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Unification Church

Unification Chuch
Abbreviation UC
Classification New religious movement
Region Worldwide
Founder Sun Myung Moon
Origin
Seoul, South Korea
Unification Church
Hangul 통일교
Hanja 統一
Revised Romanization Tong-il Gyo
McCune–Reischauer T'ongil Kyo

The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean spiritual leader, entrepreneur, activist, and peace advocate.[1][2][3][4][5] It is a spiritually-based and charismatically-led movement of legally independent organizations that include businesses, news media, projects in education and the arts, and political and social activism.[6]

Considering that Moon repeatedly proclaimed the "end of religion" and his desire to not have a "church", the term "Unification movement", rather than "Unification Church" is sometimes used to describe the theology, organizations, and individuals associated with him.[7][8][9][10][11] In his autobiography, Moon wrote that his early followers:

"...hung out a sign that read 'Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.' We chose this name to signify that we belonged to no denomination, and we certainly had no plans to create a new one... 'Unification Church' became our commonly known name later, but it was given to us by others."[12]

Terminology

Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification Church. This is derived from the name of the UC's founder Sun Myung Moon,[13] and was first used in 1974 by the American media.[14] Unification Church members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself,[15] President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim,[16] and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[17] In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media.[18] Some journalistic authorities, including The New York Times and Reuters, now discourage its use in news reporting,[19] although the BBC continues its use.[20]

History

Origins in Korea

Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong when he was 16 years old on Easter morning of 1935 (April 17) and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished because of his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, he accepted the mission, and later changed his name to Mun Son-myong (Sun Myung Moon).[21]

Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, "Original Text of the Divine Principle") in 1945. The earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957. Finally, its most propagated text, the Exposition of the Divine Principle was published in 1966.

Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. He was released from prison by the advance of United Nations forces during the Korean War, and moved south along with many other North Koreans. He built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Busan.[22]

Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity

Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Busan on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation.[22] The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.[23][11]

In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. .[24][25][26][27]

By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[22] In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".[28][29]

The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.[30] Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.[31]

Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace.[32] As of 1994, the HSA-UWC had about 5,000 members in Russia.[33] About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day workshops.[34]

Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC, where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.[35]

Starting in 1972, the HSA-UWC sponsored the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences.[21][36] The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[37][38] Participants included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference)[39] and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).[40]

In 1975 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with religious institutions. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach.[41][42][43][44][45] In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ.,[46] spent 10 months visiting church members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs.[47] In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the Unification Church with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist for the UC but a close look at its theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."[48]

In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie based on her seven-year study of Unification Church members in the United Kingdom and the United States.[49] Barker writes that she rejects the "brainwashing" theory as an explanation for conversion to the Unification Church, because, as she wrote, it explains neither the many people who attended a recruitment meeting and did not become members, nor the voluntary disaffiliation of members.[50] Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, and others have questioned the relationship between the Unification Church and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.[51]

Starting in the 1980s Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.[52] In 1982, the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[53][54]

1990s and the 21st century

In 1991 Moon announced that UC members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to UC members.[22]

Family Federation for World Peace and Unification

On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Unification Church), Moon declared that the era of the Unification Church had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include Unification Church members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of non–Unification Church married couples were given the marriage blessing previously given only to Unification Church members.[55][56]

In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[57]Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[58] FFWPU leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan’s and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[59]

In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[60] Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation's Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.[61][62]

Founder's later years and death

In 2009, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로),[63] was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a bestseller in Korea and Japan.[64][65][66][67] In 2010, Forbes reported that Moon and Han were living in South Korea while their children took more responsibility for the day-to-day leadership of the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations.[68] On August 15, 2012, Moon was reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of St. Mary's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea in Seoul.[69] He died there on September 3, 2012.[70]

Beliefs

The Unification Church is among the minority of new religious movements who have introduced their own unique scriptures.[71] The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Korean 원리강론, translit. wonli ganglon) is the main theological textbook of the Unification Church. It was co-written by church founder Sun Myung Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973. The book lays out the core of UC theology, and is held by its believers to have the status of Holy Scripture. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God's purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[72]

