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Trofinetide structure.png
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CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass315.322 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Trofinetide (NNZ-2566) is a drug developed by Neuren Pharmaceuticals that acts as an analogue of the neuropeptide (1-3) IGF-1, which is a simple tripeptide with sequence Gly-Pro-Glu formed by enzymatic cleavage of the growth factor IGF-1 within the brain. Trofinetide has anti-inflammatory properties and was originally developed as a potential treatment for stroke,[1][2] but has subsequently been developed for other applications and is now in Phase II clinical trials against Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome.[3][4][5]


  1. ^ Bickerdike MJ, Thomas GB, Batchelor DC, Sirimanne ES, Leong W, Lin H, et al. (March 2009). "NNZ-2566: a Gly-Pro-Glu analogue with neuroprotective efficacy in a rat model of acute focal stroke". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 278 (1–2): 85–90. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2008.12.003. PMID 19157421.
  2. ^ Cartagena CM, Phillips KL, Williams GL, Konopko M, Tortella FC, Dave JR, Schmid KE (September 2013). "Mechanism of action for NNZ-2566 anti-inflammatory effects following PBBI involves upregulation of immunomodulator ATF3". Neuromolecular Medicine. 15 (3): 504–14. doi:10.1007/s12017-013-8236-z. PMID 23765588.
  3. ^ Deacon RM, Glass L, Snape M, Hurley MJ, Altimiras FJ, Biekofsky RR, Cogram P (March 2015). "NNZ-2566, a novel analog of (1-3) IGF-1, as a potential therapeutic agent for fragile X syndrome". Neuromolecular Medicine. 17 (1): 71–82. doi:10.1007/s12017-015-8341-2. PMID 25613838.
  4. ^ Study Details - Rett Syndrome Study
  5. ^ Neuren’s trofinetide successful in Phase 2 clinical trial in Fragile X