There are currently 13 operational rapid transit (also called 'metro') systems in 18 cities in India. As of March 2019, India has 638.91 kilometres (397.00 miles) of operational metro lines and 496 stations. A further 500+ km of lines are under construction. Metro rail lines in India are composed of mainly standard gauge. Projects like the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but all new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported is of standard gauge.
Apart from the Kolkata metro (which forms its own zone of Indian Railways), these rapid transit metro lines are not operated by Indian Railways but by separate local authorities. In addition to their metro systems, the cities of Chennai and Hyderabad have mass transit systems operated by the Indian Railways, known as the Chennai MRTS and the Hyderabad MMTS, respectively.
The first rapid transit system in India is the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro has the largest network in the entire country. The newest metro opened is Nagpur Metro on 8 March 2019.
In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million). On 11 August 2014, Union Government announced that it would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having a population of more than 1 million. In May 2015, the Union Government approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implemented through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated ₹5 lakh crore (US$72 billion). In a new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted state governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems. In August 2017, the Union Government announced that it would not provide financial assistance to new metro rail project, unless some sort of private partnership is involved.
|City||System||State||Opening||System length (km)||No of lines[a]||No of stations[b]||Gauge||Traction||Notes|
|Kolkata||Kolkata Metro||West Bengal||24 October 1984||27.22||113.42||1||24||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge
|750 V DC Third rail||First metro in India. It is first in India to have the third rail for power supply and the first to use fully metro coaches made in India by ICF & BEML.|
|Delhi NCR||Delhi Metro||Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh||24 December 2002||343.36||18.11||103.9||8||250||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge
|25 kV AC OHE||India's largest rapid transit/metro system.|
|Rapid Metro Gurgaon||Haryana||14 November 2013||11.7||1||12||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC Third rail||India's first fully privately financed metro. Currently undertaken by Delhi Metro|
|Noida Metro||Uttar Pradesh||25 January 2019||29.7||15||1||22||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||Currently undertaken by Delhi Metro|
|Bengaluru||Namma Metro||Karnataka||20 October 2011||42.30||34.37||57.07||2||41||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC third rail||First metro in southern India, the first to have the third rail for power supply in southern India, and the first to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.|
|Mumbai||Mumbai Metro||Maharashtra||8 June 2014||11.4||163||209||1||12||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||India's first public private partnership (PPP) metro system with Reliance group. 14 lines and line extensions are at different stages of execution.|
|Jaipur||Jaipur Metro||Rajasthan||3 June 2015||9.63||2.4||23.01||1||9||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||Double-story elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.|
|Chennai||Chennai Metro||Tamil Nadu||29 June 2015||45.1||9.1||118.9||2||32||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||First metro rail in the country to connect two lines (blue & green) through loop line to run direct service from the airport to central even though had interchange station at Alandur. First metro in India for underground stations with sliding doors.|
|Kochi||Kochi Metro||Kerala||17 June 2017||18.4||25.6||56.7||1||16||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC Third rail||First Indian metro to go live with CBTC signalling.|
|Lucknow||Lucknow Metro||Uttar Pradesh||5 September 2017||23.7||11.10||140||1||21||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||The fastest built and commissioned metro system in the world. Opened to the public on 5 September 2017.|
|Hyderabad||Hyderabad Metro||Telangana||29 November 2017||56.5||15.7||168||2||47||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro.|
||Ahmedabad Metro||Gujarat||6 March 2019||6.5||40.03||28.26||1||6||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC Third rail||Inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi on 4 March 2019.|
|Nagpur||Nagpur Metro||Maharashtra||8 March 2019||13.5||29.5||93||1||5||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||Inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi on 7 March 2019.|
|Navi Mumbai||Navi Mumbai Metro||Maharashtra||August 2020||11.10||12.30||1||20||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC OHE||Two sets of 3 cars train arrived at Mumbai Port from China|
|Pune||Pune Metro||Maharashtra||June 2022||31.5||54||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC||Construction began in May 2017. 30% work completed as of June 2018.|
|Bhopal||Bhopal Metro||Madhya Pradesh||2023||27.87||2||30||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC||Construction began in December 2018.|
|Indore||Indore Metro||Madhya Pradesh||February 2023||31.55||1||30||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kV AC||DPR approved by Union Cabinet.|
|Kanpur||Kanpur Metro||Uttar Pradesh||2024||24||38||2||24||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kv AC OHE||Approved by the Union Cabinet on 28 February 2019.|
