Triple-A or Class AAA is the highest level of play in Minor League Baseball in the United States and Mexico. Before 2008, Triple-A leagues also fielded teams in Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the Triple-A International League (IL) and Pacific Coast League (PCL), with 14 teams in the IL and 16 in the PCL. The MLB-independent Mexican League fields 16 teams. Triple-A teams are typically located in large metropolitan areas that do not have Major League Baseball teams, such as San Antonio; Austin; Columbus; and Indianapolis.
Interleague play between the International League and Pacific Coast League occurs twice each season. In July, each league's All-Star team competes in the Triple-A All-Star Game. In September each league's regular season champions play each other in the Triple-A National Championship Game to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball.
The Triple-A classification was created before the 1946 season. Prior to then, the top level of the minors had been designated as Double-A since 1912. The modern Double-A classification also dates to 1946, when the former Class A1 level was renamed.
Triple-A teams' main purpose is to prepare players for the Major Leagues. ESPN wrote in 2010:
Winning is nice, but secondary. It's much more important for a young prospect like outfielder Xavier Paul to get regular at-bats against lefties, or work on dropping down sacrifice bunts with a runner on first, than it is to take three of four from the Portland Beavers.
Both young players and veterans play for Triple-A teams:
There are the young prospects speeding through the organization on the fastest treadmill, the guys who used to be young prospects who are in danger of topping out in Triple-A, the 30-somethings trying to get back to the majors after an injury or a rough patch, and the guys just playing a few more seasons because someone still wants them and they still want to.
Players on the 40-man roster of a major league team are eligible for promotion to the major league club once the major league roster expands on September 1 (though teams will usually wait until their affiliates' playoff runs are over, should they qualify). For teams in contention for the postseason, these players create the flexibility needed to rest regular starters in late regular-season games. For those not in contention, using such players lets the teams evaluate them under game conditions.
Teams at this level are divided into three leagues: the International League, the Pacific Coast League, and the MLB-independent Mexican League. The Mexican League fields teams throughout Mexico. The International League traditionally fielded teams in the Northeastern United States, and now fields teams in the Midwest and South as well. The Pacific Coast League originally fielded teams on the West Coast, but now fields teams throughout the western part of the United States, as far east as Nashville, Tennessee. For much of the 20th century, the American Association, which consisted of teams in the Midwestern United States, was also at this level, but it disbanded in 1997 and its teams were divided among the IL and PCL. Each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams has an affiliation with one Triple-A team in the United States. However, Mexican Triple-A teams are not included in the organized farm team system.
|North||Buffalo Bisons||1985||Toronto Blue Jays||2013||Buffalo, New York||Sahlen Field||16,600|
|Lehigh Valley IronPigs||2008||Philadelphia Phillies||2007||Allentown, Pennsylvania||Coca-Cola Park||10,100|
|Pawtucket Red Sox||1973||Boston Red Sox||1970||Pawtucket, Rhode Island||McCoy Stadium||10,031|
|Rochester Red Wings||1899||Minnesota Twins||2003||Rochester, New York||Frontier Field||10,840|
|Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders||1989||New York Yankees||2007||Moosic, Pennsylvania||PNC Field||10,000|
|Syracuse Mets||1961||New York Mets||2019||Syracuse, New York||NBT Bank Stadium||11,731|
|South||Charlotte Knights||1993||Chicago White Sox||1999||Charlotte, North Carolina||BB&T Ballpark||10,200|
|Durham Bulls||1998||Tampa Bay Rays||1998||Durham, North Carolina||Durham Bulls Athletic Park||10,000|
|Gwinnett Stripers||2009||Atlanta Braves||1965||Lawrenceville, Georgia||Coolray Field||10,427|
|Norfolk Tides||1969||Baltimore Orioles||2007||Norfolk, Virginia||Harbor Park||11,856|
|West||Columbus Clippers||1977||Cleveland Indians||2009||Columbus, Ohio||Huntington Park||10,100|
|Indianapolis Indians||1902||Pittsburgh Pirates||2005||Indianapolis, Indiana||Victory Field||14,230|
|Louisville Bats||1982||Cincinnati Reds||2000||Louisville, Kentucky||Louisville Slugger Field||13,131|
|Toledo Mud Hens||1965||Detroit Tigers||1987||Toledo, Ohio||Fifth Third Field||10,300|
|American||Northern||Iowa Cubs||1969||Chicago Cubs||1981||Des Moines, Iowa||Principal Park||11,500|
|Memphis Redbirds||1998||St. Louis Cardinals||1998||Memphis, Tennessee||AutoZone Park||10,000|
