This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Trenbolone acetate

Trenbolone acetate
Trenbolone acetate.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesFinajet, Finaplix, others
SynonymsRU-1697; Trenbolone 17β-acetate; 19-Nor-δ9,11-testosterone 17β-acetate; Estra-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection
Drug classAndrogen; Anabolic steroid; Androgen ester; Progestogen
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-lifeIntramuscular: 3 days[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC20H24O3
Molar mass312.409 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

Trenbolone acetate, sold under brand names such as Finajet and Finaplix among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in veterinary medicine, specifically to increase the profitability of livestock by promoting muscle growth in cattle.[2][3][4][5] It is given by injection into muscle.[5][2]

Side effects of trenbolone acetate include symptoms of masculinization like acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire.[5] The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).[2][5][6] It has strong anabolic effects and weak androgenic effects, as well as potent progestogenic effects, no estrogenic effects, weak glucocorticoid effects, and no risk of liver damage.[2][5][6][7][8] Trenbolone acetate is an androgen ester and a long-lasting prodrug of trenbolone in the body.[2][5]

Trenbolone acetate was discovered in 1963 and was introduced for veterinary use in the early 1970s.[5][9][10] In addition to its veterinary use, trenbolone acetate is used to improve physique and performance, and is purchased from black market suppliers.[5] The drug is a controlled substance in many countries and so non-veterinary use is generally illicit.[5]

Uses

Veterinary uses

A single cartridge of Finaplix-H containing 10 implants. Each implant contains 10 small yellow pellets. (Image Adapted from Medi-Vet Animal Health, LLC ([www.medi-vet.com])).

In the livestock industry, trenbolone acetate is more often called Finaplix. It was intentionally developed to promote androgen and gain muscle mass in cattle. Due to its properties, this allows livestock to grow as much muscle possible before they are transported to a slaughterhouse.

Methyl cellulose and yellow dye are usually present in pellets given to livestock. A single dosage generally consists of 10 pellets, and a package of Finaplix usually consists of one cartridge, which contains 100 pellets (See Figure). This is usually given to the animal by means of a subcutaneous injection into the posterior location of the ear (See Figure) with the use of an implanter gun. Finaplix is consistently implanted until the animal is ready to be slaughtered. There is no withholding period. Due to the common practice of trenbolone acetate use in veterinary medicine, it is quite common to find traces of trenbolone metabolites in cattle worldwide.[9][11]

Image showing the general area of the implantation of Finaplix-H pellets displayed on bovine ear.

Non-medical uses

Bodybuilding

Trenbolone acetate was never approved for use in humans and therefore guidelines for human consumption do not exist.[5] However, athletes and bodybuilders have been using trenbolone acetate as a physique- and performance-enhancing drug for decades. There are a large number of benefits as a bodybuilder through using trenbolone acetate as an AAS, because it is estimated to be approximately five times more effective and stronger than testosterone.[citation needed] Unlike testosterone, trenbolone acetate does not cause any fluid retention while gaining muscle mass.[9] This allows bodybuilders to appear leaner, and this is why it is more commonly used whilst preparing for competitive events. Trenbolone acetate does not convert into an estrogenic metabolite,[9] and this results in a lack of estrogenic side effects.[5] Trenbolone enanthate is also a very commonly used AAS and lasts much longer than trenbolone acetate with intramuscular injection.[5]

Medical uses

Trenbolone acetate was never approved for use in humans and hence has no medical uses.[5] However, as an AAS, it would be expected to be effective for indications in which other AAS are useful such as the treatment of conditions like androgen deficiency, wasting syndromes and muscle atrophy, and certain types of anemia.[5][12]

Side effects

Trenbolone acetate, like any other AAS, has many side effects.[13][14] The strong androgenic nature of trenbolone acetate facilitates its tendency to produce virilization[13] and this is why it is not recommended for women for physique- or performance-enhancing purposes.[5] The side effects of trenbolone acetate are similar to other AAS, however, the negative side effects that are specifically facilitated by trenbolone acetate are as followed.

