Portrait of Theophilos
|Reign||130 BCE or 90 BCE|
Theophilos (Greek: Θεόφιλος) was a minor Indo-Greek king who ruled for a short time in the Paropamisadae. He was possibly a relative of Zoilos I and is only known from coins. It is possible that some of Theophilos' coins in fact belong to another ruler, in Greek Bactria, during approximately the same period.
While Bopearachchi suggests c. 90 BCE, R. C. Senior believes that Theophilos ruled in the 130s BCE. Both numismatics do however suggest that the reigns of Theophilos and Nicias were adjacent.
Just like Zoilos I, Theophilos struck Indian silver coins with Herakles, a common symbol of the house of Euthydemus I, and the epithet Dikaios/Dhramikasa "The Just/Follower of the Dharma". The monograms are mostly the same as those of Nicias. The bronzes have similar inscriptions.
Bronzes of Theophilos:
Herakles with lion skin, and his club on the reverse.
However, there is a wholly different, and very rare, Attic coinage of a king Theophilos. Found in Bactria, these coins feature a reverse with a seated Athena with Nike, a different title Autokrator "Autocrat King" (Greek: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΟΣ), and also a separate monogram. Although this is not a very common occurrence on Indo-Greek coins, the coins of Theophilos have generally been accepted as belonging to one unique king. Bopearachchi has supported this proposition by pointing at the similarity between the portraits and the identical treatment of the diadem (one end straight, one end crooked).
Against this, Jakobsson argues that the coins issued by the later Indo-Greek kings for export into Bactria were consistently similar to these kings' regular Indian coinage. Consequently, the coins of Theophilos Autokrator were not such export issues, but should belong to a Bactrian ruler. Jakobsson suggests that Theophilos Autokrator was a Bactrian princelet who briefly maintained himself in some part of Bactria, after the Hellenistic kingdom there had been vanquished by nomads, presumably in the 120s BCE.
|Greco-Bactrian kings||Indo-Greek kings|
|West Bactria||East Bactria||Paropamisade
||Arachosia||Gandhara||Western Punjab||Eastern Punjab||Mathura|
|326-325 BCE||Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India||Nanda Empire|
|312 BCE||Creation of the Seleucid Empire||Creation of the Maurya Empire|
|305 BCE||Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war||Maurya Empire|
|280 BCE||Foundation of Ai-Khanoum|
|255–239 BCE||Independence of the
|Emperor Ashoka (268-232)|
|239–223 BCE||Diodotus II|
|230–200 BCE||Euthydemus I|
|200–190 BCE||Demetrius I||Sunga Empire|
|190-185 BCE||Euthydemus II|
|185–170 BCE||Antimachus I|
|180–160 BCE||Apollodotus I|
|175–170 BCE||Demetrius II|
|160–155 BCE||Antimachus II|
|170–145 BCE||Eucratides I|
|155–130 BCE||Yuezhi occupation,
loss of Ai-Khanoum
|130–120 BCE||Yuezhi occupation||Zoilos I||Agathokleia||Yavanarajya|
|120–110 BCE||Lysias||Strato I|
|110–100 BCE||Antialcidas||Heliokles II|
|100 BCE||Polyxenos||Demetrius III|
|90–85 BCE||Nicias||Menander II||Artemidoros|
|Yuezhi occupation||Maues (Indo-Scythian)|
|75–70 BCE||Vonones||Telephos||Apollodotus II|
|55–35 BCE||Azes I (Indo-Scythians)||Zoilos II|
|55–35 BCE||Vijayamitra/ Azilises||Apollophanes|
|25 BCE – 10 CE||Gondophares||Zeionises||Kharahostes||Strato II
|Gondophares (Indo-Parthian)||Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)|
|Kujula Kadphises (Kushan Empire)||Bhadayasa
| Indo-Greek ruler in Paropamisadae
c. 90 BCE