This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Tupian languages

Tupian
Geographic
distribution
Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and North-East Argentina
Linguistic classificationJe-Tupi-Carib?
  • Tupian
Proto-languageProto-Tupian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5tup
Glottologtupi1275[1]
Tupi languages.png
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range ca. 1500 (pink-grey)

The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani.

Homeland and urheimat

Rodrigues (2007) considers the Proto-Tupian urheimat to be somewhere between the Guaporé and Aripuanã rivers, in the Madeira River basin.[2] Much of this area corresponds to the modern-day state of Rondônia, Brazil. 5 of the 10 Tupian branches are found in this area, as well as some Tupi–Guarani languages (especially Kawahíb), making it the probable urheimat of these languages and maybe of its speaking peoples. Rodrigues believes the Proto-Tupian language dates back to around 3,000 BC.

Language contact

Tupian languages have extensively influenced many language families in South America. Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawa, Bora-Muinane, Guato, Irantxe, Jivaro, Karib, Kayuvava, Mura-Matanawi, Taruma, Trumai, Yanomami, Harakmbet, Katukina-Katawixi, Arawak, Bororo, Karaja, Macro-Mataguayo-Guaykuru, Takana, Nadahup, and Puinave-Kak language families due to contact.[3]

History, members and classification

When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil, they found that wherever they went along the vast coast of this newly discovered land, most natives spoke similar languages. Jesuit missionaries took advantage of these similarities, systematizing common standards then named línguas gerais ("general languages"), which were spoken in that region until the 19th century. The best known and most widely spoken of these languages was Old Tupi, a modern descendant of which is still used today by indigenous peoples around the Rio Negro region, where it is known as Nheengatu ([ɲɛʔẽŋaˈtu]), or the "good language". However, the Tupi family also comprises other languages.

In the neighbouring Spanish colonies, Guarani, another Tupian language closely related to Old Tupi, had a similar history, but managed to resist the spread of Spanish more successfully than Tupi resisted Portuguese. Today, Guarani has 7 million speakers, and is one of the official languages of Paraguay. The Tupian family also includes several other languages with fewer speakers. These share irregular morphology with the Je and Carib families, and Rodrigues connects them all as a Je–Tupi–Carib family.[4]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) list 10 branches of Tupian, which cluster into Western Tupian and Eastern Tupian.[2] Within Western and Eastern Tupian, the most divergent branches are listed first, followed by the core branches.

Meira and Drude (2015) posit a branch uniting Mawé and Aweti with Tupi-Guarani, also known as Maweti-Guarani.[5] Purubora may form a branch together with Ramarama.

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[3]

(† = extinct)

Tupi family

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[6]