Blessing ceremony

Rev. and Mrs. Moon preside over a mass blessing ceremony in 2010

The Unification Church is well known for its wedding or wedding vow renewal ceremony. It is given to engaged or married couples. Through it, members of the Unification Church believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity and engrafted into God's sinless lineage. The Blessing ceremony was first held in 1961 for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the church. Rev. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.[73] Moon's practice of matching couples was very unusual in both Christian tradition and in modern Western culture and attracted much attention and controversy.[74]

Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but followed the same pattern. All participants were Unification Church members and Rev. Moon matched most of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City.[75] In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[76] In 1992 Sun Myung Moon gave the wedding blessing for 30,000 couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium[77] and for 13,000 at the Yankee Stadium.[78] In 2013, four months after the death of Sun Myung Moon, the church held a Blessing ceremony for 3500 couples in South Korea, while another 24,000 followers took part in other countries via video link. This ceremony was presided over by Hak Ja Han.[79]

Political activism

In the 1970s and 1980s, Unification Church members became noted for their political activities, especially their support for United States president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal,[80] their support for anti-communism during the Cold War,[81][82] and their ownership of various news media outlets through News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, DC, and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, which tend to support conservatism.[83]

These political activities were opposed by some leftists.[84] In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, while investigating the Koreagate scandal found that the South Korean National Intelligence Service (KCIA) had worked with Unification Church members to gain political influence within the United States, with some working as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which undertook public diplomacy for the Republic of Korea.[85] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.[86]

In 1980 Moon asked UC members to found CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York.[87][88] In August 1985, six years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme, "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." The conference was chaired by professors Morton Kaplan and Aleksandras Štromas.[89]

In 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[90] In 1991, he met with Kim Il Sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, and other topics.[91] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to Kim's funeral of, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[92]

Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Ministry of Unification of South Korea.[93] FFWPU member Jaejung Lee had been once a Unification Minister of South Korea.[94] Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly[95] and a first Minister for Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.[96]

Leadership

The Unification Church includes several groups,[97] all of which claim legitimacy and the spiritual authority of Moon, but diverge theologically and doctrinally.[98] The most prominent of these is the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[99] led by Moon’s widow Hak Ja Han, who following Moon’s death announced her distinct messianic status; and the Family Peace Association[100], founded by Moon's son, Hyun Jin Moon. Because of this the future of the Unification Church and its theological and institutional legacy is uncertain.[101][102][103][104]

Hyun Jin Moon

Hyun Jin Moon was appointed vice-president of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification in 1998.[105] Although at the time he was commonly understood to be the successor to Sun Myung Moon, his leadership style and proposed reforms to dismantle the church structure and create a family-based peace movement were met with resistance and accusations of being unorthodox, eventually leading to his replacement in 2008 with his younger brother, Hyung Jin Moon.[106][107]

In 2017 Hyun Jin Moon founded the Family Peace Association as a separate entity, stating that it would carry on the trans-religious work his late father Sun Myung Moon sought to carry on with the establishment of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification.[108] The Family Peace Association maintains that it was established to carry on the original mission of the FFWPU to expand certain universal principles and values related to God-centered families to a broader, non-sectarian audience.[109]

Hyung Jin Moon

In April 2008, Sun Myung Moon appointed his youngest son, Hyung Jin Moon, to be the International President of the FFWPU. Hyung Jin Moon and members of his church, believe that a coronation ceremony with his father in 2009 made him heir and successor.[110][111] Under his leadership the name of the FFWP was changed to the Unification Church.[112] He also introduced new practices, like spiritual energy hand movements[113] In 2011 he visited North Korea to express condolences on the death of Kim Jong-il.[114] Most of his changes were dismissed after he was removed in 2015. He later founded the Pennsylvania-based World Peace and Unification Sanctuary,[115][116][117] which the FFWPU considers a "breakaway organization."[118][119]

