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State Council of the People's Republic of China

State Council of the
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国务院
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guówùyuàn
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg
Agency overview
Formed 27 September 1954
Preceding agency
Type Executive branch of the central government
Executive body of the National People's Congress[1]
Highest organ of State administration[1]
Jurisdiction Government of the People's Republic of China
Headquarters State Council Hall, Zhongnanhai, Beijing
Motto "Serve the People"
Agency executives
Child agencies
Website English.gov.cn
State Council of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国国务院
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國國務院
Literal meaning Chinese People('s) Republic State Affair(s) Court
State Council
(commonly used abbreviation)
Simplified Chinese 国务院
Traditional Chinese 國務院
Literal meaning State Affair(s) Court
Central People's Government
(Constitutional synonym[1])
Chinese 中央人民政府
Literal meaning Central People('s) Government
This article is part of a series on the
Politics of China
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg

The State Council, constitutionally[1] synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.[2] It is chaired by the premier and includes the heads of each of the cabinet-level executive departments.[3] Currently, the council has 35 members: the premier, one executive vice premier, three other vice premiers, five state councilors (of whom two are also ministers), and 25 additional ministers and chairs of major agencies.[4] In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.

Organization

The State Council meets every six months. Between meetings it is guided by a Standing Committee that meets weekly. The standing committee includes the premier, one executive vice premier, three vice premiers, and five other state councilors (normally one of whom serves as Secretary-General of the State Council, and two of whom concurrently serve as ministers).

The vice-premiers and state councilors are nominated by the premier, and appointed by the president with National People's Congress' (NPC) approval. Incumbents may serve two successive five-year terms.

Each vice premier oversees certain areas of administration. Each State Councilor performs duties as designated by the Premier. The secretary-general heads the General Office which handles the day-to-day work of the State Council. The secretary-general has relatively little power and should not be confused with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

Each ministry supervises one sector. Commissions outrank ministries and set policies for and coordinate the related activities of different administrative organs. Offices deal with matters of ongoing concern. Bureaus and administrations rank below ministries.

In addition to the 25 ministries, there are 38 centrally administered government organizations that report directly to the state council. The heads of these organizations attend full meetings of the state committee on an irregular basis.

The State Council is formally responsible to the NPC and its Standing Committee in conducting a wide range of government functions both at the national and at the local levels, and nominally acts by virtue of the NPC's authority. There has been at least one case where the NPC has outright rejected an initiative of the State Council and a few cases where the State Council has withdrawn or greatly modified a proposal in response to NPC opposition.

The State Council and the Communist Party of China are also tightly interlocked. With rare exceptions, State Councilors are high-ranking members of the CPC. Although, as Party members, they are supposed to follow Party instructions, because they tend to be senior members of the Party they also have substantial influence over what those instructions are. This results in a system which is unlike the Soviet practice in which the Party effectively controlled the State. Rather, the Party and State are fused at this level of government. The members of the State Council derive their authority from being members of the state, while as members of the Party they coordinate their activities and determine key decisions such as the naming of personnel.

There were attempts to separate the party and state in the late 1980s under Zhao Ziyang and have the Party in charge of formulating policy and the State Council executing policy, but these efforts were largely abandoned in the early 1990s.

As the chief administrative organ of government, its main functions are to formulate administrative measures, issue decisions and orders, and monitor their implementation; draft legislative bills for submission to the NPC or its Standing Committee; and prepare the economic plan and the state budget for deliberation and approval by the NPC. The State Council is the functional center of state power and clearinghouse for government initiatives at all levels. With the government's emphasis on economic modernization, the State Council clearly acquired additional importance and influence.

The State Council controls the Ministry for National Defense but does not control the People's Liberation Army, which is instead controlled by the Central Military Commission.