Androgenic

Trenbolone acetate has androgenic activity.[15][16][17] Specific to the androgenic properties of trenbolone, common side effects of the AAS use include oily skin, acne, seborrhea, increased facial/body hair growth, and accelerated scalp hair loss.[5][13][18] These side effects strongly rely on an individual's genetics and may not always occur in every individual. Men susceptible to hair loss related illnesses, such as baldness have a higher chance of becoming permanently bald with the use of trenbolone acetate.[13] In women, voice deepening, hirsutism, clitoral enlargement, and virilization in general may occur.[5]

Hypogonadism

Trenbolone acetate contributes greatly to muscle mass and feed efficiency; however, administration of the AAS suppresses natural testosterone production; i.e., it causes hypogonadism.[5][18][14] This is a common effect of all AAS; the only difference is the variation in how much they suppress in comparison to others.

Cardiovascular

Administration of any AAS can lead to cardiovascular issues.[19][19] Trenbolone acetate can have a negative and strong impact on cholesterol through suppressing both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ("good" cholesterol) and increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol).[20] When compared to other oral AAS, trenbolone acetate has a stronger negative effect on cholesterol levels. This negative effect is much more severe with the use of injectable AAS, particularly trenbolone acetate.[citation needed]

"Tren cough"

Trenbolone is very potent due to its androgenic qualities and anabolic features when compared to testosterone and other AAS (e.g., oxandrolone). This quality leads to the triggering of a tren cough which is commonly experienced amongst users of trenbolone acetate. This is because trenbolone acetate facilitates acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia, which is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood of an organism.[21] One of the main characteristics of trenbolone acetate is its fat-burning capabilities, but this has the potential to cause respiratory distress.[14] It also has the potential to cause hypoxemia as a result of the facilitation of the downstream effect on biological mediators such as oil molecules transporting into the lungs.[22] Benzyl benzoate also has the capability to administer this reaction. The exact mechanisms underlying the cause of the tren cough is still an area of investigation. However, trenbolone acetate's androgenic effect activates a variety of lipid-like active compounds which are called prostaglandins. Many of these prostaglandins inflammatory and vasoconstrictive. Prostaglandins are signalled through two varying pathways cyclooxygenase (COX) (Also known as: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase) and lipoxygenases (LOX) (also known as: EC 1.13.11.34, EC 1.13.11.33, etc.).[23] When trenbolone is injected in any form or concentration, the irritation of these prostaglandins can be facilitated amongst genetically susceptible individuals. Vasoconstriction of the muscular wall of the bronchus in the lungs is what triggers this cough reaction. Trenbolone increases an inflammatory mediator peptide called bradykinin which facilitates the dilation of blood vessels. The bradykinin peptide is well known to promote a cough reaction associated with ACE inhibitor medications prescribed for hypertension.[24]

Estrogenic and progestogenic

No form of trenbolone, including trenbolone acetate, is estrogenic.[5] Excess fluid retention is not possible with the administration of this AAS as a result of its not being estrogenic as opposed to testosterone.[5] However, due to trenbolone's potent progestogenic activity, gynecomastia, which is characterized by development and swelling of breast tissue,[25] may still be possible.[citation needed] Stimulation of estrogenic mechanisms are enforced by progestogenic activity[citation needed] as trenbolone acetate and its compounds bind with high affinity to the progesterone receptor.[9][17] It has been assumed that gynecomastia as a result of trenbolone use is due to a buildup of the hormone prolactin;[25] however, a variety of studies conclude that it is the progestogenic activity of trenbolone promoting this and not prolactin.[citation needed] Trenbolone also has a negative impact on blood pressure but it does not appear to negatively affect most healthy adult men in this way.[citation needed]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

