|Marvel Cinematic Universe character|
|First appearance||Iron Man (2008)|
|Based on||Iron Man|
|Full name||Anthony Edward Stark|
Anthony Edward Stark is a fictional character portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) film franchise—based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name—commonly known by his alter ego, Iron Man. In the films, Stark is an industrialist, genius inventor, hero and former playboy who is CEO of Stark Industries. At the beginning of the series, he is a chief weapons manufacturer for the U.S. military, until he has a change of heart and redirects his technical knowledge into the creation of mechanized suits of armor which he uses to defend against those that would threaten peace around the world.
Stark has been one of the central figures of the MCU, having appeared in eleven films since his introduction in Iron Man (2008). The character and Downey's performance have been credited with helping to cement the MCU as a multi-billion dollar franchise, with Stark's evolution often being considered the defining arc of the series.
Tony Stark first premiered as a comic book character, in Tales of Suspense #39 (cover dated March 1963), a collaboration among editor and story-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, story-artist Don Heck, and cover-artist and character-designer Jack Kirby. Lee wanted to create the "quintessential capitalist", a character that would go against the spirit of the times and Marvel's readership. Lee based this playboy's looks and personality on Howard Hughes, as "one of the most colorful men of our time. He was an inventor, an adventurer, a multi-billionaire, a ladies' man and finally a nutcase." The character's original costume was a bulky gray armored suit, replaced by a golden version in the second story (issue #40, April 1963), and redesigned as sleeker, red-and-golden armor in issue #48 (Dec. 1963) by Steve Ditko. Lee and Kirby included Iron Man in The Avengers #1 (Sept. 1963) as a founding member of the superhero team. In the mid-2000s, with a number of movies having been made from other Marvel properties licensed to other studios, Kevin Feige realized that Marvel still owned the rights to the core members of the Avengers, which included Iron Man. Feige, a self-professed "fanboy", envisioned creating a shared universe just as creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby had done with their comic books in the early 1960s.
Jon Favreau, who was selected to direct the first Iron Man film, felt Downey's past made him an appropriate choice for the part, and that the actor could make Stark a "likable asshole," but also depict an authentic emotional journey once he won over the audience.
Ultimately though, Downey ended up being the choice the studio made for the first character in their ever-expansive cinematic universe. Favreau was also attracted to Downey from his performance in Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (2005), with Downey frequently conversing with that film's director, Shane Black, about the script and dialogue in Iron Man.
Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark was born on May 29, 1970, in Manhattan, New York to Howard Stark, a famous genius inventor and businessman, and Maria Stark (née Carbonell), a New York socialite and philanthropist. Growing up under the eye of family butler Edwin Jarvis, his life was characterized by a cold and affectionless relationship with his father. Seeing that his son could achieve great things, Howard tried to inspire him with constant talks about his own role in the creation of Captain America. This instead embittered Stark, who felt that his father was taking more pride in his creations than in his family. Stark proved to be a brilliant and unique child prodigy, he attended MIT for two years starting at age 14.
On December 16, 1991, when Stark was 21, his parents went away to the Bahamas, but planned to stop at the Pentagon to deliver supersoldier serum he had redeveloped. On their way there, both were killed in a car accident—later revealed to be an assassination carried out by the Winter Soldier on behalf of Hydra to steal the serum.[N 1] As a result, Stark inherited his father's company, becoming CEO of Stark Industries. Over the years, he became well known as a weapons designer and inventor, and lived a playboy lifestyle. In 1999, he attended a conference in Bern where he met scientists Maya Hansen, inventor of the Extremis experimental regenerative treatment, and Aldrich Killian, rejecting an offer to work for Killian's Advanced Idea Mechanics.[N 2]
In the late 2000s, Stark travels to war-torn Afghanistan with his friend and military liaison Lieutenant Colonel Rhodes to demonstrate Stark's new "Jericho" missile. After the demonstration, the convoy is ambushed and Stark is critically wounded and imprisoned by a terrorist group, the Ten Rings. Fellow captive Ho Yinsen, a doctor, implants an electromagnet into Stark's chest to keep shrapnel shards from reaching his heart and killing him.