Language Branch head ear tooth hand one two three
Tupi Tupi a-kang nambi táña peteĩ mokoĩ mbohapüi
Tupinamba Tupi a-kán nambü ráña angepé mokoin musaput
Potiguára Tupi a-kanga nambi tañha in-bó oyepe mokoy mosapür
Ñeéngatu Tupi a-kanga namü taña yepé mokoin musapeire
Guaraní Guaraní ãkan nambi apen-kun peteí mokói mbhápira
Apapokúva Guaraní aépi mokõi moapi
Chiripá Guaraní rakã nambi aépi
Cainguá Guaraní aká nambi petein mókoin mbohapi
Mbyhá Guaraní che-ahká chen-nambüh che-rain cheh-pó peteí mokoi mboapü
Canoeiros Guaraní eaushmã de-pó
Shetá Guaranized sh-aka che-nambi tienai che-pó matinkam mokoi ñiiru
S. Dourados Guaranized ñ-ãka elaːme nénai eː-po uaːi moːgai mágatei
Guayaquí Guaranized ni-aka nambi ã i-pá eteyã meno tanã
Tapirapé Tapirapé dzyane-akánga dzyane-inamí dzyane-roi dzyane-pó anchepé mukúi mãpít
Kamayurá Kamayurá ye-akang ye-nami ye-nai ye-po yepete mokoi moapit
Awití Kamayurá apot inte-yambe inte-ngu i-po mayepete monkói munitaruka
Arawiné Kamayurá ne-nami ye-po
Anambé Pará a-kánga hä-nambi se-raña yanäpo mukuẽ muhapi
Takuñapé Pará
Guajajára Northern akã sane-inamú e-rai sane-pó metéi mukúi nairúi
Tembé Northern he-akã he-nami he-rái he-pó petei mokui moãpi
Manajé Northern he-akü he-namí he-rĩ he-pó chipei mokú moapi
Turiwára Northern ne-akánga ne-nami ne-ráĩ ne-pó petei mokoi moapiri
Kaapor Northern ne-kang nambi ne-roi n-pó petei mukoin oapíre
Makirí Central I ai-akáng ái-namí ái-ráing ái-pó aipité mokoíng moapét
Kayabí Central I parmió oyepa mokoi
Kawahyb Central I ae-akáng ae-namí ae-rái ae-po oyepé mokõi irumaé
Parintintin Central II ae-akáng ae-nambí ae-rai ae-po eyepé mokoĩ
Wiraféd Central II ai-akán ai-namí ai-rai aí-po ayipe mokoi
Takwatíp Central II ai-kánga ai-nami ai-rain ai-pó ayepeːi mokoːin
Dawahib Central II ay-akan ay-nambí ay-rãi ay-põãpká
Catuquinarú Central II taka-sú saña punü
Oyampi Guiana ea-kang i-nami e-ráñ né-po pesi mukugue mapur
Emerillon Guiana é-ankang é-námi é-rai é-po mozepé mokoñe maʔapuit
Apiaká Guiana ai-kana ai-nembía ai-raña ai-poa mayupé mokõñ boapui
Omagua Amazonas yakó námi sáy póa wépi mokwéshe mosapröke
Cocama Amazonas yakö námi dzái púwa wípi mokoíka motsapwöka
Cocamilla Amazonas yákö námi tsái púa uípi mokuíka motsapölika
Chiriguano Chiriguano ankã námbi hai de-pó penti mbokui mbapui
Guarayo Chiriguano che-ãka che-nambí che-raí che-pó nyepeĩ nyuenió mosapĩ
Pauserna Chiriguano aká nambi rahü póo monopedo mokóe hebü
Tapieté Chiriguano y-anka ya-nimbi ya-ninay ya-ndepo penté monké maʔap
Chané Chiriguano se-ãká se-ndambí se-rãi se-pó mompetí mokoi mboapi
Siriono Chiriguano e-ãnkĩ e-isa e-rẽy e-o ekomiĩ nedemu dedemu
Joka Chiriguano ãcha déchatu
Yuruna Yuruna se-tabá yashiugá se-yan uvá duáyo nauá nauámbo
Shipaya Yuruna tabá enshugá oayá uvuá memé bidá mévau
Manitsauá Yuruna naibuá huangá
Mundurucú Mundurucú waá wa-naibé woi-noi wo-ipo pantá shepsheptá chebapitá
Curuaya Mundurucú uása uampí ñai bi porákã teboazem
Mawé Mawé u-yakída u-yahapé u-háĩ u-ipó endup tépui muén
Itogapúc Itogapúc n-aká n-akiribe yãi parobé mutírem yagarekóm pairóbtem
Ramarama Itogapúc n-akiribé niãng i-pabé
Urumí Itogapúc in-aká in-akurape i-pabe uenakaveu ishirange itamaiun
Urukú Itogapúc óña-áká on-aküravé i-pábe motírem yegárokum pagodnóbtem
Arara Itogapúc motürem yegárkom koirẽm
Arikém Arikém a risába ñãya pu mundápa patám moyúm
Caritiana Arikém risopo noñno
Macuráp Macuráp wakaräte ua-pishevéta u-ñamñem owõte uéreːket nemtuté
Kanua Macuráp ki-aneːm uwa-pitát ki-nyai o-po kitsä türü kwaikärum
Guratégaja Macuráp ki-anäm kí-apitát ki-nyai ki-puaná kitsä teːre kwaikiä
Kabishiana Macuráp niaín o-popí
Wayoro Macuráp ne-vapáp o-nyain o-pitab kiét derät wärehät
Apichum Macuráp o-pitab o-nyon o-nebo
Tupari Macuráp ápaba ábtsi ñain poː kíäm hürü hürünoːm
Kepkeriwát Kepkeriwát u-akãin u-apiá i-ñãin ba pangue xatéte sete-pangue
Mondé Mondé a-ndará u-nanimbé u-im amba-bé amakim parasherám paiwutwuy
Sanamaica Mondé hũ-ndáa nambiap h'-ĩn hũ-mábé mún palisharú waikun
Aruá Mondé pan-at pan-itiwä pan-yĩn pan-awä miːn busá wauːm
Digüt Mondé pan-dát ním-piab babé
Aruáshi Mondé sham-yaküb shon-yain bu


