The ancestor of the extant strains appears to have separated into several clades approximately 2750 years ago. The Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes diverged about 2250 years ago.
A second analysis suggests an earlier date of evolution (3300 years ago) with a rapid increase in the number of strains starting ~300 years ago.
This virus has been transmitted at least three times into Japan between 260–430 years ago.
The strains circulating in Latvia appear to have originated from both Russia and Western Europe while those in Estonia appear to have originated in Russia. The Lithuanian strains appear to be related to those from Western Europe.
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