Stark and Yinsen secretly build a small, powerful electric generator called an arc reactor to power Stark's electromagnet and a suit of powered armor. When the Ten Rings attack the workshop. Yinsen sacrifices himself to divert them while the suit is completed. The armored Stark battles his way out of the cave to find the dying Yinsen, then burns the Ten Rings' weapons in anger and flies away, crashing in the desert. Rescued by Rhodes, Stark returns home to announce that his company will no longer manufacture weapons. In his home workshop, Stark builds a sleeker, more powerful version of his improvised armor suit as well as a more powerful arc reactor
Stark learns that Stane has been arms trafficking to criminals worldwide, and is staging a coup to replace him as Stark Industries' CEO. Stark, in his new armor, flies to Afghanistan and saves the villagers. Stane ambushes Stark at his home and takes the one from his chest, revealing that Stane was responsible for Stark's captivity. Stark manages to get to his original reactor to replace it and defeats Stane. The next day, at a press conference, Stark publicly admits to being "Iron Man."
Six months later, Stark has become a superstar and uses his Iron Man suit for peaceful means, resisting government pressure to sell his designs. He reinstitutes the Stark Expo to continue his father's legacy, but discovers that the palladium core in the arc reactor that keeps Stark alive and powers the armor is slowly poisoning him. Growing increasingly reckless and despondent about his impending death, he appoints Pepper Potts CEO of Stark Industries.
Stark competes in the Monaco Historic Grand Prix and is attacked mid-race by Ivan Vanko, who wields electrified whips powered by a miniature arc reactor. Stark dons his Mark V armor and defeats Vanko, but the suit is severely damaged. At his birthday party, Stark gets drunk while wearing the Mark IV suit. Rhodes dons Stark's Mark II prototype armor and tries to restrain him. The fight ends in a stalemate, so Rhodes confiscates the Mark II for the U.S. Air Force.
Stark discovers a hidden message from his father, a diagram of the structure of a new element, which Stark synthesizes. At the Expo, Stark's rival Justin Hammer unveils Vanko's armored drones he had him make, led by Rhodes in a heavily weaponized version of the Mark II armor. Stark arrives in the Mark VI armor to warn Rhodes, but Vanko remotely takes control of both the drones and Rhodes' armor and attacks Iron Man. Stark and Rhodes together defeat Vanko and his drones.
When the Asgardian Loki arrives and begins menacing Earth, seizing the Tesseract from a S.H.I.E.L.D. facility, Fury activates the Avengers Initiative and S.H.I.E.L.D. Agent Phil Coulson visits Stark to have him review the research of Erik Selvig on the Tesseract. In Stuttgart, Rogers and Loki fight briefly until Tony Stark appears in his Iron Man armor, resulting in Loki's surrender. While Loki is being escorted to S.H.I.E.L.D., Thor arrives and frees him, hoping to convince him to abandon his plan and return to Asgard. After a confrontation with Stark and Rogers, Thor agrees to take Loki to S.H.I.E.L.D.'s flying aircraft carrier, the Helicarrier.
The Avengers become divided, both over how to approach Loki and the revelation that S.H.I.E.L.D. plans to harness the Tesseract to develop weapons. Agents possessed by Loki attack the Helicarrier, disabling one of its engines in flight, which Stark and Rogers must work to restart. Loki escapes, and Stark and Rogers realize that for Loki, simply defeating them will not be enough; he needs to overpower them publicly to validate himself as ruler of Earth. Loki uses the Tesseract to open a wormhole in New York City above Stark Tower to allow the Chitauri fleet in space to invade. Fury's superiors from the World Security Council attempt to end the invasion by launching a nuclear missile at Midtown Manhattan. Stark intercepts the missile, and in an apparent sacrifice of his own life, takes it through the wormhole toward the Chitauri fleet. The missile detonates, destroying the Chitauri mothership and disabling their forces on Earth. Stark's suit runs out of power, and he falls back through the wormhole but the Hulk saves him from crashing into the ground.
Stark develops PTSD from his experiences during the alien invasion, resulting in panic attacks. Restless, he builds several dozen Iron Man suits, creating friction with girlfriend Pepper Potts. When Happy Hogan is badly injured in one of a string of bombings by a terrorist known only as the Mandarin, Stark issues a televised threat to him, who destroys Stark's home with helicopter gunships. Stark escapes in an Iron Man suit and crashes in rural Tennessee. His experimental armor lacks sufficient power to return to California, and the world believes him dead.
