Dubois was director of the Conservatoire from 1896 (succeeding Thomas upon the latter's death) to 1905. He resigned two months before the refusal to award the Prix de Rome to Maurice Ravel; this created, nonetheless, a substantial public outcry against him, which was increased by an open letter from the novelist and musicologist Romain Rolland. Gabriel Fauré took over from Dubois as director.
Although he wrote many religious works, Dubois had considerable hopes for a successful career on the operatic stage. His fascination with Near-Eastern subjects lead to the composition to his first staged work, La guzla de l'émir, and his first four-act opera, Aben-Hamet, which broke no new ground. His other large-scale opera, Xavière, has a wildly dramatic tale set in the rural Auvergne. The story revolves around a widowed mother who plots to kill her daughter, Xavière, with the help of her fiancé's father to gain the daughter's inheritance. However, Xavière survives the attack with the help of a priest, and the opera finishes with a conventional happy ending.
The music of Dubois also includes ballets, oratorios and three symphonies. His best known work is the oratorio Les sept paroles du Christ ("The Seven Last Words of Christ" ), which continues to be given an occasional airing; his Toccata in G (1889), for the organ, is a recital staple, by no means solely in France. The rest of his large output has almost entirely disappeared from view. He has had a more lasting influence in teaching, with his theoretical works Traité de contrepoint et de fugue (on counterpoint and fugue) and Traité d'harmonie théorique et pratique (on harmony) still being sometimes used today.
La prova di un'opera seria, (unpublished, composed in Rome, 1863).
La guzla de l'émir, opéra comique (1 act, J. Barbier & M. Carré), f.p. 30 April 1873, Théâtre de l'Athénée, Paris.
Le pain bis, opéra comique (1 act, A. Brunswick & A.R. de Beauplan), f.p. 26/27 February 1879, Opéra-Comique (Théâtre Favart), Paris.
L'enlèvement de Proserpine, scène lyrique (1 act, P. Collin), f.p. 1879.
Aben-Hamet, opéra (4 acts, L. Détroyat & A. de Lauzières), f.p. 16 December 1884, Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris.
Xavière, idylle dramatique (3 acts, L. Gallet, after F. Fabre), f.p. 26 November 1895, Opéra Comique (Théâtre Lyrique), Paris.
Miguela, opéra (3 acts) (Originally unperformed, except prélude and second act tableau from Act 3, concert perf. 23 February 1896, Paris.) f.p. 18 May 1916, Opéra, Paris.
La fiancée d'Abydos (unperformed)
Le florentin (unperformed)
La Korrigane, (ballet by Louis Mérante), f.p. 12 January 1880, Opéra, Paris.
La Farandole, (ballet by Louis Mérante), f.p. 14 December 1883, Opéra-Comique, Paris.
Les Sept Paroles du Christ, (1867) oratorio dedicated to Abbot Jean-Gaspard (1797-1871) curé of La Madeleine.
Le Paradis Perdu, oratorio (1878 - Prix de la ville de Paris)
Numerous cantatas, including: L'enlèvement de Proserpine, Hylas, Bergerette; Les Vivants et les Morts
Masses and religious compositions
Marche héroïque de Jeanne d'Arc
Fantaisie triomphale for organ & orchestra
Méditation, Prières for strings, oboe, harp, & organ
Concerto-Capriccio for piano & orchestra
Concerto pour piano n° 2
Concerto pour violon
Notre-Dame de la Mer, poème symphonique
Adomis, poème symphonique
Symphonie française (1908)
Suite for Piano and String Orchestra in F minor (1917)
Cantabile (or Andante Cantabile) for viola or cello and piano (1886)
Hymne nuptial for violin, viola, cello, harp and organ
Quintet for oboe, violin, viola, cello and piano
Terzettino for flute, viola and harp (1905)
Piano Quartet in A minor (1907)
Dectet for string and wind quintets
Nonetto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, 2 violins, viola, cello and double bass
Piano works : Chœur et Danse des Lutins, Six Poèmes Sylvestres, etc.
Theodore Dubois, The Romantic Piano Concerto #60, 2013 Concerto-capriccioso in C minor; Piano Concerto #2 and Suite for Piano and String Orchestra, Cédric Tiberghien-pianist,BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra,Andrew Manze-conductor,Hyperion 67931