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Tsyklon-3

Tsyklon-3 (Tsiklon-3)
Cyclone-3 rocket launching Meteor-3 satellite.png
A Tsyklon-3 launching a Meteor-3 satellite
Function Carrier rocket
Manufacturer Yuzhmash
Country of origin Soviet Union (Ukraine)
Size
Height 39.27 m (128.83 ft)
Diameter 3 m (9.8 ft)
Mass 189,000 kg (416,000 lb)
Stages 3
Capacity
Payload to LEO 4,100 kg (9,000 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-36, Tsyklon
Derivatives Tsyklon-4
Comparable Delta II
Launch history
Status Retired[1]
Launch sites Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC-32
Total launches 122
Successes 114
Failures 8
First flight 24 June 1977
Last flight 30 January 2009[1]
Notable payloads Tselina
Meteor
Okean
Geo-IK
Strela
First stage – 11K69
Engines 1 RD-261
Thrust 3,032 kN (681,620 lbf)
Specific impulse 301 sec
Burn time 120 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Second stage – 11S692
Engines 1 RD-262
Thrust 941 kN (211,545 lbf)
Specific impulse 318 sec
Burn time 160 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Third stage – 11S693
Engines 1 RD-861
Thrust 78.70 kN (17,694 lbf)
Specific impulse 317 sec
Burn time 125 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH

The Tsyklon-3, also known as Tsiklon-3, GRAU index 11K68, was a Soviet, and subsequently Ukrainian orbital carrier rocket. A derivative of the R-36 ICBM, and a member of the Tsyklon family, it made its maiden flight on 24 June 1977, and was retired on 30 January 2009.[1] The Ukrainian-built Tsyklon rockets were retired in favour of future all-Russian carrier rockets, such as the Angara, and because they were fuelled by toxic hypergolic propellants.[2]

Successor

Ukraine is developing a commercial derivative of the Tsyklon-3, the Tsyklon-4.[citation needed]

2013 loss of Ecuadorian satellite after impact with Tsyklon-3 space debris

On 23 May 2013 at approximately 05:38 UTC, the Ecuadorian satellite NEE-01 Pegaso passed very close to the spent upper stage of a 1985 Tsyklon-3 rocket over the Indian Ocean. While there was no direct collision between the satellite and upper stage, Pegaso is believed to have suffered a "glancing blow" after passing through a debris cloud around the Tsyklon stage and striking one of the small pieces.[3][4] After the incident, the satellite was found to be "spinning wildly over two of its axes" and unable to communicate with its ground station.[3] Efforts to reestablish control of Pegaso failed,[4] and on 28 August 2013 the decision was made by EXA and the Ecuadorian government to declare the satellite as lost.[5]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c Barbosa, Rui C. (2009-01-30). "Russian Tsyklon-3 bows out with CORONAS launch". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  2. ^ APMC - Космические войска обеспечили реальность сроков сдачи в эксплуатацию перспективного РКК "Ангара" (Russian)
  3. ^ a b "Satellite collides with Soviet-era rocket". Al Jazeera. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Ecuador tries to fix satellite after space debris crash". BBC News. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Pegasus satellite was declared 'lost' by EXA". Ecuador Times. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.