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Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with issues related to presidential succession and disability. It clarifies Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 by stating emphatically that the Vice President becomes President (as opposed to Acting President) if the President dies, resigns, is removed from office; and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President and for responding to presidential disabilities.[1] The Twenty-fifth Amendment was submitted to the states on July 6, 1965 by the 89th Congress and was adopted on February 10, 1967.[2]


Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.[3]


Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 was ambiguous as to whether the person who was vice president took over only the "powers and duties" of the presidency in the event of a president's removal, death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the office, or also became President of the United States; nor did it define inability or state who had the power to declare a president incapacitated.[4]

The ambiguity of the original clause caused difficulties many times before the Twenty-fifth Amendment's adoption:

  • In 1841, President William Henry Harrison became the first U.S. President to die in office. Representative John Williams had previously suggested that the Vice President should become Acting President upon the death of the President.[5] John Tyler asserted that he had succeeded to the presidency, as opposed to only obtaining its powers and duties. He also declined to acknowledge documents referring to him as "Acting President". Although he felt his vice presidential oath negated the need for the presidential oath, Tyler was persuaded that being formally sworn-in would clear up any doubts about his right to the office. Having done so, he then moved into the White House and assumed full presidential powers. While he was often derided by opponents as "His Accidency",[6] Tyler's claim was not formally challenged, and both houses of Congress adopted a resolution confirming that Tyler was the tenth President of the United States, without any qualifiers. The precedent of full succession was thus established.[7] This became known as the "Tyler Precedent".
  • There had been occasions when a President was incapacitated. For example, following Woodrow Wilson's stroke no one officially assumed the Presidential powers and duties, in part because the First Lady, Edith Wilson, together with the White House Physician, Cary T. Grayson, covered up President Wilson's condition.[8] Although Wilson's true condition eventually became public knowledge, by then only a few months remained in his term and Congressional leaders were thus not sufficiently inclined to press the issue.
  • Prior to 1967, the office of Vice President had been vacant sixteen times due to the death or resignation of the Vice President or his succession to the presidency.[1] The vacancy created when Andrew Johnson succeeded to the presidency upon Abraham Lincoln's assassination was one of several that encompassed nearly the entire four-year term. In 1868, Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives and came one vote short of being removed from office by the Senate. If Johnson had been removed, President pro tempore Benjamin Wade would have become Acting President in accordance with the Presidential Succession Act of 1792.[9]
  • After having been temporarily incapacitated by several severe health problems, President Dwight D. Eisenhower attempted to clarify procedures through a signed agreement with Vice President Richard Nixon, drafted by Attorney General Herbert Brownell Jr. However, this agreement did not have legal authority.[10] Eisenhower suffered a heart attack in September 1955 and intestinal problems requiring emergency surgery in July 1956. Each time until Eisenhower was able to resume his duties, Nixon presided over Cabinet meetings and, along with Eisenhower aides, kept the executive branch functioning and assured the public that the situation was under control. However, Nixon never made any effort to formally assume the status of Acting President or President.

Crafting the amendment

Keating–Kefauver proposal

In 1963, Senator Kenneth Keating of New York proposed a Constitutional amendment which would have enabled Congress to enact legislation providing for how to determine when a President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the presidency, rather than, as the Twenty-fifth Amendment does, having the Constitution so provide.[11]:345 This proposal was based upon a recommendation of the American Bar Association in 1960.[11]:27

The text of the proposal read:[11]:350

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the said office shall devolve on the Vice President. In case of the inability of the President to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the said powers and duties shall devolve on the Vice President, until the inability be removed. The Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then be President, or, in case of inability, act as President, and such officer shall be or act as President accordingly, until a President shall be elected or, in case of inability, until the inability shall be earlier removed. The commencement and termination of any inability shall be determined by such method as Congress shall by law provide.