Stark traces the Mandarin to Miami and infiltrates his headquarters, where he discovers the Mandarin was just an actor. Aldrich Killian reveals himself to be the real Mandarin and captures Stark. He escapes and reunites with Rhodes, discovering that Killian intends to attack President Ellis aboard Air Force One. Stark saves the surviving passengers and crew but cannot stop Killian from abducting Ellis and destroying Air Force One. Killian intends to kill Ellis on an oil platform on live television. On the platform, Stark goes to save Potts – who had been kidnapped and subjected to Extremis –, as Rhodes saves the president. Stark summons his Iron Man suits, controlled remotely by J.A.R.V.I.S., to provide air support. Potts, having survived the Extremis procedure, kills Killian. Stark orders J.A.R.V.I.S. to remotely destroy all of the Iron Man suits as a sign of his devotion to Potts, and undergoes surgery to remove the shrapnel embedded near his heart. He pitches his obsolete chest arc reactor into the sea, musing that he will always be Iron Man.
Stark and the Avengers raid a Hydra facility commanded by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker, who has been experimenting on siblings Pietro and Wanda Maximoff using the scepter previously wielded by Loki. While the team fights outside, Stark enters the lab and finds the scepter, along with Chitauri ships from the Battle of New York and androids under construction. Wanda sneaks up behind him and uses her mind manipulation powers to give him a haunting vision: the death of all the Avengers except him. Stark awakens from the vision and grabs Loki's scepter.
Returning to Stark Tower, Stark and Bruce Banner discover an artificial intelligence within the scepter's gem, and secretly decide to use it to complete Stark's "Ultron" global defense program. The unexpectedly sentient Ultron eliminates Stark's A.I. J.A.R.V.I.S. and attacks the Avengers at Stark Tower. Escaping with the scepter, Ultron builds an army of robot drones, kills Strucker and recruits the Maximoffs, who hold Stark responsible for their parents' deaths by his company's weapons. The Avengers find and attack Ultron, but Wanda subdues most of the team with personalized, disturbing visions, causing Banner to transform into the Hulk and rampage until Stark stops him with his anti-Hulk armor.
After hiding at a safe house, Nick Fury arrives and encourages Stark and the others to form a plan to stop Ultron, who is discovered to have forced the team's friend Dr. Helen Cho to perfect a new body for him. Rogers, Romanoff, and Clint Barton find Ultron and retrieve the synthetic body, but Ultron captures Romanoff. Returning to their headquarters in New York, the Avengers fight amongst themselves when Stark and Banner secretly upload J.A.R.V.I.S.—who is still operational after hiding from Ultron inside the Internet—into the synthetic body. Thor returns to help activate the body, explaining that the gem on its brow was part of his vision. This "Vision" and the Maximoffs, now on their side, accompany Stark and the Avengers to Sokovia, where Ultron has used the remaining vibranium to build a machine to lift part of the capital city skyward, intending to crash it into the ground to cause global extinction. One of Ultron's drones is able to activate the machine. The city plummets, but Stark and Thor overload the machine and shatter the landmass. The Avengers establish a new base, and Stark leaves the team in the hands of Rogers and Romanoff.
Approximately one year later, U.S. Secretary of State Thaddeus Ross informs the Avengers that the United Nations (UN) is preparing to pass the Sokovia Accords, which will establish UN oversight of the team. The Avengers are divided: Stark supports oversight because of his role in Ultron's creation and Sokovia's devastation, while Rogers has more faith in his own judgment than that of a government. Circumstances lead to Rogers and fellow super-soldier Bucky Barnes—framed for a terrorist attack—going rogue, along with Sam Wilson, Wanda Maximoff, Barton, and Scott Lang. Stark assembles a team composed of Romanoff, T'Challa, Rhodes, Vision, and Peter Parker to capture the renegades at Leipzig/Halle Airport. However, during the battle, Rogers and Barnes are able to escape. Stark learns that Barnes was framed and convinces Wilson to give him Rogers' destination. Without informing Ross, Stark goes to the Siberian Hydra facility and strikes a truce with Rogers and Barnes. They find that the other supersoldiers have been killed by Helmut Zemo, who plays footage that reveals that Barnes killed Stark's parents. Stark turns on them, dismembering Barnes' robotic arm. After an intense fight, Rogers finally manages to disable Stark's Iron Man armor and departs with Barnes, leaving his shield behind. Stark returns to New York to work on exoskeletal leg braces to allow Rhodes to walk again. Steve Rogers sends a flip phone to Stark, his former ally and friend, to keep in contact. When Ross calls informing him that Barton and the others have escaped, Stark refuses to help.