|Agra||Agra Metro||Uttar Pradesh||2024||27||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||N/A||Approved by the Union Cabinet on 28 February 2019.|
|Patna||Patna Metro||Bihar||2024||31||2||24||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||25 kV AC OHE||PM Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone for this project on 17 February 2019.|
|Surat||Surat Metro||Gujarat||2024||40.35||2||38||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||N/A||Union govt approved DPR on 10 March 2019.|
|Meerut||Meerut Metro||Uttar Pradesh||2024||30||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||N/A||Foundation stone laid in March 2019.|
|Varanasi||Varanasi Metro||Uttar Pradesh||13||1||13||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||N/A||Detailed project report completed.|
|Doon Valley||Dehradun Metro||Uttarakand||73||2||TBD||N/A||DPR submitted for state cabinet approval.|
|Visakhapatnam||Visakhapatnam Metro||Andhra Pradesh||39||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||N/A|||
|Coimbatore||Coimbatore Metro||Tamil Nadu||3||24||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||25 kv AC
|Under feasibility study.|
|Guwahati||Guwahati Metro||Assam||61.4||TBD||N/A||DPR approved by the state cabinet.|
|Gwalior||Greater Gwalior Metro||Madhya Pradesh||105||N/A||N/A||Subject to a feasibility study.|
|Jabalpur||Jabalpur Metro||Madhya Pradesh||N/A||N/A||Subject to a feasibility study.|
|Srinagar||Srinagar Metro||Jammu & Kashmir||N/A||N/A|
|Bareilly||Bareilly Metro||Uttar Pradesh||Proposed|
|Prayagraj||Prayagraj Metro||Uttar Pradesh||Proposed|
|Gorakhpur||Gorakhpur Metro||Uttar Pradesh||27.41||2||27||Proposed|
|Chandigarh Tricity||Chandigarh Metro||Haryana||37.5||Rejected because of commercial viability.|
|Kozhikode||Kozhikode Light Metro||Kerala||22|||
|Thiruvananthapuram||Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro||Kerala||22|||
|Mumbai||Western Railway Elevated Corridor||Maharashtra||63.27||Rejected because of infeasibility.|
|Ludhiana||Ludhiana Metro||Punjab||28.83||Rejected due to lack of funds|
Suburban rail plays a major role in the public transport system of many major Indian cities. These service are operated by Indian Railways. Suburban rail is a rail service between a central business district and the suburbs, a conurbation or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains are called suburban trains. These trains are also referred to as "local trains" or "locals". The suburban rail systems in Hyderabad, Pune, Barabanki–Lucknow, Lucknow–Kanpur and Bengaluru do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share tracks with long distance trains. The suburban rail system of Chennai and Mumbai have both dedicated tracks and tracks shared with long distance trains.
Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are all electric multiple units (EMUs). They usually have nine or twelve coaches, sometimes even fifteen to handle rush hour traffic. One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in the suburban rails run on 25 kV AC. Ridership on India's suburban railways has risen from 1.2 million in 1970–71 to 4.4 million in 2012–13. The suburban railways of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai account for about 7.1% of the Indian Railways 20819.3 million train kilometres but contribute 53.2% of all railway passengers. In some cities of India, the opening of rapid transit systems have led to a decline in the use of the suburban rail system.
|System||City||State||Opening Year||System Length (km)||No of Lines||No of Stations||Gauge||Traction||Notes|
|Mumbai Suburban Railway||Mumbai||Maharashtra||16 April 1853||427.5||6||140||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|First suburban railway|
|Kolkata Suburban Railway||Kolkata||West Bengal||15 August 1854||1243||25||365+||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Largest suburban railway|
|Lucknow–Kanpur Suburban Railway||Lucknow
|Uttar Pradesh||23 April 1867||72||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Chennai Suburban Railway||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||2 April 1931||509||4||150+||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Largest Suburban Railway in South India|
|Delhi Suburban Railway(excluding NCR)||Delhi||Delhi||1 October 1975||85-100||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Pune Suburban Railway||Pune||Maharashtra||16 April 1978||63||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Hyderabad Multi-Modal Transport System||Hyderabad||Telangana||9 August 2003||43||3||36||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Barabanki–Lucknow Suburban Railway||Barabanki
|Uttar Pradesh||9 August 2013||36||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Pernem–Karwar Suburban Railway||Goa
|Goa, Karnataka||1 April 2015||100||1||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Bengaluru Commuter Rail||Bengaluru||Karnataka||Planned||200||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Ahmedabad Suburban Railway||Ahmedabad||Gujarat||Planned||52.96||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Delhi–Alwar Regional Rapid Transit System||Delhi
|Delhi, Rajasthan||Planned||164||22||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Delhi–Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System||Delhi
|Delhi, Uttar Pradesh||Planned||82||16||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|PM Modi laid the foundation stone on 8 March 2019|
|Delhi–Panipat Regional Rapid Transit System||Delhi
|Delhi, Haryana||Planned||103||16||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
|Coimbatore Suburban Railway||Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu||Proposed||2||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||25 kV AC
The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014, is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India. Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.