|Nashville Sounds||1978||Texas Rangers||2019||Nashville, Tennessee||First Tennessee Park||10,000|
|Omaha Storm Chasers||1969||Kansas City Royals||1969||Papillion, Nebraska||Werner Park||9,023|
|Southern||Oklahoma City Dodgers||1962||Los Angeles Dodgers||2015||Oklahoma City, Oklahoma||Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark||9,000|
|Round Rock Express||2000||Houston Astros||2019||Round Rock, Texas||Dell Diamond||11,631|
|San Antonio Missions||1888||Milwaukee Brewers||2019||San Antonio, Texas||Nelson W. Wolff Municipal Stadium||9,200|
|Wichita Wind Surge||2020||Miami Marlins||2020||Wichita, Kansas||New Wichita ballpark||10,000|
|Pacific||Northern||Fresno Grizzlies||1998||Washington Nationals||2019||Fresno, California||Chukchansi Park||10,500|
|Reno Aces||2009||Arizona Diamondbacks||2009||Reno, Nevada||Greater Nevada Field||9,013|
|Sacramento River Cats||2000||San Francisco Giants||2015||West Sacramento, California||Sutter Health Park||14,014|
|Tacoma Rainiers||1960||Seattle Mariners||1995||Tacoma, Washington||Cheney Stadium||6,500|
|Southern||Albuquerque Isotopes||2003||Colorado Rockies||2015||Albuquerque, New Mexico||Isotopes Park||13,500|
|El Paso Chihuahuas||2014||San Diego Padres||2014||El Paso, Texas||Southwest University Park||9,500|
|Las Vegas Aviators||1983||Oakland Athletics||2019||Summerlin, Nevada||Las Vegas Ballpark||10,000|
|Salt Lake Bees||1994||Los Angeles Angels||2001||Salt Lake City, Utah||Smith's Ballpark||14,511|
|North||Acereros de Monclova||Monclova, Coahuila||Monclova||8,500||1974|
|Algodoneros de Unión Laguna||Torreón, Coahuila||Revolución||9,500||1940|
|Generales de Durango||Durango, Durango||Francisco Villa||4,983||2016|
|Rieleros de Aguascalientes||Aguascalientes City, Aguascalientes||Alberto Romo Chávez||6,494||1975|
|Saraperos de Saltillo||Saltillo, Coahuila||Francisco I. Madero||16,000||1970|
|Sultanes de Monterrey||Monterrey, Nuevo León||Mobil Super||22,061||1939|
|Tecolotes de los Dos Laredos||Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas
|Parque la Junta
|Toros de Tijuana||Tijuana, Baja California||Chevron||17,000||2004|
|South||Bravos de León||León, Guanajuato||Domingo Santana||6,500||1978|
|Diablos Rojos del México||Iztacalco, Mexico City||Alfredo Harp Helú||20,576||1940|
|Guerreros de Oaxaca||Oaxaca City, Oaxaca||Eduardo Vasconcelos||7,200||1996|
|Leones de Yucatán||Mérida, Yucatán||Kukulcán Alamo||14,917||1954|
|Olmecas de Tabasco||Villahermosa, Tabasco||Centenario 27 de Febrero||8,500||1975|
|Pericos de Puebla||Puebla City, Puebla||Hermanos Serdán||12,112||1938|
|Piratas de Campeche||Campeche City, Campeche||Nelson Barrera||6,000||1980|
|Tigres de Quintana Roo||Cancún, Quintana Roo||Beto Ávila||9,500||1955|
The Triple-A All-Star Game is a single game held between the two affiliated Triple-A leagues—the International League and the Pacific Coast League. Each league fields a team composed of the top players in their respective leagues as voted on by fans, the media, and each club's field manager and general manager. The event has taken place every year since 1988 when the first Triple-A All-Star Game was played in Buffalo, New York. Prior to 1998, a team of American League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars faced off against a team of National League-affiliated Triple-A All-Stars.
Traditionally, the game has taken place on the day after the mid-summer Major League Baseball All-Star Game. The game is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the season (though not the mathematical halfway-point which, for most seasons, is usually one month prior). Both Triple-A leagues share a common All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled for two days before the All-Star Game itself. Some additional events, such as the All-Star Fan Fest and Triple-A Home Run Derby, take place each year during this break in the regular season.
Since 2006, the annual Triple-A National Championship Game has been held to serve as a single championship game between the champions of the International League and Pacific Coast League to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball. It was originally held annually at Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark in Oklahoma City, and known as the Bricktown Showdown. Since 2011, the game has been held in a different Triple-A city each year.
As a part of professional baseball's pace of play initiatives implemented in 2015, 20-second pitch clocks entered use at Triple-A stadiums in 2015. In 2018, the time was shortened to 15 seconds when no runners are on base. Other significant changes implemented in 2018 included beginning extra innings with a runner on second base and limiting teams to six mound visits during a nine-inning game. For the 2019 season, the number of mound visits was reduced to five, and pitchers were required to face a minimum of three consecutive batters until the side is retired or the pitcher becomes injured and is unable to continue playing.