A salt pan
Area of Thoothukudi District in Tamil Nadu
|Established||20 October 1986|
|Founded by||M. G. Ramachandran|
|Talukas||Thoothukudi, Tiruvaikuntam, Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram, Ettayapuram, Vilathikulam, Kayathar, Tiruchendur, Sathankulam, Eral|
|• Type||District Administration|
|• Body||Thoothukudi District Collectorate|
|• Collector||Sandeep Nanduri I.A.S.|
|• Superintendent of Police||S. Jeyakumar I.P.S.|
|• Total||4,621 km2 (1,784 sq mi)|
|• Density||379/km2 (980/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||ISO 3166-2:IN-TN|
|Vehicle registration||TN-69, TN-96, TN-92|
Thoothukudi District is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The district was formed by bifurcation of Tirunelveli district on 20 October 1986. Thoothukudi is the capital and the main town of the district. The district is known for pearl cultivation, with an abundance of pearls being found in the seas offshore. It was formerly ruled by one of the oldest kingdoms in India, the Pandyan Dynasty with the port of Korkai through which trade with Rome happened. The archaeological site at Adichanallur holds the remains of the ancient Tamil civilisation.
Thoothukudi district is situated in the south-eastern corner of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded by the districts of Virudhunagar on the north, Ramanathapuram on the north-east, Tirunelveli on the west and south-west, Tenkasi on the north-west and Gulf of Mannar on the east and southeast. The total area of the district is 4621 km².
According to 2011 census, Thoothukudi district had a population of 1,750,176 with a sex-ratio of 1,023 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 183,763 were under the age of six, constituting 93,605 males and 90,158 females. It has a large numbers of Nadars (Tiruchendur, Sathankulam), Appanad Maravars (Kovilpatti, Srivaikundam, Ottapidaram, Kayathar), Vellalars (Ettayapuram, Ottapidaram), Nayakars/Naidu (Kovilpatti and Vilathikulam) and Parathars (Tuticorn and Tiruchendur). Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 19.88% and 0.28% of the population, respectively, mostly in Ottapidaram and Puthiyamputhur. The average literacy of the district was 77.12%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 462,010 households. There were a total of 748,095 workers, comprising 44,633 cultivators, 161,418 main agricultural labourers, 17,872 in house hold industries, 433,524 other workers, 90,648 marginal workers, 3,882 marginal cultivators, 39,226 marginal agricultural labourers, 4,991 marginal workers in household industries and 42,549 other marginal workers.
There are no large reservoirs in this district so the Papanasam and Manimuthar dams located in the Tirunelveli district in the Thamirabarani River's flow are the main sources of irrigation. Other than the Thamirabarani River, the river Vaipar in Vilathikulam taluk, the river Karumeni which traverses through Sathankulam, and Tiruchendur taluks, Palayakayal are all sources.
The district is divided into twelve revenue blocks for rural and urban development. The twelve revenue blocks are Thoothukudi, Tiruchendur, Udangudi, Sathankulam, Srivaikundam, Alwarthirunagari, Karunkulam, Ottapidaram, Kovilpatti, Kayathar, Vilathikulam, and Pudur. The district has one municipal corporation, Thoothukudi, two municipalities, Kayalpattinam and Kovilpatti, nineteen town panchayats, and 403 panchayat villages.
|No.||Constituency number||Constituency name||Reserved for (SC/ST/None)|
V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust contributes majorly to the economy of the district besides providing employment. Thoothukudi hosts industries such as SPIC, Thoothukudi alkaline chemicals, DCW zirconium plant and numerous salt packing companies. Many coal based power plants are at various stages of commissioning. Kovilpatti consists of many small sized industry especially match stick industries.
Paddy is the most cultivated crop in most of the villages like Uzhakkudi, Vallanadu, Aarumugamangalam, Palayakayal, Tiruvaikuntam, Sattankulam and Tiruchendur taluks. Cumbu, Cholam, Kuthiraivali and other pulses are raised in the dry tracts of Kovilpatti, Vilathikulam, Nagalapuram Ottapidaram, and Thoothukudi taluks. Cotton is cultivated in Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram and Thoothukudi Taluks. Groundnut cultivation is undertaken in Kovilpatti, Tiruchendur, and Sattankulam taluks. Groundnut cake is being used as manure and cattle feed. Nagalapuram makes its economy to be solely dependent agriculture. Sugarcane and Plantain (Banana) are cultivated on a large scale along the stretch of Uzhakkudi. Banana and Beetel cultivation is more prominent in villages like Aarumugamanagalam and Yeral. Also vegetables like tomato, chillies, brinjal, lady’s finger, beans are cultivated in village of Uzhakkudi. Summers are made use to cultivate cotton on a smaller scale. Main business of this area is dry chilly, cholam, cumbu, wood charcoal, etc. With 35% share, the district is the top producer of Cumbu in Tamil Nadu. Palmyrah trees are grown mostly in Tiruchendur, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Vilathikulam taluks. Jaggery is produced from palmyrah juice; the production of jaggery is the main occupation of the people of Tiruchendur and Sattankulam taluks. Banana and other vegetables are raised in Srivaikundam and Tiruchendur taluks.
The district constitutes 70 percent of the total salt production of Tamil Nadu and 30 per cent of that of India. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of Salt in India next to Gujarat.
National Highway 45B, 7A and State Highways SH-32,33,40,44,75,76,77,93,176 connect to other parts of the State. Government buses connect the district with other parts of state. Thoothukudi and Vanchi Maniyachchi are the major stations of Indian Railways. V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust in the district was declared as the tenth major seaport in India also provides container services. Thoothukudi Airport is situated at Vaigaikulam and currently has flights to and from Chennai and Bengaluru. Thoothukudi is the one of the cities which is having four ways of transportation (Roadways, Railways, Airways and Seaways).
The Government of India is to set up a new Rocket launch pad near Kulasekaranpattinam in Thoothukudi district. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has begun work on its second Rocket launching pad or Spaceport, which will be Kulasekaranpattinam, Thoothukudi in Tamil Nadu. Like the Sriharikota spaceport in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Thoothukudi was selected as a spaceport due to its nearness to the equator. "A rocket launch site should be on the east coast and near the equator. And Thoothukudi district satisfies that condition", a former ISRO official stated.
There are numerous educational institutions, colleges, schools providing education. The Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam was established in 1984 – 85 as the third constituent College of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. These include:
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