|System||City||State||Opening year||System length (km)||No of lines||No of stations||Traction||Notes|
|Mumbai Monorail||Mumbai||Maharashtra||2 February 2014||19.52||1||17||750 V DC Third rail||World's sixth longest monorail after Phase 2 opened on 3 March 2019.|
|Chennai Monorail||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||57||3||37||Centre approved Chennai monorail project, to be implemented under DBFOT model.|
|Kolkata Monorail||Kolkata||West Bengal||72||2|
|Allahabad monorail||Allahabad||Uttar Pradesh||70.4||2|
|Kanpur Monorail||Kanpur||Uttar Pradesh||63||3|
|Tiruchirappalli Monorail||Tiruchirappalli||Tamil Nadu||Proposed.|
|Coimbatore Monorail||Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu||Proposed.|
|Chandigarh Monorail||Chandigarh Tricity||Haryana||Proposed.|
|Shimla Monorail||Shimla||Himachal Pradesh||Proposed|
Light rail or light rail transit (LRT) is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way. Two light rail projects have been proposed respectively in Delhi and Kolkata. There would be a total number of 68 stations of light rail in India.
|System||City||State||Opening year||System length (km)||No of lines||No of stations||Gauge||Traction||Notes|
|Vijayawada Metro||Vijayawada||Andhra Pradesh||2020||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|||
|Greater Nashik Metro||Nashik||Maharashtra||N/A||N/A||DPR being prepared by MahaMetro.|
|Kolkata Light Rail Transit||Kolkata||West Bengal||2||12||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||750 V DC Third rail|
|Delhi Light Rail Transit||Delhi||Delhi||45||3|
In addition to trains, trams were introduced in many cities in the late 19th century, though almost all of these were phased out. The Trams in Kolkata is currently the only tram system in the country. The Calcutta Tramways Company (now under WBTC) is in the process[when?] of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of ₹240 million (US$3.5 million).
|System||City||State||Opening year||System length (km)||No of lines||No of stations||Gauge||Traction||Notes|
|Kolkata Tram||Kolkata||West Bengal||1873||57.17||25||NA||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge||550 V DC
|The only operational tram system in India|
|Mumbai Tram||Mumbai||Maharashtra||1874||Discontinued in 1964|
|Nashik Tram||Nashik||Maharashtra||1889||762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge||Discontinued in 1931|
|Chennai Tram||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||1895||Discontinued in 1953|
|Patna Tram||Patna||Bihar||Discontinued in 1903|
|Kanpur Tram||Kanpur||Uttar Pradesh||1907||6.04||Discontinued on 16 May 1933|
|Kochi Tram||Kochi||Kerala||1907||1000 mm (3 ft ⅜ in) metre gauge||Discontinued in 1963|
|Delhi Tram||Delhi||Delhi||1908||Discontinued in 1963|
|Bhavnagar Tram||Bhavnagar||Gujarat||1926||762 mm (2 ft 6 in) narrow gauge||Discontinued in 1960s|
There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.
BEML is a Bangaluru-based Public Sector Undertaking company which manufactures mining equipment, heavy engineering as well as metro rail coaches. It manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai, Mitsubishi, Rotem.
Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro. Production at Savli began in June 2009. In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.
In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro. The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad. It also provides signalling & telecommunications systems.
Integral Coach Factory manufactures rolling stock (under Kolkata Urban Transit), ICF has manufactured "Medha Rakes" and is in the process of supplying them to various suburban systems.
The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to former Minister of Urban Development Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."
Construction of metros in India is governed by the centrally enacted The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith. Operation and maintenance of metros are governed by The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009. The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.
Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India. Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refused certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.