In Jin Moon

Sun Myung Moon's daughter In Jin Moon became president of the FFWPU in the United States in 2008.[120][120] After Sun Myung Moon's death both Hyung Jin Moon and In Jin Moon were removed from their positions within FFWPU by their mother Hak Ja Han.[121]

Hak Ja Han

In 2012 Hak Ja Han took leadership over FFWPU.[122] She had instigated various ritual and theological changes that have been met with protest within the movement, most notably the elevation of her status as a distinct messianic figure through the concept of the "Only Begotten Daughter"[123][124] and textual changes to the church's main textbook.[125][126][127] FFWPU members praise Han's leadership and often refer to her as the "co-messiah" and "True Parents", signifying that they believe she is the legitimate successor within the Unification movement who is united with her husband.[128] Most FFWPU activities have continued, although some unprofitable business projects have been reduced or discontinued.[129] Recent FFWPU activities have included building projects and a revival tour.[130]

Relations and differences with other religions

Judaism

Jewish commentators, including Rabbi A. James Rudin of the American Jewish Committee in a 1976 report, have stated that Divine Principle contains pejorative language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of Jewish deicide.[131] In 1977 representatives from the American Jewish Committee, the National Council of Churches, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York held a press conference to say that the Divine Principle contains antisemitic references and heresy.[132] In the 1980s, church leaders Mose Durst, Peter Ross, and Andrew Wilson expressed regret over some members' misunderstanding of Judaism, and urged better relations with the Jewish community.[133][134][135] Moon himself has made some controversial statements about the Holocaust, including that its Jewish victims were paying indemnity for the crucifixion of Jesus.[136][137][138]

In 1977 the Unification Church issued a rebuttal to Rudin's report, stating that it was neither comprehensive nor reconciliatory, but rather had a hateful tone and was filled with denunciations. It denied that the Divine Principle teaches antisemitism and gave detailed responses to 17 specific allegations contained in the AJC's report, stating that allegations were distortions of teaching and obscuration of real passage content or that the passages were accurate summaries of Jewish scripture or New Testament passages.[139]

In 1984 Mose Durst, then the president of the Unification Church of the United States and himself a convert from Judaism,[140] said that the Jewish community had been hateful in its response to the growth of the Unification Church, and placed blame both on the community's insecurity and on Unification Church members' youthful zeal and ignorance. Rudin, then the national interreligious affairs director of the American Jewish Committee, said that Durst's remarks were inaccurate and unfair and that "hateful is a harsh word to use."[135] In the same year Durst wrote in his autobiography: "Our relations with the Jewish community have been the most painful to me personally. I say this with a heavy heart, since I was raised in the Jewish faith and am proud of my heritage."[141]

Mainstream Christianity

The Divine Principle includes new interpretations of the Bible not found in mainstream Christian traditions.[142] From its beginning, the Unification Church claimed to be Christian and promoted its teachings to mainstream Christian churches and organizations. The Unification Church in Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon’s own Presbyterian Church. In the United States, the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections were theological, especially because of the Unification Church’s addition of material to the Bible.[143]

Protestant Christian commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as contrary to the Protestant doctrine of sola fide.[144][145] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of Christology, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming.[146]

Islam

The relationship between the Unification Church and Islam has often been noted, both by scholars and the news media. The Divine Principle lists the Muslim world as one of the world’s four major divisions (the others being East Asia, Hindu, and Christendom).[147] In 1997, Louis Farrakhan, the leader of the Nation of Islam, a Black Muslim organization, served as a coofficiator at a Blessing Ceremony presided over by Moon and Han.[148] In 2000 the Church and the Nation of Islam co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington, D.C., to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony.[149][150]

