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Tronajâyâ (Madurese) or Trunajaya also known as Panembahan Maduretno (born: Madura, 1649 — died: Payak, Bantul, 2 January 1680) was a prince and warlord from Arosbaya, Bangkalan, Madura. In 1674 he led a revolt against Amangkurat I and Amangkurat II of Mataram. He was supported by itinerant fighters from Makassar led by Kraeng Galesong. The Trunojoyo rebellion moved swiftly and strong, and captured the Mataram court at Plered in mid-1677.
The Mataram king, Amangkurat I, escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king Amangkurat II, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunojoyo looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Prince Puger in control of a weak court.
On his way to Batavia in order to ask the Dutch for help, Amangkurat I died in the village of Tegalarum near Tegal just after his expulsion, making Amangkurat II king in 1677. He too was nearly helpless, having fled without an army nor treasury to build one. In an attempt to regain his kingdom, he made substantial concessions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Batavia, who then went to war to reinstate him. He promised to give VOC the port town of Semarang if they lend him some hands.
The Dutch agreed, for them, a stable Mataram empire that was deeply indebted to them would help ensure continued trade on favorable terms. The multinational Dutch forces, consisting of light-armed troops from Makasar and Ambon, in addition to heavily equipped European soldiers, first defeated Trunojoyo in Kediri in November 1678. Trunojoyo himself was captured in 1679 near Ngantang west of Malang. Later he was executed by order of Amangkurat II in Payak, Bantul, on 2 January 1680.
The Trunojoyo rebellion is remembered as the heroic struggle, braveness and the pride of Madurese people, against foreign forces of Mataram and Dutch VOC. Today his name is immortalized as the name of Trunojoyo Airport in Sumenep and Trunojoyo University in Bangkalan, Madura.