Peter Parker resumes his high school studies when Stark tells him he is not yet ready to become a full Avenger. Stark rescues Parker from nearly drowning after an encounter with Adrian Toomes. Stark warns Parker against further involvement with the criminals. Another weapon from Toomes malfunctions during a fight with Parker and tears the Staten Island Ferry in half. Stark helps Parker save the passengers before admonishing him for his recklessness and confiscating his suit. Parker realizes Toomes is planning to hijack a D.O.D.C. plane transporting weapons from Stark Tower to the team's new headquarters. After Parker thwarts the plan and saves Toomes from an explosion, Stark admits he was wrong about Parker and invites him to become an Avenger full-time, but Parker declines. Pepper emerges from a packed press conference, called to make the announcement, and Stark decides to use the opportunity to instead propose to Pepper. At the end of the film, he returns the suit to Peter.
Stark and Pepper are in a New York City park discussing having children, when Banner, who had disappeared after the Battle of Sokovia, crash-lands at the Sanctum Sanctorum. Banner relays a warning to Stephen Strange, Wong, and Stark that the mad Titan Thanos plans to use the Infinity Stones to kill half of all life in the universe. Ebony Maw and Cull Obsidian arrive to retrieve the Time Stone, prompting Strange, Stark, Wong, and Parker to confront them. Although Cull Obsidian is incapacitated and thrown into Antarctica, Strange is captured by Maw. Stark and Parker sneak aboard Maw's spaceship to rescue him.
After successfully freeing Strange and killing Maw, the trio proceed to Thanos’ home planet Titan, where they meet members of the Guardians of the Galaxy. They form a plan to confront Thanos and remove the Infinity Gauntlet, but Thanos overpowers the group and stabs Stark. Strange surrenders the Time Stone in exchange for Thanos sparing Stark. Thanos takes the stone and departs Titan for Earth, retrieves the final stone, and activates the Infinity Gauntlet. Stark and Nebula, stranded on Titan, watch as Parker and others are turned to dust.
Stark and Nebula are adrift in space before being rescued by Carol Danvers and returned to Earth, where Stark chooses to retire and raise his daughter Morgan over the next five years. In 2023, when Scott Lang discovers a way to bring back the fallen, the Avengers approach Stark, who initially refuses, considering the idea dangerously hypothetical. Despite this, he examines the matter privately and figures out how to do it successfully and agrees to help. Traveling through time, Stark fails to retrieve the Space Stone following the Battle of New York, and instead goes further back to the 1970s to steal it from a S.H.I.E.L.D. facility, where he has a moving conversation with a younger version of his father, Howard Stark.
The Avengers successfully obtain all of the Infinity Stones before returning to the present, which are incorporated into a gauntlet made by Stark which Banner then uses to resurrect those that were disintegrated by Thanos. However, they are followed by a 2014 version of Thanos and his forces, who are summoned to 2023 by an alternate version of Nebula. During an ensuing battle, Thanos obtains Stark's gauntlet and the two of them wrestle for control of it. Thanos is able to fling Stark away before attempting another snap, but discovers that Stark has caused all of the Infinity Stones to move to Stark's own armor. Stark then uses them to disintegrate Thanos and all of his forces, saving the universe but fatally injuring himself in the process. He dies surrounded by Rhodes, Parker, and Potts. A funeral attended by many heroes is later held for him at his homestead.
Eight months later, the world continues to mourn Stark. Parker receives glasses that can access Stark's artificial intelligence E.D.I.T.H., with a message that establishes him as Stark's successor.[N 3]
Robert Downey Jr. portrays Tony Stark in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Iron Man (2008), Iron Man 2 (2010), The Avengers (2012), Iron Man 3 (2013), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Captain America: Civil War (2016), Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019). In addition, Downey makes an uncredited cameo appearance in The Incredible Hulk (2008). He will reprise the role in Black Widow (2020).