Principal officers

Members of the Executive Meeting of the 13th State Council (March 2018 – March 2023)
# Portrait
Name
Birth
year
Government posts Duties Party Party positions Functional roles
1 Li Keqiang (cropped).jpg
Li Keqiang
李克强
1955 Premier of the State Council Overall work of the State Council CPC Member, 19th Politburo Standing Committee
Secretary, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Deputy Chairman, Central National Security Commission
Director, Central Institutional Organization Commission
Director, National Defense Mobilization Commission
Director, National Energy Commission
2 Cristina Fernández junto a Han Zheng, el alcalde de Shanghai (cropped).jpg
Han Zheng
韩正
1954 Vice Premier of the State Council (first-ranked) Develop & reform, institutional reform, etc. CPC Member, 19th Politburo Standing Committee
Deputy Secretary, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
3 Sun Chunlan (22551034609) (cropped).jpg
Sun Chunlan
孙春兰
(female)
1950 Vice Premier of the State Council Education, health, sport, etc. CPC Member, 19th Politburo
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
国家科技教育领导小组副组长
国务院深化医药卫生体制改革领导小组组长
国务院防治艾滋病工作委员会主任
国务院学位委员会主任
国务院妇女儿童工作委员会主任
中国足球改革领导小组组长
4 Hu Chunhua.jpg
Hu Chunhua
胡春华
1963 Vice Premier of the State Council Agricultural and rural affairs, anti-proverty, water resources, foreign trade CPC Member, 19th Politburo
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
国家防汛抗旱总指挥部总指挥
国务院抗震救灾指挥部指挥长
国务院扶贫开发领导小组组长
5 Liu He
刘鹤
1952 Vice Premier of the State Council Finance, science and technology, industry and transport CPC Member, 19th Politburo
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office
6 Wei Fenghe.jpg
General
Wei Fenghe
魏凤和
1954 State Councilor and Minister of National Defense
Member of the PRC Central Military Commission
National defense mobilization, etc. CPC Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Member, CPC Central Military Commission
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
Director, 国家边海防委员会
7 Wang Yong
王勇
1955 State Councilor Emergency management, etc. CPC Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
中央财经领导小组成员
国务院安全生产委员会副主任
国家减灾委员会主任
国务院残疾人工作委员会主任
全国老龄工作委员会主任
8 Wang Yi - 2017 (36537168903) (cropped).jpg
Wang Yi
王毅
1953 State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Foreign affairs CPC Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Member, Central Foreign Affairs Commission
9 Xiao Jie (cropped).jpg
Xiao Jie
肖捷
1957 State Councillor and Secretary-General of the State Council In charge of the State Council General Office CPC Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Secretary, Leading Party Members' Group Under the State Council (zh)
10 Zhao Kezhi (cropped).jpg
Police Commissioner-General (zh)
Zhao Kezhi
赵克志
1953 State Councillor and Minister of Public Security Public security, etc. CPC Member, 19th Central Committee
Member, Leading Party Members' Group of the State Council (zh)
Member, Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
Member, Central National Security Commission
国家禁毒委员会主任
国家反恐怖工作领导小组组长
国务院安全生产委员会副主任

