Sir Archibald Macdonald, 1st Baronet (13 July 1747 – 18 May 1826) was a Scottish lawyer, judge and politician.
He was the posthumous son of Sir Alexander Macdonald, 7th Baronet, and younger brother of the 8th baronet (see Baron Macdonald), born at Armadale Castle on Skye. He was brought to England, away from Jacobite influence and entered Westminster School in 1760. He went on to Christ Church, Oxford in 1764, graduating B.A. in 1768 and M.A. in 1772. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1770.
In politics, Macdonald followed the Whig lead of his father-in-law. He became solicitor-general in 1784 and attorney-general, and was knighted, in 1788. He served as the prosecutor in Thomas Paine's criminal libel trial over the publication of Rights of Man in 1792.
Macdonald was appointed as second judge of the Carmarthen circuit in Wales in 1780. He was promoted as Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer in 1793, and served in this post until he retired in 1813, with failing eyesight. On his retirement from the court, Macdonald was created a baronet, on 27 November 1813.
In 1777, Macdonald married Lady Louisa Leveson-Gower, daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford (at the time called by the courtesy title Earl Gower), then Lord President of the Council. They had two sons and five daughters.
Three children of the marriage survived Macdonald, including Sir James Macdonald, 2nd Baronet (1784–1832). Susan (1780–1803) was the illustrator of "The Sports of the Genii" (1804) by Anne Hunter. Caroline Diana (1790–1867) married the cleric Thomas Randolph, son of John Randolph, and was mother of the naval officer George Granville Randolph.
|Parliament of England|
| Member of Parliament for Hindon
With: Henry Dawkins
Nathaniel William Wraxall
| Member of Parliament for Newcastle-under-Lyme
With: Viscount Trentham 1779–1784
Richard Vernon 1784–1790
John Leveson-Gower 1790–1792
William Egerton 1792–1793
Sir Francis Ford
Sir James Eyre
| Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer
Sir Vicary Gibbs
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Baronet
(of East Sheen)