The administration of the trenbolone hormone promotes a direct anabolic effect on Androgen Receptor (AR) activity. AR activity facilitated by trenbolone contributes to an increase in IGF-1 and IGF-1R levels, which then enhances skeletal muscle protein accretion. Activation and proliferation of satellite cells then facilitate an increase in skeletal muscle growth.[26]

Trenbolone acetate is a prodrug of trenbolone.[2][5] Like other AAS, trenbolone is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR) and hence has anabolic and androgenic activity as well as antigonadotropic activity.[2][5][7][27] Trenbolone carries a rating for both anabolic potency and androgenic potency of 500, relative to a standard of nandrolone acetate (rating 100 for both).[5][14] In addition to its anabolic and androgenic activity, trenbolone is an agonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), and in relation to this, has moderate to strong progestogenic activity.[5][7][27] Conversely, trenbolone acetate is not a substrate for aromatase and hence lacks estrogenic activity.[2][5][7] The compound also has weak glucocorticoid activity.[7][8]

Similar to many other AAS, trenbolone acetate has the capability to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).[28][29] This naturally produced protein-based hormone affects every cell in the body of an organism and plays a large role in muscle recovery and rejuvenation. Trenbolone acetate also has the ability to increase the IGF-1 receptors present in an organism.[citation needed] Extreme muscle growth and cell splitting compared is facilitated through trenbolone acetate administration when compared to other AAS.[28] The facilitation of IGF-1 plays a significant role in the functions and properties of the central nervous system, pulmonary system, muscle tissue, ligaments, cartilage, and tendons.[29] IGF-1 is only promoted by a few AAS, with trenbolone acetate being one of the best promoters.[citation needed]

Trenbolone acetate also has the ability to increase red blood cell count. With a larger amount of red blood cells, blood oxygenation is enhanced. This allows for enhanced muscular endurance and therefore promotes a faster rate of recovery. Trenbolone acetate is capable of inhibiting glucocorticoids such as cortisol. The properties of glucocorticoid are the opposite of androgens as muscle tissue depletion and fat gain is promoted.[30] Administration of trenbolone acetate aims to decrease the production of glucocorticoid hormones. Trenbolone acetate’s contribution to feed efficiency, also known as nutrient efficiency is what makes it an attractive AAS used for agricultural purposes. Food is one of the most anabolic substances that any living organism can consume, and therefore with the administration of trenbolone acetate, every nutrient in the body becomes a lot more valuable.[31] This facilitates an organism's body that is exposed to the AAS to make better use of the nutrients already consumed.[9][31] The non-aromatizing nature of trenbolone acetate makes it a very appealing fat-burning agent. Its capability as a body-sculpting AAS is extreme.[citation needed] Many fitness models and bodybuilders use trenbolone acetate, particularly when preparing to compete in an upcoming bodybuilding competition.[citation needed]

Pharmacokinetics

Trenbolone acetate has a basic structure but the small carboxylic acid ester attached to it allows for the control of the hormone’s slow release post injection. This ester gives trenbolone an activated elimination half-life of about 3 days.[1]

Chemistry

Trenbolone acetate, or trenbolone 17β-acetate, is a synthetic estrane steroid and a derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).[32][33][5] It is the C17β acetate ester of trenbolone, which itself is δ9,11-19-nortestosterone (δ9,11-19-NT) or estra-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one.[32][33][5] Other trenbolone esters include trenbolone enanthate, trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate, and trenbolone undecanoate.[32][33][5]

Structure–activity relationships

Trenbolone acetate is a modified form of nandrolone.[15] The structure of trenbolone acetate is a 19-nor classification, which represents a structural change of the testosterone hormone. Trenbolone acetate lacks a carbon atom at the 19 position and carries a double bond at carbons 9 and 11. The position of these carbons slows its metabolism, which greatly increases its binding affinity to the AR, and inhibits it from undergoing aromatization into the corresponding estrogenic metabolite. Trenbolone acetate contains trenbolone modified with the addition of a carboxylic acid ester (acetic acid) at the 17β-hydroxyl group.[9] This facilitates the slow release of the AAS from the area of injection.