Organizational structure

General Office of the State Council

Cabinet-level Departments Constituting the State Council

Cabinet-level departments constituting the 13th State Council (March 2018 – March 2023)
# Logo Name of Department Year Established Current Chief Party Reports To
1 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Foreign Affairs
外交部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Wang Yi
王毅
State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs
CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping (Director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission)
Yang Jiechi (Director of the CFAC Office)
2 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of National Defense
国防部
1954 (of PRC) General
Wei Fenghe
魏凤和
(Member of the Central Military Commission)
State Councilor and Minister of National Defense
CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping (Chairman of the Central Military Commission)
3 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)
国家发展和改革委员会
2003 He Lifeng
何立峰
(Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee)
Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission
CPC Vice-Premier Han Zheng
4 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Education (MOE)
教育部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Chen Baosheng
陈宝生
Minister of Education
CPC Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
5 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Science and Technology
科学技术部
1998 Wang Zhigang
王志刚
Minister of Science and Technology
CPC Vice-Premier Liu He
6 Embelem of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.png Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)
工业和信息化部
2008 Miao Wei
苗圩
Minister of Industry and Information Technology
CPC
7 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg State Ethnic Affairs Commission (SEAC)
国家民族事务委员会
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Bagatur (Mongol)
ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ
巴特尔
(Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee)
Minister in charge of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission
CPC You Quan (Head of the CPC Central Committee United Front Work Department)
8 Police Badge,P.R.China.svg Ministry of Public Security (MPS)
公安部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Police Commissioner-General (zh)
Zhao Kezhi
赵克志
State Councilor and Minister of Public Security
CPC Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CPC Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
9 Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of State Security (MSS)
国家安全部
1983 Chen Wenqing
陈文清
Minister of State Security
CPC
10 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA)
民政部
1978 Huang Shuxian
黄树贤
Minister of Civil Affairs
CPC
11 JUSTICE OF P.R.CHINA badge.svg Ministry of Justice
司法部
1979 (re-established)
1954 (of PRC)
1949 (of CPG)
Fu Zhenghua
傅政华
Minister of Justice
CPC Guo Shengkun (Secretary of the CPC Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission)
12 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Finance
财政部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
Liu Kun
刘昆Minister of Finance
CPC Vice-Premier Han Zheng
13 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS)
人力资源和社会保障部
2008 Zhang Jinan
张纪南
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
CPC Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
14 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry Natural Resources
自然资源部
2018 Lu Hao
陆昊
Minister of Natural Resources
CPC Vice-Premier Han Zheng
15 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Ecology and Environment
生态环境部
2018 Li Ganjie
李干杰
Minister of Ecology and Environment
CPC
16 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
住房和城乡建设部
2008 Wang Menghui
王蒙徽
Minister of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
CPC
17 Traffic law enforcement signs of the P.R.China.svg Ministry of Transport (MOT)
交通运输部
2008 Li Xiaopeng
李小鹏
Minister of Transport
CPC Vice-Premier Liu He
18 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Water Resources
水利部
1949 (of CPG)
1954 (of PRC)
E Jingping
鄂竟平
Minister of Water Resources
CPC Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua
19 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
农业农村部
2018 Han Changfu
韩长赋
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
CPC
20 MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,P.R.CHINA badge.svg Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)
商务部
2003 Zhong Shan
钟山
Minister of Commerce
CPC
21 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Culture and Tourism
文化和旅游部
2018 Luo Shugang
雒树刚
Minister of Culture and Tourism
CPC Huang Kunming (Head of the CPC Central Committee Publicity Department)
22 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Health Commission (zh)
国家卫生健康委员会
2018 Ma Xiaowei
马晓伟
Minister in charge of the National Health Commission
CPC Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan
23 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Veterans Affairs
退役军人事务部
2018 Sun Shaocheng
孙绍骋
Minister of Veterans Affairs
CPC
24 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg Ministry of Emergency Management (zh)
应急管理部
2018 Wang Yupu
王玉普
Minister of Emergency Management
CPC State Councilor Wang Yong
25 People's Bank of China (PBC)
中国人民银行
1948 Yi Gang
易纲
Governor of the People’s Bank of China
CPC Vice-Premier Liu He (Director of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission Office)
26 National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg National Audit Office
审计署
1983 Hu Zejun (female)
胡泽君
Auditor-General of the National Audit Office
CPC Premier Li Keqiang
∟ Vice-Premier Han Zheng

Special Organization directly under the State Council

Organizations directly under the State Council

  1. General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国海关总署)
  2. State Administration of Taxation (国家税务总局)
  3. State Administration for Market Regulation (国家市场监督管理总局)
  4. National Radio and Television Administration (国家广播电影总局)
  5. General Administration of Sport (国家体育总局)
  6. National Bureau of Statistics (国家统计局)
  7. China International Development Cooperation Agency (国家国际发展合作署)
  8. National Healthcare Security Administration (国家医疗保障局)
  9. Counselor's Office of the State Council (国务院参事室)
  10. National Government Offices Administration (国家机关事务管理局), formerly the "Government Offices Administration of the State Council" (国务院机关事务管理局)
  11. National Press and Publication Administration (国家新闻出版署), additional name "National Copyright Administration" (国家版权局), a name reserved by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China
  12. National Religious Affairs Administration (国家宗教事务局), a name reserved by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China

