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Upma

Upma
A photo of Upma.jpg
Upma
Alternative namesUppuma, Uppittu, Uppumavu, Uppindi, Kharabath, Upeet, Rulanv
CourseBreakfast
Place of originIndia
Main ingredientsSemolina or coarse rice flour

Upma, uppumavu or uppittu is a dish originating from the Indian subcontinent, most common in South Indian,[1] Maharashtrian, and Sri Lankan Tamil breakfast, cooked as a thick porridge from dry-roasted semolina or coarse rice flour.[2] Various seasonings and/or vegetables are often added during the cooking, depending on individual preferences. Today it is popular in most parts of India and is prepared in various ways.

Etymology

The different names for the dish derive from the combinations of the word uppu, meaning salt[3] in many Dravidian languages, and various words for flour: like pindi[4] or mavu[5]. In North India, the dish is called upma.

Language Roman Transliteration Native Unicode
Gujarati Upma ઉપમા
Kannada Uppittu, Kharabath ಉಪ್ಪಿಟ್ಟು, ಖಾರಬಾತ್
Tamil Uppumavu, Uppuma, Upma உப்புமா
Telugu Uppindi, Upma ఉప్మా, ఉప్పిండి
Malayalam Uppumavu ഉപ്പുമാവ്
Marathi Uppeet, Upma उप्पीट/उपमा
Konkani Rulanv रुलांव
Hindi Upma उपमा
Odia Upma ଉପମା
Bengali Upma উপমা
Upma
Nutritional value per 120 gm
Energy1,046 kJ (250 kcal)
45.67
Dietary fiber3.2 g
3.78
Saturated0.916 g
Monounsaturated1.54 g
Polyunsaturated0.944 g
8.11
MineralsQuantity %DV
Potassium
5%
223 mg
Sodium
13%
190 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Ingredients and preparation

Upma is typically made by first lightly dry roasting semolina (called rava or sooji in India), till it reaches a light brown colour. The semolina is then taken off the fire, and put to a side while spices are sautéed in oil or ghee. The semolina is then added back to the saucepan and mixed thoroughly. Boiling water is added, and the mixture is stirred until the semolina absorbs the liquid and becomes fluffy in texture.[6][7]

There are several ways in which upma is made, and the variations are obtained by either adding or removing spices and vegetables. The texture can vary significantly as well, depending on how much water is added to the saucepan, and how long the mixture is allowed to remain on the flame thereafter.

Major variations

Sooji upma

Upma made from sooji

The most popular version with wide variations of upma are made with whole or refined ground wheat and rice of varied grain size, and/or vermicelli. Sometimes a wide range of vegetables may be added, and may be garnished with a variety of beans (raw or sprouted), cashew and peanuts. For a variation called masala upma (known as kharabath in Karnataka), sambar masala or garam masala is added along with red chilli powder, instead of green chillies. This variety is more popular in Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and is usually served in South Indian restaurants.

Whole wheat upma

Wheat upma

Whole wheat or wheat dalia (cracked wheat) is a common variation of upma in Tamil Nadu, where it is eaten for breakfast or dinner. It can be eaten only with banana. Sometimes it is cooked with vegetables like peas, carrots, and beans.

Rice upma

Broken rice upma with coconut chutney

Rice upma, which is mainly popular in Tamil Nadu and southern parts of Karnataka, is referred to as akki tari uppittu (rice coarse flour uppittu). Another variant of upma is prepared with grated coconut instead of onions, especially on holy days, when onion is avoided. This type of upma is generally smeared with ghee at the end of preparation. Dishes similar to upma can be made by substituting small crumbs of leftover bread or idli instead of flour. Upma made from coarser rava known as sajjige is a dish of Udupi cuisine. It is sometimes served along with snacks such as sautéed and spiced poha or chevdo.

Corn upma

Corn upma

Another variation, particularly as a breakfast dish, is corn upma, eaten with milk and nuts.[8] Ginger, cumin, curry leaves, lemon juice and pepper powder may be used to season this dish.[9] A common garnish is grated coconut and coriander leaves.[10]

Kesari bath

In Karnataka, upma is also served with another common sweet dish of Karnataka, kesari bhath (ಕೇಸರಿ ಬಾತ್), with a scoop of each on one plate, in a presentation commonly called "chow chow bath".

Aval upma/atukulu upma

In Andhra Pradesh, upma made with flattened rice in place of semolina is called atukulu upma (అటుకులు ఉప్మా). This variant is also known as aval upma in the Chennai region when made with rice flakes similar to poha.

Vermicelli upma

Vermicelli upma

A popular light evening snack is upma made with vermicelli and tomato, peas and carrot.

Upma served with ghugni

In most parts of Odisha, a popular breakfast consists of sooji upma served with ghugni.

See also

References

  1. ^ Pandya, M. (1985). Indian Vegetarian Cooking. Inner Traditions/Bear. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-89281-342-1. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Poha or upma? Shabana Azmi and Twitter divided over breakfast dish". Hindustan Times. 9 October 2017.
  3. ^ "English Meaning of uppu - Online Tamil to English Dictionary & Vocabulary - English Meaning for Tamil Words". www.tamildictionary.org. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  4. ^ "English Meaning of - Free Online Telugu to English Dictionary | Free Telugu to English Dictionary Software, Downloads, Converter, Translation, Transliteration". telugudictionary.telugupedia.com. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  5. ^ Burrow, T. (Thomas); Emeneau, M. B. ; 1904-; (Murray Barnson) (1984). "A Dravidian etymological dictionary". dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  6. ^ Dubey, Krishna Gopal (27 September 2010). THE INDIAN CUISINE. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9788120341708.
  7. ^ "Upma: Here's All You Need To Know About The Traditional Indian Breakfast Dish". NDTV Food. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  8. ^ Dalal, Tarla. Healthy breakfast. Mumbai: Sanjay. p. 9. ISBN 9788186469811.
  9. ^ Divya Rao. Lunchbox Funbox: Enticing Vegetarian Lunchbox Recipes for Kids.
  10. ^ Ranveer Brar. "Tasty Makai Upma". Livingfoodz.com.

External links