Interfaith activities

In 2009 the Unification Church held an interfaith event in the Congress of the Republic of Peru.[151] Former President of the Congress Marcial Ayaipoma[152] and other notable politicians were called "Ambassadors for Peace" of the Unification Church.[153][154][155][156] In 2010, the church built a large interfaith temple in Seoul.[157] Author Deepak Chopra was the keynote at an interfaith event of the Unification Church cohosted with the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations.[158] In 2011, an interfaith event was held in the National Assembly of Thailand, the President of the National Assembly of Thailand attended the event.[159] In 2012, the Unification Church-affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith dialogue in Italy that was cosponsored by United Nations.[160] That year, Unification Church affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith program for representatives of 12 various religions and confessions in the hall of the United Nations General Assembly. The President of the United Nations General Assembly,[161] the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,[162][163] the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations[164] and other UN officials gave speeches.[165]

See also

References

  1. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. "From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. CESNUR - Center for the Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  2. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (2000-10-15). The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion. Signature Books. ISBN 1560851457. 
  3. ^ Kim, Jongsuk (2017-11-25). Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced copy ed.). Cheunan City, S. Korea: SARANG Kim of AUNE. pp. 11–14. ISBN 979-11-959843-3-6. 
  4. ^ Matczak, Sebastian (1982). Unificationism: A New Philosophy and Worldview. New York, NY: New York Learned Publications. 
  5. ^ Prophets and Protons: New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America, Benjamin E. Zeller, NYU Press, Mar 1, 2010, page 13
  6. ^ Swatos, Jr, William H. (February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, California.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  7. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (May 2006). Cheon Seong Gyeong (First ed.). Sun-jo Hwang; HSA Publications. pp. 1011,1606. 
  8. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "The Proclamation of the Complete Testament Age -- View of the Principle of the Providential History of Salvation". tparents.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  9. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "Total Indemnity". www.unification.net. Damian Anderson. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  10. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  11. ^ a b Moon’s death marks end of an era, Eileen Barker, CNN, 2012-9-3
  12. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2010). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (May 2010 ed.). USA: The Washington Times Foundation. pp. 119–120. OCLC 751568991. 
  13. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0. 
  14. ^ PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service. 
  15. ^ Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6. 
  16. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7. 
  17. ^ Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  18. ^ Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2. 
  19. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; William G. Connolly (2002). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Three Rivers Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2. 
  20. ^ Moonies' mass wedding held in South Korea, BBC News, 20 February 2016
  21. ^ a b excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  22. ^ a b c d Introvigne, 2000
  23. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  24. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
  25. ^ Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion, George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 page 1
  26. ^ Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
  27. ^ Conversion Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine., Unification Church Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
  28. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. pages 12 – 16
  29. ^ Moon-struck, Time, October 15, 1973, "The core members—most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips—display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, N.Y., members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
  30. ^ "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
  31. ^ "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
  32. ^ The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by UC leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
  33. ^ A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
  34. ^ Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  36. ^ Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 10 August 1976.
  37. ^ "ICUS". 
  38. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 17 September 1984
  39. ^ "Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference – News – The Harvard Crimson". 
  40. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. Princeton University Library
  41. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
    c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  42. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, UC history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  43. ^ Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  44. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  45. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  46. ^ Frederick E. Sontag dies at 84; Pomona College philosophy professor, Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2009
  47. ^ Who is this Pied Piper of Religion?, St. Petersburg Times, February 4, 1978
  48. ^ Moon: an objective look at his theology, Boca Raton News, 1977-11-25
  49. ^ Review, William Rusher, National Review, December 19, 1986.
  50. ^ NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS - SOME PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION George Chryssides, Diskus, 1997.
  51. ^ Kent, Stephen; Theresa Krebs (1998). "Academic Compromise in the Social Scientific Study of Alternative Religions". Nova Religio. 2 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1525/nr.1998.2.1.44. 
  52. ^ Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (May 15, 2009) ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pages 163-168
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  54. ^ "6,000 Couples Are Married in Korea". The New York Times. October 31, 1988. 
  55. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, pages 47-52
  56. ^ Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, November 24, 1997
  57. ^ Million Family March reaches out to all
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  72. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
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  77. ^ Bak Byeong Ryong Unification Church believers around the world three manyeossang joint wedding, MBCNews, 25 August 1992
  78. ^ "'D' Is For Danger – And For Writer Don Delillo". Chicago Tribune. May 22, 1992. 
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  89. ^ Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
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Annotated bibliography

External links