Temporal range: Pleistocene
|Cast of Ngandong 13 from the National Museum of Natural History|
H. e. soloensis
|Homo erectus soloensis|
Solo Man (Homo erectus soloensis) is a subspecies of Homo erectus, identified based on fossil evidence discovered between 1931 and 1933 by Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald from sites along the Solo River, on the Indonesian island of Java, dated to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. The remains are also commonly referred to as Ngandong (now at Kradenan district, Blora Regency), after the village near where they were first recovered.
It is a late variant of H. erectus, dated to after 550,000 years ago, overlapping with Homo heidelbergensis and possibly with early Homo sapiens. Though its morphology was, for the most part, typical of Homo erectus, its cranial capacity of 1,013–1,251 cm³ places it amongst the larger-brained representatives of its species (compared to 900 cm³ for the older Java Man), and its culture was also unusually advanced.
Due to the tools found with the fossils and many of their more gracile anatomical features, Solo Man was first classified as a subspecies of Homo sapiens (dubbed Homo sapiens soloensis) and long thought to be the ancestor of modern Australo-Melanesians. More rigorous studies in the 1990s have concluded that this is not the case. Analysis of 18 crania from Sangiran, Trinil, Sambungmacan, and Ngandong show chronological development from the Bapang-AG to Ngandong periods.