Senators raised concerns that the Congress could either abuse such authority[11]:30 or neglect to enact any such legislation after the adoption of this proposal.[11]:34–35 Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver, the Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments, a long-time advocate for addressing the disability question, spearheaded the effort until he died of a heart attack on August 10, 1963.[11]:28[12] Senator Keating was defeated in the 1964 election, but Senator Roman Hruska of Nebraska took up Keating's cause as a new member of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments.[10]

Kennedy assassination

By the 1960s, medical science had advanced to the point that unlike in the eighteenth century it was increasingly frequent for people (especially those with access to the best medical care) to suffer long-term disability or incapacity after medical trauma or distress. Of course this did not happen after John F. Kennedy was fatally shot, but that episode clearly demonstrated the need for a clear way for determining presidential disability in the context of the Cold War.[13] The new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, had once suffered a heart attack[14] and – with the office of Vice President to remain vacant until the next term began on January 20, 1965 – the next two people in the line of succession were the 71-year-old Speaker of the House John McCormack[13][15] and the 86-year-old Senate President pro tempore Carl Hayden.[13][15] Senator Birch Bayh succeeded Kefauver as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments and set about advocating for a detailed amendment dealing with presidential disability.[13]

Bayh–Celler proposal

The Twenty-fifth Amendment in the National Archives
Page 1
Page 2

On January 6, 1965, Senator Birch Bayh proposed S.J. Res. 1 in the Senate and Representative Emanuel Celler (Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee) proposed H.J. Res. 1 in the House of Representatives. Their proposal specified the process by which a President could be declared "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office", thereby making the Vice President an Acting President, and how the President could regain the powers of his office. Also, their proposal provided a way to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice President before the next presidential election. This was as opposed to the Keating–Kefauver proposal, which neither provided for filling a vacancy in the office of Vice President prior to the next presidential election nor provided a process for determining presidential disability. In 1964, the American Bar Association endorsed the type of proposal which Bayh and Celler advocated.[11]:348–350 On January 28, 1965, President Johnson endorsed S.J. Res. 1 in a statement to Congress.[10] Their proposal received bipartisan support.[16]

On February 19, the Senate passed the amendment, but the House passed a different version of the amendment on April 13. On April 22, it was returned to the Senate with revisions.[10] There were four areas of disagreement between the House and Senate versions:

  • the Senate official who was to receive any written declaration under the amendment
  • the period of time during which the Vice President and Cabinet must decide whether they disagree with the President's declaration that he is fit to resume his duties
  • the time before Congress meets to resolve the issue between the President, Vice President, and the Cabinet
  • the time limit for Congress to reach a decision[10]

On July 6, after a conference committee ironed out differences between the versions,[17] the final version of the amendment was passed by both Houses of the Congress and presented to the states for ratification.[11]:354–358

Proposal and ratification

The Congress proposed the Twenty-fifth Amendment on July 6, 1965, and the amendment was ratified by the following states:[18]

  1. Nebraska (July 12, 1965)
  2. Wisconsin (July 13, 1965)
  3. Oklahoma (July 16, 1965)
  4. Massachusetts (August 9, 1965)
  5. Pennsylvania (August 18, 1965)
  6. Kentucky (September 15, 1965)
  7. Arizona (September 22, 1965)
  8. Michigan (October 5, 1965)
  9. Indiana (October 20, 1965)
  10. California (October 21, 1965)
  11. Arkansas (November 4, 1965)
  12. New Jersey (November 29, 1965)
  13. Delaware (December 7, 1965)
  14. Utah (January 17, 1966)
  15. West Virginia (January 20, 1966)
  16. Maine (January 24, 1966)
  17. Rhode Island (January 28, 1966)
  18. Colorado (February 3, 1966)
  19. New Mexico (February 3, 1966)
  20. Kansas (February 8, 1966)
  21. Vermont (February 10, 1966)
  22. Alaska (February 18, 1966)
  23. Idaho (March 2, 1966)
  24. Hawaii (March 3, 1966)
  25. Virginia (March 8, 1966)
  26. Mississippi (March 10, 1966)
  27. New York (March 14, 1966)
  28. Maryland (March 23, 1966)
  29. Missouri (March 30, 1966)
  30. New Hampshire (June 13, 1966)
  31. Louisiana (July 5, 1966)
  32. Tennessee (January 12, 1967)
  33. Wyoming (January 25, 1967)
  34. Washington (January 26, 1967)
  35. Iowa (January 26, 1967)
  36. Oregon (February 2, 1967)
  37. Minnesota (February 10, 1967)
  38. Nevada (February 10, 1967)
    Ratification was completed on February 10, 1967.[19]