Administrative Offices under the State Council

  1. Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office of the State Council (国务院港澳事务办公室)
  2. State Council Research Office (国务院研究室)
  3. Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council (国务院侨务办公室), a name reserved by the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China
  4. Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council (国务院台湾事务办公室), under the CPC Central Committee
  5. Cyberspace Administration of China (国家互联网信息办公室), under the CPC Central Committee
  6. State Council Information Office (国务院新闻办公室), a name reserved by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China

Institutions directly under the State Council

State Administrations and Bureaus administrated by ministry-level agencies

  1. National Public Complaints and Proposals Administration (国家信访局), administrated by the State Council General Office
  2. National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration (国家粮食和物资储备局), administrated by the National Development and Reform Commission
  3. National Energy Administration (国家能源局), administrated by the National Development and Reform Commission
  4. State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (国家国防科技工业局), administrated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  5. State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (国家烟草专卖局) (officially sharing its office with China National Tobacco Corporation), administrated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  6. National Immigration Administration (国家移民管理局), administrated by the Ministry of Public Security
  7. National Forestry and Grassland Administration (国家林业和草原局), administrated by the Ministry of Natural Resources
  8. National Railway Administration (国家铁路局), administrated by the Ministry of Transport
  9. Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) (中国民用航空局), administrated by the Ministry of Transport
  10. State Post Bureau (国家邮政局), administrated by the Ministry of Transport, officially sharing its office with China Post Group Corporation
  11. National Cultural Heritage Administration (国家文物局), administrated by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  12. National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (国家中医药管理局), administrated by the National Health Commission
  13. National Coal Mine Safety Administration (国家煤矿安全监察局), administrated by the Ministry of Emergency Management
  14. State Administration of Foreign Exchange (国家外汇管理局), administrated by the People's Bank of China
  15. National Medical Products Administration (国家药品监督管理局), formerly China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) (国家食品药品监督管理总局), now administrated by the State Administration of Market Regulation
  16. National Intellectual Property Administration (国家知识产权局), administrated by the State Administration for Market Regulation
  17. National Civil Service Administration (国家公务员局), a name reserved by the Organization Department of the Communist Party of China
  18. National Archives Administration (国家档案局), i.e. the Central Archives (中央档案馆) (of the CPC), under the General Office of the CPC Central Committee
  19. National Administration of State Secrets Protection (国家保密局), i.e. the Office of the Central Secrecy Commission (中央保密委员会办公室) (of the CPC), under the General Office of the CPC Central Committee
  20. National Cryptography Administration (国家密码管理局), i.e. the Office of the Central Leading Group for Cryptography Work (中央密码工作领导小组办公室) (of the CPC), under the General Office of the CPC Central Committee
  21. State Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会), a name reserved by the Ministry of Education
  22. State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (国家外国专家局), a name reserved by the Ministry of Science and Technology
  23. China National Space Administration (国家航天局), a name reserved by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  24. China Atomic Energy Authority (国家原子能机构), a name reserved by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
  25. State Oceanic Administration (国家海洋局), a name reserved by the Ministry of Natural Resources
  26. National Nuclear Safety Administration (国家核安全局), a name reserved by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment
  27. Certification and Accreditation Administration (国家认证认可监督管理委员会), a name reserved by the State Administration of Market Regulation
  28. Standardization Administration (国家标准化管理委员会), a name reserved by the State Administration of Market Regulation

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Article 85 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  2. ^ "The State Council". English.peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  3. ^ "The State Council". Gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2011-12-04.

External links