Cagol was born in Trento. He studied at the Institute of Art in Trento, the Academy of Fine Arts in Brera, Milan and at the Ryerson University in Toronto, where he was a post-doctoral fellow. He also attended the Internationale Sommerakademie für Bildende Kunst in Salzburg and the ICP-International Center of Photography in New York. He was artist in residence at the Künstlerhaus in Salzburg, at the Leube Group Art's Program of Gartenau, Austria, at the IOR in London in 2003 and in 2005, at International Studio & Curatorial Program (ISCP) , New York, in 2010, and at BAR International by Pikene på Broen, in Kirkenes, Norway, between 2010 and 2011. In 1998 he took part in the Marshall McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology in Toronto.
Cagol held a solo show at MART - Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto in 2000. His public art intervention "Artists' bridges" took place in Bolzano 2002. In 2004 he exhibited at Superdeluxe in Tokyo and the Stefan Stux Gallery project room in New York. In June–September 2005 he realized a solo exhibition, "Babylon Zoo" at the Oredaria Gallery in Rome (with a critical essay by Pier Luigi Tazzi), and a site specific installation in the hall of the Faculty of Sociology in Trento. In January 2005 he held a solo exhibition in London at Platform titled "LIES" (catalogue with a critical essay by Mami Kataoka).
In 2006, he exhibited "Power Station" as an official satellite project of the Singapore Biennale (the only Italian presence) and "Bird Flu / Vogelgrippe" as special project of 4th Berlin Biennale, supported by the Civic Gallery of Contemporary Art in Trento, Museion, the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Bolzano and the Kunstraum of Innsbruck, Austria.
In 2007 he completed a solo public art installation for the façade of the BeursSchouwburg art center in Brussels (on view from 2007 till 2012).
In the same year he realized a project - together with Stealth.ultd, Rotterdam - at Kunst Merano Arte for “From & to,” a solo public art intervention in Venice called "Head Flu,” and a solo show at NADiff - New Art Diffusion, Tokyo.
In 2008 he realized a Parallel Event to Manifesta 7, a special project for the farewell event of Jan Hoet at MARTa Herford in Germany, a public art installation on Petřín Tower at Tina B contemporary art festival in Prague. During the same year he took part in "Eurasia" at Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto, in “Arrivals and Departures” at White Box, New York city, in “The Peekskill Project” at HVCCA – Hudson Valley Center for Contemporary Art, New York.
In 2009 he presented his solo project “11 settembre” simultaneously at MART – Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto, at Kunstraum Innsbruck, and at ZKM Karlsruhe, where the artwork became part of the collection. With Error One, he realized a public art installation at MuHKA in Antwerp.
On September he was announced as winner of the Terna Prize 02 – for the Megawatt category.
In 2011 he held a solo show at Priska C. Juschka Fine Art in New York titled “Stockholm Syndrome”.
He took part in 54. International Art Exhibition – La Biennale di Venezia with an official collateral event / solo show “CONCILIO” curated by Gregor Jansen at San Gallo Church.
His project “The End of the Border (of the mind),” commissioned by the Barents Art Triennale at the extreme northern border of Norway, had its start from the Vajont dam in Italy in the fifth anniversary of the tragedy and developed as a trip / expedition in March and April 2012.
He took part in 55. International Art Exhibition – La Biennale di Venezia with the project “The Ice Monolith” part of the Maldives Pavilion curated by CPS Chamber of Public Secrets at Gervasuti Foundation, Venezia. In 2014 he took part in Critical ways of seeing at Goldsmiths (University of London).
Cagol wins in 2014 VISIT Artist in residence program of the German Innogy Stiftung , former RWE Foundation, with the trans-national project THE BODY OF ENERGY, that develops between museums and power plants between 2014 and 2015.
As winner of the Italian Council 2019  he is realizing an international project titled "The Time of the Flood. Beyond the myth through climate change"  btw Berlin, Tel Aviv/Jerusalem, Roma and Venice, promoted and supported by MIBAC.
Il Palazzo Enciclopedico. 55th International Art Exhibition of the Venice Biennale, Marsilio Editori, Venezia, 2013 (ISBN978-88-317-1558-4)
Veit Loers, Daniela Berglehn, Andreas Beitin, Tobia Bezzola, Giovanni Carmine, Letizia Ragaglia, Andrea Viliani, THE BODY OF ENERGY (OF THE MIND), by Stefano Cagol, Revolver Publishing Berlin, 2015 (ISBN978-3-95763-271-5)
“Bird Flu se desplaza por Europa,” Lapiz # 223, Madrid, May 2006, p. 18
Roberto Pinto, “Stefano Cagol,” Work. Art In progress # 16, Trento, Summer 2006, pp. 50–51, 70-73
Luigi Meneghelli,”Stefano Cagol,” Flash Art Italia # 261, Milan, Dec. 2006 – Jan. 2007, p. 73
June Yap, “Stefano Cagol; To the casual observer," Contemporary # 91, London, May 2007, p. 28–31
Benjamin Genocchio, “In Peekskill, 2 Shows of Raw Works,” The New York Times, New York, Sept 28 2008
Robert Ayers, “Wild Animals Invade the New York Art World,” Artinfo, New York, April 2008
Felicitas Rhan, “Die Mutter aller Daten,” interview, monopol-magazin.de, Berlin, Sept 11 2009
Francesca Pini, “L’arte del mondo arriva a Venezia ed è Biennale,” Sette – Corriere della Sera # 21, Milan, May 26, 2011, p. 76-77
Laura Larcan, “Eventi collaterali e contromostre. L’altra Biennale della Serenissima,” La Repubblica, Rome, May 27, 2011
"54. Biennale di Venezia. An international plaza,” Lapiz # 267, Madrid, 2011, p. 33-41
Ann Lisbeth Hemmingsen, “Til grensens ytterkant,” Kunstforum, Oslo, March 22, 2013
Joan Karsbakk, “Lighting up European borders,” Barents Observer, Kirkenes, March 22, 2013
Luciana Parisi, “TG3,” Rai 3, Rome, March 7, h 19, 2013
Holly Howe, "How this year’s Venice Biennale made us think about climate change," fadwebsite.com, London, July 26, 2013
Claudia Jolles, "Editorial: Venice Biennale", Kunst Bulletin, Zurich, #7-8/2013, p. 3 and cover
Mariella Rossi, “Nuestro mundo es finite. Our world is finite,” Lapiz, #279, Madrid 2013
Georgina Adam, "New economies shake up the art world at Venice Biennale," "BBC", June 11, 2013
Michela Moro, “Speciale Biennale,” "Cool Tour. Rai 5, June 1, 2013
Artan Krasniqi, “Bienalja si enciklopedi e hapur e artit,” Koha, June 1, 2013