The following states subsequently ratified the amendment:

  1. Connecticut (February 14, 1967)
  2. Montana (February 15, 1967)
  3. South Dakota (March 6, 1967)
  4. Ohio (March 7, 1967)
  5. Alabama (March 14, 1967)
  6. North Carolina (March 22, 1967)
  7. Illinois (March 22, 1967)
  8. Texas (April 25, 1967)
  9. Florida (May 25, 1967)

The following states have not ratified the amendment:

  1. Georgia
  2. North Dakota
  3. South Carolina

On February 23, 1967, in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, General Services Administrator Lawson Knott certified the amendment's ratification. President Johnson signed the certification as a witness.[20] At the ceremony President Johnson said:

It was 180 years ago, in the closing days of the Constitutional Convention, that the Founding Fathers debated the question of Presidential disability. John Dickinson of Delaware asked this question: "What is the extent of the term 'disability' and who is to be the judge of it?" No one replied.

It is hard to believe that until last week our Constitution provided no clear answer. Now, at last, the 25th amendment clarifies the crucial clause that provides for succession to the Presidency and for filling a Vice Presidential vacancy.[21]


Section 1: Presidential succession

John Tyler, first to succeed to the office of President. His succession was initially contested and it was unknown whether he should be considered to be president or acting president.

Section 1 codified the "Tyler Precedent" regarding when a President is removed from office, dies, or resigns. In any of these situations, the Vice President immediately becomes President.

Section 2: Vice Presidential vacancy

Prior to the Twenty-fifth Amendment's adoption, a Vice Presidential vacancy remained until the next vice-presidential term began. The Vice Presidency has been vacant several times due to death, resignation, or succession to the Presidency. Often these vacancies lasted for several years.

Under Section 2, whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice President, the President nominates a successor who becomes Vice President if confirmed by a majority vote of both Houses of the Congress.

Section 3: Presidential declaration

Section 3 provides that when the President transmits a written declaration to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, stating that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Presidency, and until the President sends another written declaration to the aforementioned officers declaring himself able to resume discharging those powers and duties, the Vice President discharges those powers and duties as Acting President. The Vice President does not become President and the sitting President is not removed from office.

Section 4: Vice Presidential–Cabinet declaration

Section 4 addresses the situation where an incapacitated President is unable or unwilling to provide the written declaration called for by Section 3. It allows the Vice President, together with a "majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide", to declare the President "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office" by submitting a written declaration to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. As with Section 3, the Vice President would become Acting President, not President, and the sitting President would not be removed from office. Unlike Section 3, Section 4 says that when invoked the Vice President "immediately" becomes Acting President. Section 4 is the only part of the amendment that has never been invoked.[22]

A President who is declared unable to serve under Section 4 may thereafter send a written declaration of ability to serve to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House. If the Acting President and a majority of the Cabinet still believe the President is incapacitated, they have four days to send a second declaration to that effect to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. If not already in session, the Congress must then assemble within 48 hours to decide the issue. If within 21 days two-thirds of each house of Congress vote that the President is incapacitated, the Vice President would "continue" to be Acting President. Should the Congress resolve the issue in favor of the President, or make no decision within the 21 days allotted, then the President would "resume" office. The use of the words "continue" and "resume" imply that the Vice President remains Acting President pending action by the Cabinet and Congress, and the legislative history of Section 4 makes it clear that its drafters meant for the Vice President to do so.[23] Otherwise, the President could simply retake power and immediately fire Cabinet members who voted to declare the President unfit, preventing the dispute from ever reaching Congress as the drafters intended.