History

Trenbolone acetate was first synthesized in 1963 and approved by the livestock industry as a growth promoter for beef cattle in the early 1970s.[5][9][10] During this period of its first administration, trenbolone acetate was sold under the names Finajet and Finaject. The original manufacturer of trenbolone acetate discontinued during the late 1980s and administered the synthesis of subcutaneous pellets called Finaplix. These pellets aimed to increase muscle mass and lean tissue of cattle prior to slaughter to increase the profitability of livestock when measured in total pounds of meat sold.[9]

The drug appears to have been an early development project of Roussel Uclaf, a French pharmaceutical company, and by the early 1970s, it was being sold as an injectable.[17] Despite trenbolone acetate's official classification as a veterinary AAS, it is considered to be one of the most effective AAS used for physique- and performance-enhancing purposes in humans, particularly in bodybuilding.[citation needed] There are a number of trenbolone esters but trenbolone acetate is the only one known to be produced in veterinary AAS manufacturers.

Trenbolone acetate became popular among bodybuilders and athletes during the early 1980s. During this period, the AAS was transported illegally from Europe in large quantities. Although trenbolone acetate was very popular for a short amount of time, the large amounts of supplies were discontinued in 1987.[9] This decision was based upon the public concern of sports doping and its negative effects on athletes.[5]

Society and culture

Generic names

Trenbolone acetate is the generic name of the drug and its USAN, USP, and BANM.[32][33][3][4]

Brand names

Trenbolone acetate is or has been sold alone for veterinary use under the brand names Component TH, Component TS, Finaject, Finajet, Finaplix-H, and Finaplix-S.[32][33][3][4][5] It is or has also been sold in combination with estradiol or estradiol benzoate for veterinary use under the brand names Revalor and Synovex.[32][33][3][4][5]

Distribution and regulation

Trenbolone acetate, specifically referred to as Finaplix in the livestock industry, is available to purchase in veterinary drug markets.[5] A typical cartridge usually comes in the form of 20 mg pellets. It generally comes in the form of implant pellets containing 20 mg of trenbolone acetate each.[32] Preparations containing trenbolone acetate remain rare since its decline in production after the 1980s. The majority of the current supply for trenbolone acetate comes from underground AAS manufacturers.[citation needed] Using AAS for any other purpose, or without a doctor's prescription, is illegal in most countries. Major sporting and bodybuilding organizations ban the use of controlled AAS, and the possession or sale of drugs can lead to arrest and conviction of drug-trafficking in many countries, including the United States and Australia. However, in the United Kingdom, owning AAS for personal use as a bodybuilding supplements is not illegal, but selling the AAS without a valid medical license or reason is still against the law.[34]

Doping in sports

Regardless of their legality, AAS are still banned by most sporting leagues in the country, who routinely conduct drug tests to find the users of any AAS. There are known cases of doping in sports with trenbolone acetate by professional athletes.

