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|Tentera Singapura (Malay)|
சிங்கப்பூர் தரைப்படை (Tamil)
Singapore Armed Forces Crest
|Founded||12 March 1957|
|Size||72,000 (active, including 35,000 conscripts)|
|Part of||Singapore Armed Forces|
|Motto(s)||Yang Pertama Dan Utama (Malay) |
(First and Foremost)
Ready Decisive Respected
Operation Enduring Freedom (as part of NATO-led ISAF)
International military intervention against ISIL
|Chief of Army||Major-General Goh Si Hou|
Neo Kian Hong
Chan Chun Sing
The Singapore Army is the service of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) tasked with land operations. It is the largest of the three Services. The Singaporean army is primarily a conscript army that, in the event of national exigencies or war, morphs itself from peacetime to wartime by mobilises almost all of its combined combat power by calling up operationally-ready military reservists.
Two infantry regiments formed the nucleus of the Singapore Army. These were established pre-independence, in anticipation of self-rule following British decolonisation. The First Singapore Infantry Regiment (1 SIR) was formed in 1957, under British auspices. The Second Singapore Infantry Regiment (2 SIR) followed in 1963. After a fraught merger with the Federation of Malaya and subsequent separation in 1965, newly-independent Singapore formally established its army by passing the Singapore Army Bill in December 1965.
The Army celebrated its 60th Anniversary in 2017.
The stated mission of the Singapore Armed Forces is to deter armed aggression, and to secure a swift and decisive victory should deterrence fail. The Army is also tasked with conducting peace-time operations to further Singapore's national interests and foreign policy. These range from disaster relief to peacekeeping, hostage-rescue and other contingencies.
The Army views technology as a force-multiplier and a means to sustain combat power given Singapore's population constraints. Jointness across three branches of the SAF is integral to the Army's warfighting doctrine. Joint operations undertaken with the Navy and Air Force include amphibious landings and critical disaster relief operations in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
The Army has a technically proficient, relatively well-educated draftee pool and officer corps (non-commissioned and commissioned) reflective of the population at large, and has sought to leverage this to ease its transition into a more sophisticated, networked fighting force.
Combat readiness is a linchpin of Army policy, and military exercises up to divisional level are conducted many times yearly, simulating full-spectrum operations, up to and including full-scale war. Divisional war games are a combined arms, tri-service affair involving the Republic of Singapore Navy and Air Force. Because training space is limited in Singapore—artillery fire would quickly traverse the island—some military exercises are conducted overseas. Reservists periodically  train abroad, their units regularly evaluated for combat readiness. The Army also trains bilaterally with some host nations, and military exchanges are frequent. Training is billed as "tough, realistic and safe," with a premium on safety, given the sensitivity of military deaths in a largely conscript army.
Following the Revolution in Military Affairs, and in tandem with modernizing its weapons systems, the Army is forging a transition to a more network-centric fighting doctrine that better integrates the Air Force and Navy.
The Army is headed by the Chief of Army (COA). Assisting him are the Chief of Staff, General Staff and Commander, TRADOC (Army Training and Doctrine Command). There are six branches of the General Staff (G1-G6), a National Service Affairs Department (G8) dealing with National Service issues, and an Inspectorate. The six branches handle manpower (G1), intelligence (G2), operations (G3), logistics (G4), planning (G5) and training (G6) respectively. Each department is headed by an Assistant Chief of the General Staff (ACGS). Also advising the Chief of Army are the Senior Specialist Staff Officers (SSSOs) of the various formations (Infantry, Guards, Armour, Commandos, Artillery, Engineers and Signals).
|Years in Office||COA||Vocation||Post-COA Career|
|2018–||Goh Si Hou||Artillery|
|2015–2018||Melvyn Ong||Infantry||Chief of Defence Force|
|2014–2015||Perry Lim||Guards||Chief of Defence Force|
|2011–2014||Ravinder Singh||Signals||CEO, |
|2010–2011||Chan Chun Sing||Infantry||Minister, Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports|
|2007–2010||Neo Kian Hong||Guards||Chief of Defence Force |
Permanent Secretary, Education Development
|2003–2007||Desmond Kuek||Armour||Chief of Defence Force |
Permanent Secretary Environment & Water Resources
|2000–2003||Ng Yat Chung||Artillery||Chief of Defence Force|
|1998–2000||Lim Chuan Poh||Infantry||Chief of Defence Force|
|1995–1998||Han Eng Juan||Armour||Chief Executive, Land Transport Authority|
|1992–1995||Lim Neo Chian||Combat Engineers||CEO, Jurong Town Corporation|
|1990–1992||Ng Jui Ping||Artillery||Chief of Defence Force|
|1988–1990||Boey Tak Hap|
The Army consists of seven Combat Arms, from which are derived Divisional and Non-divisional units:
These are bolstered by Combat Service Support Units comprising the following:
The Army's main organizational components are its Combined-Arms Divisions, of which there are three: the 3rd, 6th and 9th Divisions. They include both active and reserve units that are operationally ready, all subject to mobilization orders in the event of war.
Under the Division-NCC affiliation, NCC Central District is affiliated to the 6th Division.
Under the Division-NCC affiliation, NCC East District is affiliated to the 9th Division/Infantry.
2 People's Defence Force (PDF) is responsible for homeland security, including that of key civilian installations and infrastructure. 2 PDF is also responsible for the coordination and secondment of military resources to civilian agencies in the event of a civil emergency.
Designated as Army Operational Reserve (AOR), the 21st Division is a rapid deployment force of highly mobile infantry (Singapore Guards) specializing in amphibious, heliborne, and maneuver warfare. The armoured and artillery components of the division are lightweight, amphibious or airborne, and rapidly deployable.
Of the three infantry brigades, one is active and staffed mainly by career servicemen. Two are held in reserve, one tasked with heliborne operations, the other tasked with amphibious landings.
Also designated as Army Operational Reserve (AOR).
In Defending the Lion City, Tim Huxley speculated that "the reorganisation of 1991 and 1995 left one armoured brigade, 4 SAB, outside the divisional structure, prompting speculation that it has been earmarked to form the core of a conceptualised new mechanised division." Huxley asserted that it was "initially codenamed as 32nd Division at the planning stage."
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