Nothing in Section 4 limits the number of times a President may initiate the process to resume office by sending a written declaration to Congress.

According to a Department of Justice memorandum dating from 1985,[24] the phrase "principal officers of the executive departments" refers to the heads of the departments enumerated in federal law at 5 U.S.C 101. As of 2018, this list consists of the following fifteen officers:[25]

Proposed replacing of Cabinet as entity invoking Section 4

On April 14, 2017, Representatives Jamie Raskin and Earl Blumenauer introduced the Oversight Commission on Presidential Capacity Act.[26] The bill would replace the Cabinet as the body that, together with the Vice President, determines whether Section 4 should be invoked. Under the bill, an eleven-member commission would conduct an examination of the President when directed to do so by a concurrent resolution of the Congress.[27]

According to Blumenauer:

It is hard to imagine a better group to work with the vice president to examine whether the president is able to discharge the duties of the office. When there are questions about the president’s ability to fulfill his or her constitutional responsibilities, it is in the country’s best interest to have a mechanism in place that works effectively.[27]


Two women are flanked by two men in suits, standing in a room of the White House.
(L–R): President Richard Nixon, First Lady Pat Nixon, Betty Ford and Gerald Ford, after President Nixon nominated Gerald Ford to be Vice President
(The White House, October 13, 1973)

The Twenty-fifth Amendment has been invoked six times since its ratification. The first three times were applications of Sections 1 and 2 in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon Administration. The latter three were applications of Section 3 regarding Presidents undergoing a medical procedure requiring general anesthesia.

Succession to presidency

Nixon's resignation letter, August 9, 1974.

President Richard Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, resulting in Vice President Gerald Ford succeeding to the office of President.[28] Gerald Ford is the only person ever to be Vice President, and later President, without being elected to either office.[29]

Filling vice presidential vacancies

1973: Appointment of Gerald Ford

On October 12, 1973, following Vice President Spiro Agnew's resignation two days earlier, President Richard Nixon nominated Representative Gerald Ford of Michigan to succeed Agnew as Vice President.

The United States Senate voted 92–3 to confirm Ford on November 27 and, on December 6, the House of Representatives did the same by a vote of 387–35. Ford was sworn in later that day before a joint session of the United States Congress.[30]

1974: Appointment of Nelson Rockefeller

When Gerald Ford became President, the office of Vice President became vacant. On August 20, 1974, after considering Melvin Laird and George H.W. Bush, President Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to be the new vice president.

On December 10, 1974, Rockefeller was confirmed 90–7 by the Senate. On December 19, 1974, Rockefeller was confirmed 287–128 by the House and sworn into office later that day in the Senate chamber.[30]

Acting Presidents

1985: George H.W. Bush

On July 12, 1985, President Ronald Reagan underwent a colonoscopy, during which a villous adenoma (a pre-cancerous lesion) was discovered. When told by his physician (Dr. Edward Cattau) that he could undergo surgery immediately or in two to three weeks, Reagan elected to have it removed immediately.[31]

That afternoon, Reagan consulted with White House counsel Fred Fielding by telephone, debating whether to invoke the amendment and, if so, whether such a transfer would set an undesirable precedent. Fielding and White House Chief of Staff Donald Regan recommended that Reagan transfer power and two letters doing so were drafted: the first letter specifically invoked Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment; the second only mentioned that Reagan was mindful of this provision. At 10:32 a.m. on July 13, Reagan signed the second letter and ordered its delivery to the appropriate officers as required under the amendment.[32] Vice President George H.W. Bush was Acting President from 11:28 a.m. until 7:22 p.m., when Reagan transmitted a second letter to resume the powers and duties of the office.

Books such as The President Has Been Shot: Confusion, Disability and the 25th Amendment, by Herbert Abrams, and Reagan's autobiography, An American Life, argue President Reagan's intent to transfer power to Vice President Bush was clear. Fielding himself adds:

I personally know he did intend to invoke the amendment, and he conveyed that to all of his staff and it was conveyed to the VP as well as the President of the Senate. He was also very firm in his wish not to create a precedent binding his successor.