Language Branch woman water fire stone maize tapir
Tupi Tupi kuñá ü tatá itá abai tapüíra
Tupinamba Tupi kuñá ü tatá itá auvati tapirusu
Potiguára Tupi kuña üü tataː itaː
Ñeéngatu Tupi kuñan üüg tatá itá auati tapira
Guaraní Guaraní kuñá ü tatá itá avatí tapií
Apapokúva Guaraní kuña ü tatá
Chiripá Guaraní ü tata avati mborevi
Cainguá Guaraní koñá ü tatá itá avachi mborevi
Mbyhá Guaraní kuña ü tatá itá avachi tapií
Canoeiros Guaraní uainvi üg itá avashi
Shetá Guaranized kuñá ü tată itá avachi tapi
S. Dourados Guaranized koːña hoːñe agel'á iːtá nutya telaːgoi
Guayaquí Guaranized kuña ü dadá itá waté mberevi
Tapirapé Tapirapé kudzá ü tatá itá awachí tapiíra
Kamayurá Kamayurá kuña ü tata ita avatsi tapiít
Awití Kamayurá kuñá ü tara ita avachi tapií
Arawiné Kamayurá
Anambé Pará kuña ü tata ita awat tapiri
Takuñapé Pará kuñá tatá ika tapií
Guajajára Northern kuñã ü tatá itá awachí tapiíra
Tembé Northern kuzá ü tatá itá awachi tapihir
Manajé Northern kuyi ü tatá itá awachí tapihi
Turiwára Northern kuñá üa tatá itá awachi tapiíra
Kaapor Northern kuza üg tata itá tapira
Makirí Central I kuñá ih tatá avatí tapiít
Kayabí Central I kuñá auü tatá uachi
Kawahyb Central I kuñá ü tatá abachi tapiít
Parintintin Central II kuñá tatá itakí avaté tapiíd
Wiraféd Central II kuñá üü tatá itá abasí tapiít
Takwatíp Central II kuñá üa tatá abatí tapi
Dawahib Central II kunya üü tatá itá tapiíra
Catuquinarú Central II uhehü
Oyampi Guiana nimene heː tata ita abati tapiira
Emerillon Guiana waimid ih tata auasi
Apiaká Guiana koñá ih tatar ita auasi tapüra
Omagua Amazonas uainú úni táta itáke awáti tapíra
Cocama Amazonas wáina úni táta itáki abati tapíra
Cocamilla Amazonas wáina úni dzata idzáki awáchi tapíra
Chiriguano Chiriguano kúña ü tatá itá avatí mboreví
Guarayo Chiriguano kuñá ü tatá itá avatí mborevi
Pauserna Chiriguano ekúre ü tatá itá ahuati
Tapieté Chiriguano tapipé ö tata itakí oati orebi
Chané Chiriguano arekóva ü tatá íta avatí boreví
Siriono Chiriguano kuña ine tatén ita ibashi eãnkwãntoy
Joka Chiriguano etú in tatá yiwit yuáshi ngitíd
Yuruna Yuruna kuñá iyá ashí koapá makatí tõá
Shipaya Yuruna uamiá iyá ashí kuapasá makati masaká
Manitsauá Yuruna kuñá hidarú hadzú ita maidzú
Mundurucú Mundurucú awiyá tasha witáa muirará piho
Curuaya Mundurucú áu ü titi wítaʔa mára bíu
Mawé Mawé oñañá üü äria no awatí wewató
Itogapúc Itogapúc mapái ichi chaná iyá nayá iti
Ramarama Itogapúc mapoia utii tianá nanian nató
Urumí Itogapúc shamon noiábá
Urukú Itogapúc vochái ichí chaná yáa náya natoː
Arara Itogapúc
Arikém Arikém uspára esé somi isoá ngiyó iruba
Caritiana Arikém bisam seː isoː pomo irípo
Macuráp Macuráp arapíñam ihi ucha éki atiti yahi
Kanua Macuráp anamína äkü itaːtʔ heːk atsitsi kwayatsu
Guratégaja Macuráp anamina iki utaːt äk
Kabishiana Macuráp ikí
Wayoro Macuráp aramirá ögö agukáp äk atití ikuáit
Apichum Macuráp anamina ügükap äkügükab äk
Tupari Macuráp ãramĩrã koːbkaːb äk opab takara
Kepkeriwát Kepkeriwát buhi amãni garämbi ok zyaoːpá uíto
Mondé Mondé manzet ü kaing ek maikeː uasá
Sanamaica Mondé chipakchí ü kaːi ä maʔä waːsaː
Aruá Mondé ü kaʔin äk
Digüt Mondé manzéyã ipáva pokáing dzáb máinkin wachá
Aruáshi Mondé mansät ü kain äk

