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A thawb or thobe (Arabic: ثَوب / ALA-LC: thawb), dishdasha (دِشداشَة / dishdāshah), kandura (كَندورَة / kandūrah), jalabiyyah (shortened to jubbah) in upper Egypt, Sudan and Libya, and in Somalia and Djibouti known as Khamiis, is an ankle-length Arab garment, usually with long sleeves, similar to a robe, kaftan or tunic. It is commonly worn in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and neighbouring Arab countries. A 'serwal' or pyjama is typically donned underneath.
The word thawb is the standard Arabic word for 'a garment'. It is the traditional Arabian clothing for men. It is sometimes spelled thobe or thaub. It is a tunic, generally long. The word is used specifically for this garment in Arab States of the Persian Gulf and some areas in the south of Egypt. There has been some debate regarding the correct length of the thawb.
The thawb is commonly worn by men in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf. It is normally made of cotton, but heavier materials such as sheep's wool can also be used, especially in colder climates in Iraq and Syria. The style of the thawb varies slightly among the various regions within the Persian Gulf. The sleeves and the collar can be stiffened to give a more formal appearance. Other names may be used for this garment. In Souraqia (Syria) and Oman, dishdasha is the most common word for the garment; in the UAE, the word kandura is used. In Morocco, the sleeves tend to be much shorter so that the thawb may seem more like a long T-shirt and is locally called gandora. The neck also tends to be more open than in its Saudi counterpart and, along with the breast pocket, is often embroidered. It might also lack buttons altogether.
The term thawb is also used to refer to similar women's garments. The traditional Palestinian woman's long tunic is called thawb. Another example is a very long, oversized woman's garment with a heavily embroidered front panel and billowing back, also known as a Khaleeji dress, which is most commonly seen in the West[where?] worn for performance of the Saudi women's social-style dances, in which manipulation of the large thawb is a key component.
|Arab World||Arabic dialects||ثَوب (Thawb)|
|Levant, Oman, Kuwait, Iraq||Levantine, Omani, Kuwaiti, Iraqi||دِشداشَة (Dishdaashah)|
|Maghreb||Maghrebi, Berber||Gandora, Djellaba, Aselham|
|Sudan, Upper Egypt, Libya||Sudani, Sa'idi, Libyan||Jilaabiyah|
|Somalia, Djibouti||Somali||Khamiis or Jelabiyad|
|Iran, Pakistan||Farsi, Urdu||جُبّه (Jubbah)|
A thawb or thaub can sometimes be worn with what is known as "besht" [بشت] or in other parts of the Arabian Peninsula as "abat" [عباة] which means a cloak. It is usually worn in ceremonial occasions or by officials. Besht, can be worn in a wedding, Eid, and funerals. It may refer to a status of wealth and royalty, or sometimes a religious position. It was originally manufactured in Syria, Iraq and Jordan, and it is usually worn in Jordan, Syria, Iraq and the Arabian peninsula.
According to H. R. P. Dickson, in "The Arab of the Desert", 1949, Bedouin women would mount a brightly coloured thobe on a pole in front of the tent in order to welcome home a traveller or an important person coming to visit.