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Tukang Besi language

Tukang Besi
Native toIndonesia
RegionSulawesi, Tukang Besi Archipelago
Native speakers
250,000 (1995)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
khc – Tukang Besi North
bhq – Tukang Besi South
Glottologtuka1247[2]
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Tukang Besi is an Austronesian language spoken in the Tukangbesi Islands in southeast Sulawesi in Indonesia by a quarter million speakers. A Tukang Besi pidgin is used in the area.[3]

Tukang Besi Pidgin
Native speakers
None
Tukang Besi–based pidgin
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologpidg1257[4]

Phonology

The vowel phonemes of Tukang Besi

The northern dialect of Tukang Besi has 25 consonant phonemes and a basic 5-vowel system.[5] It features stress which is usually on the second-to-last syllable. The language has two implosive consonants, which are uncommon in the world's languages. The coronal plosives and /s/ have prenasalized counterparts which act as separate phonemes.

Bilabial Dental/
Alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive plain p b () k ɡ ʔ
prenasalized mp mb n̪t̪ n̪d̪ ŋk ŋɡ
Implosive ɓ ɗ̪
Fricative plain β s (z) h
prenasalized n̪s̪
Trill r
Lateral

/b/ only appears in loanwords, but it contrasts with /ɓ/. [d] and [z] are not phonemic and appear only as allophones of /dʒ/ which appears only in loanwords.

References

  1. ^ Tukang Besi North at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Tukang Besi South at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tukang Besi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Donohue, Mark (1996). "Some trade languages of insular South-East Asia and Irian Jaya". In Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T. (eds.). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 713–716.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pidgin Tukang Besi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Donohue, Mark (1999). "Tukang Besi". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 151–53. ISBN 0-521-65236-7.