References

  1. ^ a b Pedro Ruiz; Eric C. Strain (2011). Lowinson and Ruiz's Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 358–. ISBN 978-1-60547-277-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE (2010). "Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one): A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity". Steroids. 75 (6): 377–89. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2010.01.019. PMID 20138077.
  3. ^ a b c d I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 279–. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1.
  4. ^ a b c d [www.drugs.com]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag William Llewellyn (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 491–499. ISBN 978-0-9828280-1-4.
  6. ^ a b Kicman AT (2008). "Pharmacology of anabolic steroids". Br. J. Pharmacol. 154 (3): 502–21. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.165. PMC 2439524. PMID 18500378.
  7. ^ a b c d e Meyer, H. H. D.; Rapp, M. (1985). "Reversible binding of the anabolic steroid trenbolone to steroid receptors". European Journal of Endocrinology. 110 (1 Suppla): S129–S130. doi:10.1530/acta.0.109S129. ISSN 0804-4643.
  8. ^ a b Delettré J, Mornon JP, Lepicard G, Ojasoo T, Raynaud JP (January 1980). "Steroid flexibility and receptor specificity". J. Steroid Biochem. 13 (1): 45–59. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(80)90112-0. PMID 7382482.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Robinson, Joseph A.; Ma, Qingli; Staveley, Jane P.; Smolenski, Walter J.; Ericson, Jon (2017). "Degradation and transformation of 17α-trenbolone in aerobic water-sediment systems". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 36 (3): 630–635. doi:10.1002/etc.3381. ISSN 0730-7268. PMID 26800846.
  10. ^ a b Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Lambright, Christy S.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Lazorchak, James; Hartig, Phillip C.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Gray, L. Earl; Ankley, Gerald T. (2005). "Identification of Metabolites of Trenbolone Acetate in Androgenic Runoff from a Beef Feedlot". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114 (S-1): 65–68. doi:10.1289/ehp.8055. ISSN 0091-6765.
  11. ^ Jeong, Sang-Hee; Kang, Dae-Jin; Lim, Myung-Woon; Kang, Chang-Soo; Sung, Ha-Jung (2010). "Risk Assessment of Growth Hormones and Antimicrobial Residues in Meat". Toxicological Research. 26 (4): 301–313. doi:10.5487/TR.2010.26.4.301. ISSN 1976-8257. PMC 3834504. PMID 24278538.
  12. ^ Basaria, Shehzad; Wahlstrom, Justin T.; Dobs, Adrian S. (2001). "Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Diseases". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 86 (11): 5108–5117. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.11.7983. ISSN 0021-972X. PMID 11701661.
  13. ^ a b c d Kicman, A T (2008). "Pharmacology of anabolic steroids". British Journal of Pharmacology. 154 (3): 502–521. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.165. ISSN 0007-1188. PMC 2439524. PMID 18500378.
  14. ^ a b c d Spranger, B.; Metzler, M. (1991). "Disposition of 17β-trenbolone in humans". Journal of Chromatography B. 564 (2): 485–492. doi:10.1016/0378-4347(91)80517-G. ISSN 0378-4347.
  15. ^ a b Gasparini, Mara; Curatolo, Michele; Assini, Walter; Bozzoni, Eros; Tognoli, Nadia; Dusi, Guglielmo (2009). "Confirmatory method for the determination of nandrolone and trenbolone in urine samples using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry". Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (46): 8059–8066. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.075. ISSN 0021-9673. PMID 19447393.
  16. ^ Bauer, E. R. S.; Daxenberger, A.; Petri, T.; Sauerwein, H.; Meyer, H. H. D. (2000). "Characterisation of the affinity of different anabolics and synthetic hormones to the human androgen receptor, human sex hormone binding globulin and to the bovine progestin receptor". APMIS. 108 (12): 838–846. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2000.tb00007.x. ISSN 0903-4641.
  17. ^ a b c Richold, Margaret (1988). "The genotoxicity of trenbolone, a synthetic steroid". Archives of Toxicology. 61 (4): 249–258. doi:10.1007/BF00364846. ISSN 0340-5761.
  18. ^ a b Sillence, M. N.; Rodway, R. G. (1990). "Effects of trenbolone acetate and testosterone on growth and on plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ACTH in rats". Journal of Endocrinology. 126 (3): 461–466. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1260461. ISSN 0022-0795.