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna, and Ana Suelly Arruda Câmara Cabral (2012). "Tupían". In Campbell, Lyle, and Verónica Grondona (eds). The indigenous languages of South America: a comprehensive guide. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  3. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. ^ Rodrigues A. D., 2000, "‘Ge–Pano–Carib’ X ‘Jê–Tupí–Karib’: sobre relaciones lingüísticas prehistóricas en Sudamérica", in L. Miranda (ed.), Actas del I Congreso de Lenguas Indígenas de Sudamérica, Tome I, Lima, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Facultad de lenguas modernas, p. 95-104.
  5. ^ Meira, Sérgio and Sebastian Drude (2015). "A preliminary reconstruction of proto-Maweti-Guarani segmental phonology". Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, série Ciências Humanas, 10(2):275-296. doi:10.1590/1981-81222015000200005
  6. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

Further reading

Lexicons
  • Alves, P. (2004). O léxico do Tupari: proposta de um dicionário bilíngüe. Doctoral dissertation. São Paulo: Universidade Estadual Paulista.
  • Corrêa Da Ssila, B. C. (2010). Mawé/Awetí/Tupí-Guaraní: Relações Linguísticas e Implicações Históricas. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Landin, D. J. (2005). Dicionário e léxico Karitiana / Português. Cuiabá: SIL.
  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1950). Documents Rama-Rama. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 39:73-84.
  • Mello, A. A. S. (2000). Estudo histórico da família lingüística Tupí-Guaraní: aspectos fonológicos e lexicais. Florianópolis: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Monserrat, R. F. (2000). Vocabulário Amondawa-Português, Vocabulário e frases em Arara e Português, Vocabulário Gavião-Português, Vocabulário e frases em Karipuna e Português, Vocabulário e frases em Makurap e Português, Vocabulário e frases em Suruí e Português, Pequeno dicionário em Tupari e Português. Caixas do Sul: Universidade do Caixas do Sul.
  • Monserrat, R. F. (2005). Notícia sobre a língua Puruborá. In: A. D. Rodrigues & A. S. A. C. Cabral (eds.), Novos estudos sobre línguas indígenas, 9-22. Brasília: Brasilia: Editor UnB.
  • Pacheco Ribeiro, M. J. (2010). Dicionário Sateré-Mawé/Português. Guajará-Mirim: Universidade Federal de Rondônia.
  • Rodrigues, A. D. (2007). As consoantes do Proto-Tupí. In: A. S. A. C. Cabral & A. D. Rodrigues (eds.), Línguas e culturas tupí, 167-203. Campinas: Curt Nimuendaju.
  • Rodrigues, A. D.; Cabral, A. S. (2012). Tupían. In: L. CAMPBELL & V. GRONDONA, (eds.), The indigenous languages of South America: a comprehensive guide, 495-574. Berlin/ Boston: Walter de Gruyter.

External links

Retrieved from "[en.wikipedia.org]"