Downey had an office next to Favreau during pre-production, which allowed him greater involvement in the screenwriting process, especially adding humor to the film. Downey explained, "What I usually hate about these [superhero] movies [is] when suddenly the guy that you were digging turns into Dudley Do-Right, and then you're supposed to buy into all his 'Let's go do some good!' That Eliot Ness-in-a-cape-type thing. What was really important to me was to not have him change so much that he's unrecognizable. When someone used to be a schmuck and they're not anymore, hopefully they still have a sense of humor." To prepare, Downey spent five days a week weight training and practiced martial arts to get into shape, which he said benefited him because "it's hard not to have a personality meltdown [...] after about several hours in that suit. I'm calling up every therapeutic moment I can think of to just get through the day."
In Iron Man 2, Stark struggles to keep his technology out of the government's hands. Downey and Favreau, who had been handed a script and worked from it on the first movie, conceived of the film's story themselves. On Stark being a hero, Downey said "It's kind of heroic, but really kind of on his own behalf. So I think there's probably a bit of an imposter complex and no sooner has he said, 'I am Iron Man –' that he's now really wondering what that means. If you have all this cushion like he does and the public is on your side and you have immense wealth and power, I think he's way too insulated to be okay."
The Avengers introduced Stark's role as one of an ensemble of heroes who must come together to defend the Earth from an alien invasion led by the god Loki. Downey initially pushed director Joss Whedon to make Stark the lead of the 2012 Avengers film: "Well, I said, 'I need to be in the opening sequence. I don't know what you're thinking, but Tony needs to drive this thing.' He was like, 'Okay, let's try that.' We tried it and it didn't work, because this is a different sort of thing, the story and the idea and the theme is the theme, and everybody is just an arm of the octopus." About the character's evolution from previous films, Downey said, "In Iron Man, which was an origin story, he was his own epiphany and redemption of sorts. Iron Man 2 is all about not being an island, dealing with legacy issues and making space for others. . . In The Avengers, he's throwing it down with the others". At the climax of the film, Stark guides a nuclear missile through an interstellar portal to destroy the main alien vessel, demonstrating a willingness to sacrifice his life to save the Earth.
In Iron Man 3, Stark struggles to come to terms with his near-death experience in The Avengers, suffering from anxiety attacks. On making a third Iron Man film, Downey said, "My sense of it is that we need to leave it all on the field—whatever that means in the end. You can pick several different points of departure for that." On following up The Avengers, Downey said they "tried to be practical, in a post-Avengers world. What are his challenges now? What are some limitations that might be placed on him? And what sort of threat would have him, as usual, ignore those limitations?" Screenwriter Drew Pearce compared Stark in Iron Man 3 to an American James Bond for both being "heroes with a sense of danger to them, and unpredictability" even if Stark was a "free agent" instead of an authority figure like Bond. He also likened Tony to the protagonists of 1970s films such as The French Connection (1971), where "the idiosyncrasies of the heroes is what made them exciting."
In Avengers: Age of Ultron, Stark has become the benefactor of the Avengers. On how his character evolves after the events of Iron Man 3, Downey said, "I think he realizes that tweaking and making all the suits in the world—which is what he has been doing—still didn't work for that thing of his tour of duty that left him a little PTSD. So his focus is more on how can we make it so that there's no problem to begin with. That, you know, there's a bouncer at our planet's rope. That's the big idea." The events of Age of Ultron lead directly into the conflict of Captain America: Civil War, in which Stark leads a faction of Avengers in support of the regulation of individuals with superpowers, and is the main antagonist of the film; Anthony Russo said that Stark's egomania allowed the writers "to bring him to a point in his life where he was willing to submit to an authority, where he felt it was the right thing to do." Joe Russo added that because of the visions Stark saw in Age of Ultron, he now has a guilt complex which "drives him to make very specific decisions", calling his emotional arc "very complicated". Downey's personal trainer Eric Oram stated that the trick to pitting Rogers against Stark, "is to show Iron Man using the 'minimum force' necessary to win the fight". Marvel initially wanted Downey's part to be smaller, but "Downey wanted Stark to have a more substantial role in the film's plot." Variety noted that Downey would receive $40 million-plus backend for his participation, as well as an additional payout if the film outperformed Captain America: The Winter Soldier, as Marvel would attribute that success to Downey's presence.
In Spider-Man: Homecoming, Stark is Peter Parker's mentor and is the creator of the U.S. Department of Damage Control. Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group chairman Thomas Rothman noted that, beyond the commercial advantage of featuring Downey in the film, the inclusion of Stark was important due to the relationship established between him and Parker in Captain America: Civil War. Watts noted that after Stark's actions in Civil War, introducing Parker to life as an Avenger, there are "a lot of repercussions to that. Is it a first step towards Tony as some sort of mentor figure? Is he comfortable with that?" Co-writer Jonathan Goldstein compared Stark to Ethan Hawke's father character in Boyhood (2014).
