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Temiar language

Temiar
Native toPeninsular Malaysia
Ethnicity25,000 (2008)[1]
Native speakers
28,000 (2016)[2]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3tea
Glottologtemi1246[3]

Temiar is a Central Aslian (Mon–Khmer) language spoken in Western Malaysia by the Temiar people. The Temiar are one of the most numerous Aslian-speaking peoples, numbering around 30,000 in 2017.[4] Etymologically, the word "Temiar" means "edge" or "side". This meaning reflects the way in which Temiars describe themselves as "people of the edge, outside, [i.e. jungle]."[5]

Phonology

Vowels

Oral vowels
Front Central Back
Close i iː ʉ ʉː u uː
Close-mid e eː o oː
Open-mid ɛ ɛː ə əː ɔ ɔː
Open a aː
Nasal vowels
Front Central Back
Close ĩ ĩː ʉ̃ ʉ̃ː ũ ũː
Mid ɛ̃ ɛ̃ː ɔ̃ ɔ̃ː
Open ã ãː

Consonants

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t c k ʔ
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Rhotic ɾ
Lateral l
Fricative ɕ h
Approximant w j

Morphosyntax

Noun Phrase

The noun phrase is (pro)noun initial followed by modifiers and demonstratives or possessor pronouns. Pronouns may not be modified by another pronoun.[6] There are three allomorphic classes of pronouns (stressed unstressed, and bound). Stressed third person pronouns must occur with a demonstrative (and hence only occur as unstressed or as bound morphemes on the demonstrative (e.g. na-doh 'he-here' or ʔun-tu:y 'they-elsewhere.'[6]

Stressed Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 ye:ʔ ʔa:r ya:r ʔɛ:ʔ kanɛ:ʔ
2 ha:ʔ kəʔan ɲɔb
Unstressed Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 yeh ʔah yah ʔɛh kanɛh
2 hah kəʔan ɲɔb
3 ʔəh weh wɛh ʔun ʔən
Bound Pronouns
Person Singular Dual Plural
Inclusive Exclusive Inclusive Exclusive
1 ʔi- ʔa- ya- ʔɛ- kanɛ-

ki-

kɛ-

2 ha- kəʔa- ɲɔ(b)-
3 na- ʔə- we- wɛ- ʔun-

Verb Phrase

The verb phrase is ordered as sentential negation, auxiliary verb and main verb. The verb phrase precedes the subject.[6]

Further reading

  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 1999. "Temiar kinship terminology: a linguistic and formal analysis." Occasional Paper no. 1, Malaysian Academy of Social Sciences (AKASS), Penang: AKASS Heritage Paper Series.
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2011. "Deponent verbs and middle-voice nouns in Temiar." In: Sophana Srichampa & Paul Sidwell (eds), Austroasiatic Studies: Papers from ICAAL4 (=Mon-Khmer Studies, Special Issue no. 2), Canberra: Pacific Linguistics E-8, pp. 11–37. ISBN 9780858836419 (electronic document)
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2012. "The peculiar history of the ethnonym 'Temiar'." Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 27(2): 205–233. ISSN 0217-9520 (print), ISSN 1793-2858 (online) doi:10.1355/sj27-2a. JSTOR 43186934.
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2012. "The Temiar causative (and related features)." Mon-Khmer Studies 41: 32–45. ISSN 0147-5207 (online).
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2014. "Aesthetic elements in Temiar grammar." In: Jeffrey Williams (ed.), The Aesthetics of Grammar: Sound and Meaning in the Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 36–60. ISBN 9781107007123 (print, hard cover), ISBN 9781107496309 (eBook, 2013). doi:10.1017/CBO9781139030489.004
  • Benjamin, Geoffrey. 2016. "A new outline of Temiar grammar, Part 1". dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3944.0403.

References

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference e18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Geoffery Benjamin, A new outline of Temiar grammar, Part 1
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Temiar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Benjamin, Geoffrey (November 2013). "Aesthetic elements in Temiar grammar". The Aesthetics of Grammar. The Aesthetics of Grammar: Sound and Meaning in the Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. pp. 36–60. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139030489.004. ISBN 9781139030489. Retrieved 2019-10-14.
  5. ^ Benjamin, Geoffrey (2012). "The Peculiar History of the Ethnonym "Temiar"". Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 27 (2): 205–233. doi:10.1355/sj27-2a.
  6. ^ a b c Benjamin, Geoffrey (1976). "An Outline of Temiar Grammar". Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications (13): 129–187. ISSN 0078-3188. JSTOR 20019155.