2002: Dick Cheney

On June 29, 2002, President George W. Bush underwent a colonoscopy and chose to invoke Section 3 of the amendment, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Dick Cheney. The medical procedure began at 7:09 a.m. EDT and ended at 7:29 a.m. EDT. Bush woke up twenty minutes later, but did not resume his presidential powers and duties until 9:24 a.m. EDT after the president's physician, Richard Tubb, conducted an overall examination. Tubb said he recommended the additional time to make sure the sedative had no aftereffects. Unlike Reagan's 1985 letter, Bush's 2002 letter specifically cited Section 3 as the authority for the transfer of power.[32]

2007: Dick Cheney

On July 21, 2007, President Bush again invoked Section 3 in response to having to undergo a colonoscopy, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Cheney. President Bush invoked Section 3 at 7:16 a.m. EDT. He reclaimed his powers at 9:21 a.m. EDT. As happened in 2002, Bush specifically cited Section 3 when he transferred the Presidential powers to the Vice President and when he reclaimed those powers.[32]

Considered invocations

There have been instances when a presidential administration has prepared for the possible invocation of Section 3 or 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment. None of these instances resulted in the Twenty-fifth Amendment being invoked or otherwise having presidential authority transferred.

Section 3

On December 22, 1978, President Jimmy Carter considered invoking Section 3 when he was contemplating having surgery to remove hemorrhoids.[33] Since then, Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama also considered invoking Section 3 during their respective administrations without doing so.[34]

Section 4

1981: Reagan assassination attempt

Following the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981, Vice President George H. W. Bush did not assume the presidential powers and duties as Acting President. Reagan was unable to invoke Section 3, because he was in surgery. Bush did not invoke Section 4, because he was on a plane returning from Texas. Reagan was out of surgery by the time Bush arrived in Washington.[35] In 1995, Birch Bayh, the primary sponsor of the amendment in the Senate, wrote that Section 4 should have been invoked.[36]

1987: Reagan's alleged incapacity

Upon becoming the White House Chief of Staff in 1987, Howard Baker was advised by his predecessor's staff to be prepared for a possible invocation of the Twenty-fifth Amendment[37] due to Reagan's perceived laziness and ineptitude.[38][39]

According to the PBS program American Experience,

What Baker's transition team was told by Donald Regan's staff that weekend shocked them. Reagan was "inattentive, inept", and "lazy", and Baker should be prepared to invoke the 25th Amendment to relieve him of his duties.

Reagan biographer Edmund Morris stated in an interview aired on the program,

The incoming Baker people all decided to have a meeting with him on Monday, their first official meeting with the President, and to cluster around the table in the Cabinet room and watch him very, very closely to see how he behaved, to see if he was indeed losing his mental grip.

Morris went on to explain,

Reagan who was, of course, completely unaware that they were launching a death watch on him, came in stimulated by the press of all these new people and performed splendidly. At the end of the meeting, they figuratively threw up their hands realizing he was in perfect command of himself.[38][39][40]

