Government of Andhra Pradesh. 1998. p. 85.
  16. ^ Surajit Sinha; Baidyanath Saraswati (1978). Ascetics of Kashi: An Anthropological Exploration. N.K. Bose Memorial Foundation. p. 133.
  17. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2003). People of India, Volume 26, Part 2. Oxford University Press. p. 955.
  18. ^ Surajit Sinha; Baidyanath Saraswati (1978). Ascetics of Kashi: An Anthropological Exploration. N.K.Bose Memorial Foundation. p. 134.
  19. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 541.
  20. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 445.
  21. ^ Sūrya Siddhānta Pañcāṅgam (astrological almanac) of Śrīmad Uttarādi Maṭha, 2010-2011 AD
  22. ^ Uttaradi Math - Parampara
  23. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1975). A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 4. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 56.
  24. ^ Ṣādiq Naqvī; V. Kishan Rao; A. Satyanarayana (2005). A Thousand Laurels--Dr. Sadiq Naqvi: Studies on Medieval India with Special Reference to Deccan, Volume 2. Osmania University. p. 779.
  25. ^ Karnataka State Gazetteer: Dharwad District (including Gadag and Haveri Districts). Office of the Chief Editor, Karnataka Gazetteer. 1993. p. 123.
  26. ^ Nina Mirnig; Peter-Daniel Szanto; Michael Williams. Puspika: Tracing Ancient India Through Texts and Traditions: Contributions to Current Research in Indology Volume I. Oxbow Books. p. 453. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  27. ^ Steven J. Rosen (2006). Journal of Vaiṣṇava Studies, Volumes 15-16. Journal of Vaishnava Studies. p. 185. Jayatirtha (1335-1385) was the pontiff of Uttaradi Math, a monastic institution founded by Madhva, and was the author of important commentaries on madhva's most prominent works
  28. ^ Uttaradi Math - Sri Satyatma Tirtha
  29. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 650.
  30. ^ B. N. Krishnamurti Sharma (1981). History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature: From the Earliest Beginnings to Our Own Time. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 194.
  31. ^ C. Panduranga Bhatta; G. John Samuel; Shu Hikosaka; M. S. Nagarajan (1997). Contribution of Karṇāṭaka to Sanskrit. Institute of Asian Studies. p. 117.
  32. ^ Uttaradi Math - Mission
  33. ^ Vedas continue to live here. The Times of India. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  34. ^ Radhavallabh Tripathi (2012). Ṣaṣṭyabdasaṃskr̥tam: India. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. p. 198.
  35. ^ "Worldly pleasures are like water bubbles: Seer". Times of India. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  36. ^ Vedas continue to live here. The Times of India. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  37. ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India, Volume 93. The Times of India Press. 1972. p. 21.

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