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Type 3 diabetes

Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting from insulin resistance (which is the primary problem associated with type 2 diabetes) and insulin deficiency (which the primary problem in type 1 diabetes).[1] The categorization is not embraced by the medical community.

A limited number of published reviews have suggested mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance.[2][3][4][5] In Alzheimer's disease, the brains ability to metabolize sugar efficiently is decreased.[1] Neurofibrillary tangles and hyper phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.[5] Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) plays a key role in the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles.[5]


  1. ^ a b "Is Alzheimer's disease Type 3 diabetes?". Emory | Healthy Aging Study. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  2. ^ "Type 3 Diabetes". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  3. ^ Owen Dyer (2005). "Is Alzheimer's really just type III diabetes?". National Review of Medicine. 2 (21). Archived from the original on 2015-02-14.
  4. ^ Ahmed S, Mahmood Z, Zahid S (October 2015). "Linking insulin with Alzheimer's disease: emergence as type III diabetes". Neurol. Sci. 36 (10): 1763–9. doi:10.1007/s10072-015-2352-5. PMID 26248483.
  5. ^ a b c Kandimalla, Ramesk; Thirumala, Vani; Reddy, P. Hemachandra (May 2017). "Is Alzheimer's disease a Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1863 (5): 1078–1089. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.08.018. ISSN 0006-3002. PMC 5344773. PMID 27567931.