Timoric, or sometimes Timor–Babar, languages are a group of fifty Austronesian languages (belonging to the Central–Eastern subgroup) spoken on the islands of Timor, neighboring Wetar, and (depending on the classification) the Babar Islands to the east.
Within the group, the languages with the most speakers are
Uab Meto of West Timor and Tetum of East Timor, each with about half a million speakers, though in addition Tetum is an official language and a lingua franca among non-Tetum East Timorese.
Nauete is not close to other Timorese languages. Habu is structurally similar to Waima'a.
The Babar languages form their own group:
Geoffrey Hull (1998) proposes a Timoric group as follows:
Ramelaic (near the
Extra-Ramelaic (Fabronic; whatever is not Ramelaic)
Dawan (Uab Meto)– Amarasi, Helong, Roti ( Bilba, Dengka, Lole, Ringgou, Dela-Oenale, Termanu, Tii) Central:
Tetun, Bekais North:
Wetar, Galoli East: Kairui, Waimaha, Midiki; Luang, Makuva
Van Engelenhoven sets up a South–East Timor branch including Tetun, Waimaha, and Luangic–Kisaric; the latter is as follows:
Taber (1993:396) gives a Southwest Maluku and Babar group as follows, along with West Damar as an isolate.
Southwest Maluku group
East Damar Wetar subgroup
TNS (Teun-Nila-Serua) subgroup
North Babar subgroup
South Babar subgroup
Southwest Babar cluster
Masela – Southeast Babar cluster
(isolate) West Damar
Edwards (2018) proposes a Rote-Meto branch, with languages spoken on
Rote Island and in West Timor.
Termanu, Ba'a, Korbafo, Bokai, Talae, Keka Bilbaa, Diu, Lelenuk
Rikou, Landu, Oepao
Edwards (2019) also proposes a Central Timor branch that includes the recently documented language
Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Timoric B". . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Glottolog 3.0
Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Timoric A". . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Glottolog 3.0
^ Adelaar 2005:26
^ Edwards, Owen (2018).
Top-down Historical Phonology of Rote-Meto. JSEALS 11.1 (2018).
^ Edwards, Owen (2018). Reintroducing Welaun.
Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 58, Number 1, June 2019, pp. 31-58. [doi.org]