  19. ^ a b Payne, J R (2004). "Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids". Heart. 90 (5): 473–475. doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.025783. ISSN 0007-0769. PMC 1768197. PMID 15084526.
  20. ^ Donner, Daniel G.; Elliott, Grace E.; Beck, Belinda R.; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Lam, Alfred K.; Headrick, John P.; Du Toit, Eugene F. (2016). "Trenbolone Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Myocardial Tolerance to Ischemia-Reperfusion in Male Rats With Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome". Endocrinology. 157 (1): 368–381. doi:10.1210/en.2015-1603. ISSN 0013-7227. PMID 26584015.
  21. ^ Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Pan, Lei; Wang, Manyuan; Xie, Xiaomei; Du, Changjun; Guo, Yongzhong (2014). "Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): e84855. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084855. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3888411. PMID 24427297.
  22. ^ Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W.; Walsh, John P. (2012). "Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate". Case Reports in Medicine. 2012: 1–3. doi:10.1155/2012/384054. ISSN 1687-9627. PMC 3261473. PMID 22272209.
  23. ^ Kam, P. C. A.; See, A. U-L. (2000). "Cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes: physiological and pharmacological role". Anaesthesia. 55 (5): 442–449. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2044.2000.01271.x. ISSN 0003-2409.
  24. ^ Fox, Alyson J.; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Belvisi, Maria G.; Bernareggi, Micaela; Chung, K. Fan; Barnes, Peter J. (1996). "Bradykinin–evoked sensitization of airway sensory nerves: A mechanism for ACE–inhibitor cough". Nature Medicine. 2 (7): 814–817. doi:10.1038/nm0796-814. ISSN 1078-8956.
  25. ^ a b Johnson, Ruth E.; Murad, M. Hassan (2009). "Gynecomastia: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 84 (11): 1010–1015. doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60671-X. ISSN 0025-6196. PMC 2770912. PMID 19880691.
  26. ^ Wilson, V. S. (2002). "In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of 17β-Trenbolone: A Feedlot Effluent Contaminant". Toxicological Sciences. 70 (2): 202–211. doi:10.1093/toxsci/70.2.202. ISSN 1096-0929.
  27. ^ a b Bauer ER, Daxenberger A, Petri T, Sauerwein H, Meyer HH (December 2000). "Characterisation of the affinity of different anabolics and synthetic hormones to the human androgen receptor, human sex hormone binding globulin and to the bovine progestin receptor". APMIS. 108 (12): 838–46. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2000.tb00007.x. PMID 11252818.
  28. ^ a b Kamanga-Sollo, E.; White, M.E.; Hathaway, M.R.; Chung, K.Y.; Johnson, B.J.; Dayton, W.R. (2008). "Roles of IGF-I and the estrogen, androgen and IGF-I receptors in estradiol-17β- and trenbolone acetate-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells". Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 35 (1): 88–97. doi:10.1016/j.domaniend.2008.02.003. ISSN 0739-7240. PMID 18403176.
  29. ^ a b Sinnett-Smith, Patrick A.; Dumelow, Nicola W.; Buttery, Peter J. (2007). "Effects of trenbolone acetate and zeranol on protein metabolism in male castrate andfemale lambs". British Journal of Nutrition. 50 (2): 225. doi:10.1079/BJN19830092. ISSN 0007-1145.
  30. ^ Coutinho, Agnes E.; Chapman, Karen E. (2011). "The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids, recent developments and mechanistic insights". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 335 (1): 2–13. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2010.04.005. ISSN 0303-7207. PMC 3047790. PMID 20398732.
  31. ^ a b Griffiths, T. W. (2010). "Effects of trenbolone acetate and resorcylic acid lactone on protein metabolism and growth in steers". Animal Production. 34 (3): 309–314. doi:10.1017/S0003356100010254. ISSN 0003-3561.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. p. 1591. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1.
  34. ^ "Anabolic Steroids".

Further reading

  • Meyer HH (2001). "Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic hormones used for improvement of meat production". APMIS. 109 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2001.tb05785.x. PMID 11297191.
  • Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE (2010). "Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one): A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity". Steroids. 75 (6): 377–89. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2010.01.019. PMID 20138077.

External links