Downey reprised the role in Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and Avengers: Endgame (2019). Iron Man 3 director Shane Black stated in March 2013 that "There has been a lot of discussion about it: 'Is this the last Iron Man for Robert [Downey Jr.]?' Something tells me that it will not be the case, and [he] will be seen in a fourth, or fifth." Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige said that the character of Stark would continue to be featured in the Marvel Cinematic Universe regardless of Downey's involvement. Also in March, Downey said he was open to extending his contract, stating he feels "there's a couple other things we've gotta do" with the character. In June 2013, when Downey signed on to return as Iron Man in Avengers: Age of Ultron, he also signed on for a third Avengers film. In a July 2014 interview during the filming of Avengers: Age of Ultron, Downey expressed his interest in continuing to play Iron Man. "It's down to Kevin [Feige] and Ike [Perlmutter, CEO of Marvel Entertainment] and Disney to come to us with what the proposal is, and that’s on us to agree or disagree," Downey said. "When things are going great, there's a lot of agreement." He added, "It's that thing of: Why give up the belt when it feels like you can barely get jabbed?" In April 2016, Downey expressed openness to appearing in a potential fourth Iron Man film, saying "I could do one more." Downey's Marvel contract expired following Avengers: Endgame, where Stark dies.
Stark's fashion sense evolved over the course of the films, initially being described as "woefully basic... mostly saggy jeans, henleys and tank tops—with an occasional suit", but improving by the time of the first Avengers film, and becoming more sophisticated by Civil War, as Stark matured and accepted greater responsibility for the consequences of his actions. Downey expressed the desire for his wardrobe to reflect that "you still know he's Tony Stark, and you still know that he's the richest man in the world". Stark's clothing has been described as alternating between "a sweet suit with some shades" in his corporate look, "or a t-shirt, jeans, and an arc reactor" in his personal time. His fashion sense has been referred to as "part Mob boss and part Big Bang Theory cast member", and alternating "between boxy pinstripe suits and faux-ironic vintage tees".
Favreau wanted to make the initial film believable by showing the construction of the Iron Man suit in its three stages. Stan Winston, a fan of the comic book, and his company, whom Favreau worked with on Zathura (2005), built metal and rubber versions of the armors. The Mark I design was intended to look like it was built from spare parts. The back is less armored than the front, because Stark would use his resources for a forward attack. It also foreshadows the design of Stane's armor. A single 90-pound (41 kg) version was built, causing concern when a stuntman fell over inside it, though both the stuntman and the suit were unscathed. The armor was also designed to only have its top half worn at times. Stan Winston Studios built a 10-foot (3.0 m), 800-pound (360 kg) animatronic version of "Iron Monger", a name which Obadiah Stane calls Tony Stark and himself earlier in the film as a reference, but is never actually used for the suit itself in the film. The animatronic required five operators for the arm, and was built on a gimbal to simulate walking. A scale model was used for the shots of it being built. The Mark II resembles an airplane prototype, with visible flaps.
Iron Man comic book artist Adi Granov designed the Mark III with illustrator Phil Saunders. Granov's designs were the primary inspiration for the film's, and he came on board the film after he recognized his work on Jon Favreau's MySpace page. Saunders streamlined Granov's concept art, making it stealthier and less cartoonish in its proportions, and also designed the War Machine armor, but it was "cut from the script about halfway through pre-production." He explained that the War Machine armor "was going to be called the Mark IV armor and would have had weaponized swap-out parts that would be worn over the original Mark III armor," and that it "would have been worn by Tony Stark in the final battle sequence." Concerned with the transition between the computer-generated and practical costumes, Favreau hired Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) to create the bulk of the visual effects for the film after seeing Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End and Transformers. The Orphanage and The Embassy did additional work. To help with animating the more refined suits, information was sometimes captured by having Downey wear only the helmet, sleeves and chest of the costume over a motion capture suit.