See also


  1. ^ a b Kalt, Brian C.; Pozen, David. "The Twenty-fifth Amendment". The Interactive Constitution. Philadelphia, PA: The National Constitution Center. Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  2. ^ Mount, Steve. "Ratification of Constitutional Amendments". Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  3. ^ "Presidential Vacancy and Disability Twenty-Fifth Amendment" (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, Library of Congress. September 26, 2002. Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  4. ^ Feerick, John. "Essays on Article II: Presidential Succession". The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved June 12, 2018. 
  5. ^ Chitwood, Oliver. John Tyler: Champion of the Old South. American Political Biography Press, 1990, p. 206
  6. ^ "John Tyler became the tenth President of the United States (1841–1845) when President William Henry Harrison died in April 1841. He was the first Vice President to succeed to the Presidency after the death of his predecessor". The White House. White House Historical Association. Retrieved January 22, 2018. 
  7. ^ "John Tyler, Tenth Vice President (1841)". Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  8. ^ Schlimgen, Joan (January 23, 2012). "Woodrow Wilson – Strokes and Denial". Arizona Health Sciences Library. Retrieved September 27, 2015. 
  9. ^ Amar, Akhil Reed; Amar, Vikram David (1995) [Stanford Law Review. 48 (1): 113–139]. "Is the Presidential Succession Law Constitutional?". Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 991. Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "25th Constitutional Amendment". The Great Society Congress. Association of Centers for the Study of Congress. Retrieved April 6, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Bayh, Birch (1968). One Heartbeat Away. ISBN 978-0672511608. 
  12. ^ "101.9 WKRP". 
  13. ^ a b c d How JFK’s assassination led to a constitutional amendment, National Constitution Center, Accessed January 6, 2013
  14. ^ What is the 25th Amendment and When Has It Been Invoked? History News Network, Accessed January 6, 2013
  15. ^ a b Presidential Succession During the Johnson Administration Archived 2014-01-03 at the Wayback Machine. LBJ Library, Accessed January 6, 2014
  16. ^ "Presidential Disability: An Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. July 12, 1999. p. 6. Retrieved January 27, 2017. 
  17. ^ "Presidential Inability and Vacancies in the Office of the Vice President" (PDF). The Association of Centers for the Study of Congress. 
  18. ^ "Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation" (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, Library of Congress. August 26, 2017. pp. 3–44. Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  19. ^ Chadwick, John (February 11, 1967). "With Ratification of Amendment Two Gaps In Constitution Plugged". The Florence Times. Retrieved July 20, 2018 – via Google news. 
  20. ^ McIntire, D.P. "Ratification: 38 States in 668 Days". Retrieved July 20, 2018. 
  21. ^ Johnson, Lyndon B. (February 23, 1967). "Remarks at Ceremony Marking the Ratification of the Presidential Inability (25th) Amendment to the Constitution". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. Santa Barbara, CA: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved June 20, 2018. 
  22. ^ "Amendment 25". 
  23. ^ 1972-, Kalt, Brian C., (2012). Constitutional cliffhangers: a legal guide for presidents and their enemies. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300123517. OCLC 842262440. 
  24. ^ []
  25. ^ Prokop, Andrew (2018-01-02). "The 25th Amendment, explained: how a president can be declared unfit to serve". Vox. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  26. ^ H.R. 1987
  27. ^ a b Marcos, Cristina (April 17, 2017). "House Democrat introduces bill to amend presidential removal procedures". The Hill. Retrieved July 1, 2017. 
  28. ^ "Twenty-Fifth Amendment – U.S. Constitution". FindLaw. 
  29. ^ Memorial Services in the Congress of the United States and Tributes in Eulogy of Gerald R. Ford, Late a President of the United States. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 35. ISBN 978-0160797620. 
  30. ^ a b "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum". 
  31. ^ Altman, Lawrence (July 18, 1985). "Report that Early Test was Urged Stirs Debate on Reagan Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  32. ^ a b c Historical Invocations of the 25th Amendment Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Lipshutz, Robert J. (December 22, 1978). "Documents from Carter's Contemplated Use of Section 3 (1978)". Fordham Law School. Retrieved August 3, 2018. 
  34. ^ Second Fordham University School of Law Clinic on Presidential Succession, Fifty Years After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Recommendations for Improving the Presidential Succession System, 86 Fordham L. Rev. 917. Available at: [], p. 927
  35. ^ Baker, James (speaker)."Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". Larry King Live, March 30, 2001.
  36. ^ Bayh, Birch (April 8, 1995). "The White House Safety Net". The New York Times. 
  37. ^ The White House Chief of Staff has no formal role in the Twenty-fifth Amendment being invoked.
  38. ^ a b "WGBH American Experience – Reagan". 
  39. ^ a b Linkins, Jason (February 10, 2017). "Happy 50th Birthday To The 25th Amendment To The Constitution". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 18, 2017. 
  40. ^ Mayer, Jane (February 24, 2011). "Worrying About Reagan". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 15, 2018. 


External links