For Iron Man 2, ILM again did the majority of the effects, as it did on the first film. ILM's visual effects supervisor on the film, Ben Snow, said their work on the film was "harder" than their work on the first, stating that Favreau asked more of them this time around. Snow described the process of digitally creating the suits:
On the first Iron Man, we tried to use the Legacy [Studios, Stan Winston's effects company] and Stan Winston suits as much as we could. For the second one, Jon [Favreau] was confident we could create the CG suits, and the action dictated using them. So, Legacy created what we called the "football suits" from the torso up with a chest plate and helmet. We'd usually put in some arm pieces, but not the whole arm. In the house fight sequence, where Robert Downey Jr. staggers around tipsy, we used some of the practical suit and extended it digitally. Same thing in the Randy's Donuts scene. But in the rest of the film, we used the CG suit entirely. And Double Negative did an all-digital suit for the Monaco chase.
In the filming of The Avengers, Weta Digital took over duties for animating Iron Man during the forest duel from ILM. Guy Williams, Weta's visual effects supervisor, said, "We shared assets back and forth with ILM, but our pipelines are unique and it's hard for other assets to plug into it. But in this case, we got their models and we had to redo the texture spaces because the way we texture maps is different." Williams said the most difficult part was re-creating Iron Man's reflective metal surfaces.
For Iron Man 3, Digital Domain, Scanline VFX and Trixter each worked on separate shots featuring the Mark 42 armor, working with different digital models. The studios shared some of their files to ensure consistency between the shots. For the Mark 42 and Iron Patriot armors, Legacy Effects constructed partial suits that were worn on set. Townsend explained that "Invariably we'd shoot a soft-suit with Robert then we'd also put tracking markers on his trousers. He would also wear lifts in his shoes or be up in a box so he'd be the correct height—Iron Man is 6'5". During shooting we used multiple witness cams, Canon C300s, and we had two or three running whenever there was an Iron Man or Extremis character." The heads-up display features of the helmet were inspired by visualization techniques from MRI diagnostic pattern recognition and graph theory, particularly by the connectogram, a circular graph that maps all of the white-matter connections of the human brain.
The origin story of Iron Man has been updated for the films. In the comics, Stark becomes Iron Man following an experience in the Vietnam War, which is changed to the War in Afghanistan. Jarvis, in the comics, is the family butler, while in the films J.A.R.V.I.S. is an artificial intelligence created by Stark, though still inspired by the butler from Stark's childhood who is revealed to have passed away by the time the first film takes place. Stark also proceeds through the early iterations of his armor to reach the now-familiar red and gold color scheme much more quickly. Stark's personality more closely resembles the Ultimate Comics version.
The AI version of J.A.R.V.I.S. is eventually uploaded by Stark to an artificial body and becomes Vision. In the films, Vision is created by Stark and Banner as a counter to Ultron. In the comics, however, Ultron is created by a different member of the Avengers, Hank Pym, and aspects of Pym's personality are integrated into this version of Stark, such as a desire for peace. Another difference in the films is the romance between Stark and Pepper Potts. In the comics, Potts has unrequited feelings for Stark, and ultimately becomes involved with Stark's chauffeur and bodyguard, Happy Hogan.
A new approach not seen in comics is Stark's mentorial relationship with Peter Parker. In the Ultimate Comics, Stark and Parker do not go past the normal trainer-trainee relationship. In the MCU, Stark is also the creator of multiple iterations of Parker's Spider-Man suits, unlike in the comics where he only creates the Iron Spider Armor, while Parker creates other suits by himself. Stark is also shown to have a history with Parker's foes Vulture and Mysterio; both are depicted as having turned into villains after due to actions by Stark. While he does not end up facing them, his protégé does.
The Mandarin, a recurring Iron Man villain in the comics, turns out to be just an actor portraying the character, with the real criminal mastermind behind the acts claimed by "the Mandarin" being Aldrich Killian—a minor character in the comics. The Mandarin is revealed to be a real person in the Marvel One-Shot All Hail the King, this version will instead by portrayed as an enemy of Shang-Chi in Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021).
Downey's portrayal of the character has been positively received by fans and critics. Roger Ebert praised Downey's performance in Iron Man, stating "At the end of the day it's Robert Downey Jr. who powers the lift-off separating this from most other superhero movies". Frank Lovece of Film Journal International, a one-time Marvel Comics writer, commended that Iron Man 2 "doesn't find a changed man. Inside the metal, imperfect humanity grows even more so, as thought-provoking questions of identity meet techno-fantasy made flesh".
For The Avengers, Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal—despite complimenting Downey's performance—favored his work in Iron Man over his acting in The Avengers: "His Iron Man is certainly a team player, but Mr. Downey comes to the party with two insuperable superpowers: a character of established sophistication—the industrialist/inventor Tony Stark, a sharp-tongued man of the world—and his own quicksilver presence that finds its finest expression in self-irony". In his review of Avengers: Endgame, Morgenstern lauded both actor and character, praising "Robert Downey Jr.'s startlingly smart Tony Stark" who, along with Chris Evans' Captain America and Chris Hemsworth's Thor, contributed to that film's "feeling of family ... because the debuts of its most prominent members remain vivid to this day."
In 2015, Empire named Tony Stark the 13th greatest film character of all time. In 2019, following Stark's death in Avengers: Endgame, a statute representing the character in his was Iron Man armor was erected in Forte dei Marmi, Italy.
Downey has received numerous nominations and awards for his portrayal of Tony Stark. He notably won the Saturn Award for Best Actor three times, making him a record four-time winner (he had previously won the award for 1993's Heart and Souls); it is also the record for most wins for portraying the same character, tied with Mark Hamill for playing Luke Skywalker.
|2008||Iron Man||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Action||Nominated|||
|Scream Awards||Best Science Fiction Actor||Won|||
|2009||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Male Action Star||Nominated|||
|Favorite Male Movie Star||Nominated|
|Empire Awards||Best Actor||Nominated|||
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Male Performance||Nominated|||
|Saturn Awards||Best Actor||Won|||
|2010||Iron Man 2||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Sci-Fi||Nominated|||
|Choice Movie: Dance||Nominated|
|Choice Movie: Fight (with Don Cheadle)||Nominated|||
|Scream Awards||Best Science Fiction Actor||Nominated|||
|2011||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|Favorite Action Star||Nominated|
|Favorite On-Screen Team (with Don Cheadle)||Nominated|
|MTV Movie Awards||Biggest Badass Star||Nominated|||
|Saturn Awards||Best Actor||Nominated|||
|2012||The Avengers||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Sci-Fi/Fantasy||Nominated|||
|Choice Summer Movie Star: Male||Nominated|
|2013||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Won|||
|Favorite Action Movie Star||Nominated|
|Favorite Movie Superhero||Won|
|Critics' Choice Awards||Best Actor in an Action Movie||Nominated|||
|Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Male Buttkicker||Nominated|||
|Empire Awards||Best Actor||Nominated|||
|MTV Movie Awards||Best On-Screen Duo (with Mark Ruffalo)||Nominated|||
|Best Fight (with cast)||Won|
|Iron Man 3||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Action||Won|||
|Choice Movie Actor: Sci-Fi/Fantasy||Nominated|
|Choice Movie: Chemistry (with Don Cheadle)||Nominated|
|2014||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|Favorite Movie Duo (with Gwyneth Paltrow)||Nominated|
|Favorite Action Movie Star||Won|
|Critics' Choice Awards||Best Actor in an Action Movie||Nominated|||
|Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Male Buttkicker||Won|||
|Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Hero||Nominated|||
|Saturn Awards||Best Actor||Won|||
|2015||Avengers: Age of Ultron||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Sci-Fi/Fantasy||Nominated|||
|2016||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|Favorite Action Movie Actor||Nominated|
|Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Fight (with Mark Ruffalo)||Nominated|||
|Captain America: Civil War||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Movie Actor: Sci-Fi/Fantasy||Nominated|||
|Choice Movie: Chemistry (with cast)||Nominated|||
|2017||People's Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|Favorite Action Movie Actor||Won|
|Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Movie Actor||Nominated|||
|Favorite Frenemies (with Chris Evans)||Nominated|
|#Squad (with cast)||Nominated|
|2018||Avengers: Infinity War||Teen Choice Awards||Choice Action Movie Actor||Won|||
|People's Choice Awards||Male Movie Star of 2018||Nominated|||
|2019||Kids' Choice Awards||Favorite Superhero||Won|||
|Avengers: Endgame||MTV Movie & TV Awards||Best Hero||Won|||
|Teen Choice Awards||Choice Action Movie Actor||Won|||
|Saturn Awards||Best Actor||Won|||
|People's Choice Awards||Male Movie Star of 2019||Won|||
|Action Movie Star of 2019||Nominated|
According to the VRX creators (Cantina.co), the design work was inspired by medical MRI diagnostic pattern-recognition and graph theory...